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The present Grammar is chiefly based on Kesava's Sabdamanidarpana. 
The terminology of this his Grammar is simple, and fit for the three 
dialects of Kannacla. At the same time it will be interesting to learn 
the general way of an ancient native scholar's teaching Kannada 

In Kesava's age most of the rules of Kannada grammar were fixed. That 
before him there had been grammarians who had not deserved that name, seems 
to follow from his quoting a part of a Kanda verse that is fully quoted in the 
Sabdanusasana (under its sutra 469), from which we translate it as follows 
1 Remain, daughter! Could the unprofitable grammarian (sushkavaiyakarana), 
the unprofitable sophist and the rustic have as (their) subject matter the gem of 
poetical composition which is the subject matter of the assemblage of very clever 

Some specific statements of Kesava concerning bis predecessors or contempo- 
raries are the following 

He considered it a matter of necessity to caution literary writers against using 
final 1 in several Kannada words, as only rustics would do so ( 228). 

He teaches ( 252) that if there exist Tadbhavas of two words compounded, both 
words ought to be in their Tadbhava form. In this respect he quotes an instance 
from his great predecessor Hamsaraja (of A, D. 941, according to Mr. B. Lewis 
Rice), viz. taravel manikyabhandarada putikegalam, which, he says, is a mistak 
(tappu), as manikabhandarada would be right (suddha). 

He says that in satisaptami ( 365) which always refers to two subjects, the 
letter e is to be used; by some (of his predecessors or contemporaries^ al has. 
without hesitation, been employed for it; clever people do not agree to that. 
Then he quotes two sentences with al, and calls them wrong <abudda:0. 

He states (very probably in order to counteract a tendency of that kind) that to 
form kanike, teralike, punike of kan, pun, teral (which formations are frequently 
found at least in the mediaeval dialect) is faulty, as the suffix ike should not be 
added to verbs ending in a consonant (see 243, A, 5). 


When introducing the suffix tana, he teaches that it is not to be used for 
Samskrita words, as e. g. arohakatana would be wrong (abaddha, 243, 4, 14). 
That he certainly has done so for the above-mentioned reason becomes evident by 
the fact that the Sabdanusasana (under its sutra 431) adduces unnatatana and 
pannatatana as instances of ancient usage. 

He states that to form a causative verb, e. g. khandisisu, to cause to cut, 
from khandisu, to cut, a verb derived from a Samskrita noun, is not allowed 
( 150, remark), which statement probably also opposes a tendency of grammarians 
(or poets) towards doing so. 

He says that nouns ending in a consonant do not insert in before the a of the 
genitive, except pagal and irul \ to form e. g. bemarina, manalina, mugalina is a 
fault (dosha, 121, a 6). It follows from his opposition to such forms as bemarina 
that they had already come or were coming into use. 

He states that forms like nodidapam, madidapam are not used as declinable 
krillingas ( 194, remark 2); but according to the Sabdanuiasana (sutras 447. 448. 
544) they were used as such, because its author Bhattakalankadeva adduces 
nodidapanam, kudidapanam, madidapange, irdapana as ancient formations. 

He says (see 240, remark) that some (grammarians or poets) who are fond 
of a practice that is connected with grass (satrinabhyavahariga]), do not consider 
that abnormity does not enter in poetical prose, and use a short letter followed by 
an initial letter which is a compound with repha, as sithila , such disgustful persons 
(aroeigal) do put it in poetical prose without calling it a blame (tegal). * 

The author hopes that the remarkable fact that Kannada and the 
other Dravida languages have no relative pronoun ( 174), has been 
satisfactorily explained and established by him ( 330), and that the 
origin of the negative form of the verb in Dravida has been made evident 
by him ( 210), two subjects wbich (he may remark) used to puzzle 
European scholars. See also his explanation of the participles ( 169. 
185) and of the infinitive ( 188). 

As to the age of Kannada poets Mr. Rice's Introduction to his edition 
of the Sabdanusasana (p. 1 1 seq.) should be consulted. 

*Here the remark may be added that according to the Sabdanusaaana (under its sutra 
288) the pronoun nam (which is not mentioned by Kdsava, 137) was agreed to by some 
of the great poets of the northern way, whereas those of the southern one were siding with 
am. According to Nripatuuga's Kavirajamarga (1, 36) of the 9th century the region in 
which Kannada was spoken, extended from the Kaveri as far as the Godavari. 

I 'i: I. FACE. T 

Regarding the comparison of Dravida languages see 'A Comparative 
Grammar of the Dravidian or South-Indian Family of Languages, by the 
Rev. R. Caldwell, D. D., LL. D, etc., 2nd edition, 1875, London, Trtibner it- 
Co.' Dr. Caldwell in his work is inclined to think that Dravida exhibit- 
close traces of relationship to the languages of the Scythian group. 

The Publications consulted for the present grammar are, besides the 
Sabdamanidarpana, the following 

1. The Karnataka Sabdanusasana (see p. 4, note). 

2. Nudigattu. A Kannada Manual of School-Grammar, by Dhondo Narasimha 
Mulbagal, Kannada Teacher, Training College. 2nd edition. Mangalore, Basel 
Mission Press, 1894. 

3. Kannada Schoolbooks, by native authors. Bombay, the Department of 
Public Instruction. Printed at the Basel Mission Press, Mangalore, 1882 1898. 

4. An Elementary Grammar of the Kannada Language, by the Rev. Thomas 
Hodson, "Wesleyan Missionary. 2nd edition. Bangalore, 1864. 

5. A Practical Key to the Canarese Language, by the Rev. F. Ziegler. 2nd 
edition. Mangalore, Basel Mission Press, 1892. 

6. NAgavarma's Karnataka Bhashabhushana (of about the beginning of the 
12th century), edited by B. Lewis Rice, M. R. A. s., etc. Bangalore, 1884. 

7. A Kannada-English Dictionary, by the Rev. F. Kittel. Mangalore, Basel 
Mission Press, 1894. 

8. Very valuable Inscriptions published in the Indian Antiquary and Epigraphia 
Indica, by J. F. Fleet, PH. D., c. i. E., etc. 

9. Elements of South-Indian Palaeography, by A. C. Burnell, HOS. PH. D. of the 
University of Strassburg, etc. Mangalore, Basel Mission Press, 1874. 

10. A Sanskrit Grammar for Beginners, by Professor Max Muller, M. A., 
London, 1866. 

Special thanks are due to the SECRETARY OP STATE FOR INDIA for his 
generous aid by ordering a certain number of copies of the forthcoming 
Grammar for the Home Department in Calcutta and by inducing the 
Governors of Madras and Bombay and the Governments of Mysore and 
of His Highness the Nijam to take a considerable number of copies of 
the work in advance whereby the Publishers have been enabled to cany 
it through the Press. 


The author would also gratefully acknowledge the encouragement 
he has received from the interest that several gentlemen have taken in 
his composing the present Grammar, of whom he may mention Mr. B. 
Lewis RICE, c. i. E., M. R. A. s., Director of the Archaeological Researches 
in Mysore; the Rev. G. RICHTER, late Inspector of Schools in Coorg ; 
Dr. E. HULTZSCH, Government Epigraphist, Bangalore; Dr. J. F. FLEET, 
BO. c. s., M. R. A. s.. c. i. E., and Professor R. GARBE, PH. D., Tubingen. 

As the author lived in Germany, the printing was carried on in India, 
and proof-sheets could not be sent to him for correction, there occurs 
an unusual number of misprints; but a corrected list of the errata will 
enable the student to set them right before perusing the Grammar. 

Finally the author quotes for his work the words of Kesava (sutra 
and vritti 4) "If there are any mistakes (dosha) in this (my) Sabdamani- 
darpana, may the learned (first) thoughtfully listen, and (then) with 
mercy combined with gladness of heart rectify them." 

Tubingen, 5th February 1903. 



I. Introductory observations 1 3 

II. On the form of the signs that are used as Letters (Alphabet, etc.) . 4 22 

III. On roots or verbal themes -- 29 

IV. On declinable bases (Declension) 29 87 

V. On verbs 88163 

VI. On adverbs, etc 164 160 

VII. Euphonic junction of letters 170185 

VIII. Particulars of some letters, also in prosody, 185198 

IX. On primitive nominal bases 198 200 

X. On secondary nominal bases 200 207 

XI. On compound bases 207 218 

XII. On verbal declinable bases 218222 

XIII. On pronouns 222 242 

XIV. On adjectives 242 251 

XV. On numerals 251 260 

XVI. On adverbs (again) 260300 

XVII. On the repetition of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, numerals, adverbs, 

interjections, and imitative sounds 300 311 

XVIII. On the expression of 'other', on the article, and on the expression of 

'only', 'alone' 311 314 

XIX. On additional tense-forms of the verb 314 330 

XX. On so-called auxiliary verbs 330342 

XXI. On either or; neither nor; whether or; the the; as as; for; 
namely, as follows: what is that?; what happened?; in this 
manner; as so; how much so much, how many so many; 

when?; who he, etc 343 352 

XX.II. On the verbs en and an * . . . 352 359 

XXIII. On illade, allade, altu 359 362 

XXIV. On the repetition of verbs, and on the combination of certain verbs . 362 376 
XXV. On comparison 376 380 

XXVI. On syntax 380432 

XXVII. On words corrupted from Samskrita ......... 432 439 

XXVIII. On the doubling of consonants 439 442 

On a number of words contained in various places of the Sabdanuiasana 442 456 

Index . 457 478 

Corrections and Additions 479 483 





I, Introductory observations 

1. The term Kannada (^^), the Canarese of European writers, is formed 
from Kar-nadu (S^-^rfo), the black cultivated country, referring to the black 
soil, commonly called cotton soil, which characterises the plateau of the Southern 
Dckkan (^raj. j n the Samskrita language the term appears as Karnata (S^areJ) 
and Karnataka (Srrasry^). Kannada is the appellation of the Canarese country 
and its language. l} 

2. Kannada is spoken throughout Mysore, the Southern Mahratta country. 
in some of the western districts of the Nijam's territory (as far north as Bidar), 
and partly in North Canara on the western coast. The people that speak the 
Kannada language are estimated at about nine millions. 

3. The Kannada language belongs to a group of languages whicn has been 
called the Dravidian (/. c. ^>3 or n^>3) family by European writers. The chief 
members of this family are Kannada, Telugu (3sJJrtO), Tamij. (33^), Malayala 
(3o<uoi33tf), Tulu (^JtfJ), Kodagu (tfadrtj), and Badaga (Urfrt, on the Nilagiri). 

4. The so-called Dravidian languages have borrowed a great many wonl< 
from Samskrita, especially such as express abstract ideas of philosophy, science, 
and roligion, together with the technical terras of the more elegant arts, etc. 
(<;/'. S 369); but their non-Samskrita portion is considerable, and once was 
sufficient for ordinary conversation. Chiefly by a comparison of their gram- 
matical structure with that of Samskrita the essential independence of the 

''The district of Canara (a corrupted form of Kunnada) on the Western coast got that 
name because it was subjected for centuries to the rule of Kantiail.i princes, and the Carnatic 
(/. ,-. Karnutaka), the country below the Fustcrn Ghauts on the Coromandal coast, was (by a 

ini*:i]>plioation of terms) called Uy that name tiiM l>y tin- 

Dravidian languages of Samskrita can satisfactorily and conclusively be 

5. The earliest written documents of the Kannada language are inscriptions 
on walls and pillars of temples, on detached stone-tablets and monumental stones, 
and on copper-plates of the Canarese country. The inscriptions are often dated ; 
if they have no date, the form of the letters used and historical references to 
dated inscriptions serve to ascertain their age. 

6. As regards the forms of the Old and Modern Kannada alphabets, they are 
varieties of the so-called Cave-character, an alphabet which was used for the 
inscriptions in the cave hermitages of Buddhists in India (e. g. at Salsette, Kan- 
heri, Nasik, Sabyadri, Ajanta), and rests on the Southern Asoka character. This 
character was about 250 B. C. employed in the Edicts of the Buddhist king Asoka. 
Different forms of the letters used for the Kannada inscriptions appear at differ- 
ent periods, the earlier forms differing in the greatest degree from those of the 
Modern Kannada alphabet 1 ^. At the time of the composition of the Basavapurana 
1369 A. D. the old alphabet had become already out of use, as the author 
of that work mentions the letters of Old Kannada (5to a rf3j30&) as belonging 
to the past. 

7. The Kannada language in the old inscriptions (of the Kadamba, Ganga, 
Calukya, Rashtrakuta and other kings) of which specimens exist that belong to 
about 600 A. D., is not the same as that of the present day; it is what is called 
Old Canarese. This Old Canarese is also the language of the early Kannada 
authors or the literary style. It may be said to have continued in use to the 
middle of the 13th century (see 109), when by degrees the language of the 
inscriptions and literary compositions begins to evince a tendency to become 
Modern Canarese or the popular and colloquial dialect of the present time. A 
characteristic of the literary or classical style of the early authors is its extra- 
ordinary amount of polish and refinement. The classical authors were Jainas. 
One of them was Nripatunga, who wrote the Kavirajamarga (a treatise on 

l ' The earliest authentic specimens of writing in India are the edictal inscriptions of the 
Buddhist king Asoka (also called Dharmasoka and Priyadarsi) who was the grandson of the 
Maurya king Candragupta at Pataliputra (the modern Patna), and ruled from the extreme 
north-west of India as far as Magadha in the East and Mahishmandala (Mysore) in the 
South. These inscriptions are written in two different alphabets. The alphabet 
which is found in the inscription that is at Kapurdigiri (near Peshawar), is written from 
right to left, and is clearly of Phenician or old Semitic (Aramaic) origin (it has been called 
Khanoshti) ; the Southern inscriptions that are found in numerous places from Girnar in 
Gujerat to Siddapura in the Chitaldroog district of Mysore (these last ones discovered by Mr. 
B. L. Rice), are written from left to right, and the alphabet employed in them is the source 
of all other Indian alphabets. It has been thought by some scholars (Professors Weber, 
Biihler and others) that the character of the Southern inscriptions also may be traced back 
to a Phenician prototype. 

alankara) in the 9th century; another was Pampa or Hampa who composed his 
Bharata (an itibasa more or less based on Vyasa's Mahabharata) in 941 A. D.; 
and a third one was Argaja who finished his Purana in 1189 A. D. 1 * 

8. The grammatical treatises on Kannada were constructed on the Samskrita 
plan. Their Jaina authors took Panini and others as their guides. The earliest 
grammarian, whose works have come down to us, is Nagavarma who appears to 
belong to the first half of the 12th century. Kosiraja or Kesava, the author of a 
well-known grammar, lived about one hundred years later, in the 13th century. 
The above-named authors treat on the Old Canarese language, illustrating it by 
quotations from the writings of former (or contemporary) poets. Nagavarma 
wrote his first grammar, an epitome, in Kanda verses and Old Canarese, and 
embodied it in his treatise on the art of poetry, the Kavyavalokana (in Old 
Canarese); his second grammar, the Karnatakabhashabhushana, is in Samskrita 
proso sutras, each accompanied by a vritti or explanatory gloss also in Samskrita. 
Kesiraja's grammar, the Sabdamanidarpana, is composed wholly in Kanda verses 
and Old Canarese (each verse having its prose vritti), and is the fullest 
systematic exposition of that language ^. 

9. The ancient Kannada grammarians held the study of grammar in high 
esteem, as may be learned from the following words of the author of the Sabda- 
manidarpana : " Through grammar (correct) words originate, through the 
words of that grammar meaning (originates), through meaning the beholding of 
truth, through the beholding of truth the desired final beatitude; this (final 
beatitude) is the fruit for the learned " (sutra 10 of the Preface). 

') The Kavirajanmrga was edited in 1898 by K. B. Pathak, B. A., Assistant to the Direc- 
tor of Archaeological Researches in Mysore, the Bharata also in 1898 by Lewis L. Rice? 
c. i. K., M. R. A. ., Director of Archaeological Researches in Mysore. (Mysore Govern- 
ment Central Press, Bangalore.) 

*) Nagavarma's Karnatakabhashabhushana was edited by B- Lewis Rice, M. R. A. 8., 
Director of Public Instruction (Bangalore, Mysore Government Press, 1884). It contains 
10 paricchedas, viz. sanjnavidhana, sandhividhana. vibhaktividhana, karakavidhana. sabda- 
ritividhana, samasavidhana, taddhitavidhana. akhyataniganiavidhana, avyayanirupana- 
vi. Hi Ana. and nipatanirupaaavidhana, in 280 sutras. An edition of Kesiraja's Sabdamani- 
darpana was printed at Mangalore (Basel Mission Press. 1872). His work has 8 sandhis or 
chapters and 322 sutras. A short summary of its contents is as follows: I. Sandhi or 
euphonic combinations of letters. 1) aksharasanjnapraknrana or the section of the signs 
used as letters. a) the letters of the alphabet; b) the vowels in particular; c) the conso- 
nants in particular. 2) sandhiprakarana or the section of combination of the mentioned 
letters, a) combination of vowels; b) combination of consonants. II. Nama or nominal 
themes, a) lingas or declinable bases, a) krits or bases formed from verbs by means of 
suffixes, i>ii) taddhita-bases formed from nouns and verbs by means of certain other 
suffixes, cc) eamasas or compound bases, </</) namns or ready nouns (distinguished as 
rudha, anvartha and tinkita; they include the so-called adjectives, pronoun-, numerals, and 
themes from Samskrita, altered or unaltered); b) genders; c) the seven oases in the sin- 
ijular; d) the two numbers; e) the augments of the plural; f) particularities regarding 

II, On the form of the signs that are used as Letters 

(akshararupa, aksharasanjnakara, aksharasanjnarupa, varnasarijne, 
varnanka, cf. 217-241), etc. 

10. Kesava, the author of the Sabdamanidarpana, remarks on the origin 
of articulate sound : " By the wish of the individual soul, by means of suitable 
(vital) air, at the root of the navel, like a trumpet, the substance of sound (sabda- 
dravya) originates which is white (sveta, dhavala); its result is (articulate, 
aksharatmaka) sound (sabda)"; and: "The body is the musical instrument, the 
tongue is the plectrum, the individual soul is the performer; on account of the 
operation of his mind (articulate) sound (sabda) originates which is of a white 
colour (dhavalavarna) and has the form of letters (aksharariipa)." 

Inarticulate (anaksharatmaka) sounds, as thunder from the clouds or the roar 
of the sea, have no representations in grammatical alphabets. 

11. There is a distinct letter for each sound,, and therefore every word 
is pronounced exactly as it is spelt; thus the ear is a sufficient guide 

declension; g) uses of the cases; h) remarks on number, gender, construction, etc.; t) 
declension of pronouns; j) change of gender; k) change of letters. III. Sarnasa or com- 
position of words, compound bases. 1) augment, elision, and substitution. 2) the six 
classes of Saraskrita compounds. 3) the compounds called kriyasamasa. gamakasamasa , 
and vipsasamasa. IV. Taddhita-bases formed from nouns and verbs by means of certain 
suffixes. V. Akhyata or verbs and their conjugation. VI. Dhatu or verbal roots (or 
themes). VII. Tadbhava (Apabhramsa) or words corrupted from the Samskrita language. 
VIII. Avyaya or adverbs, etc. 

Besides the Karnatakabhashabhushana there is another grammar of the Old Canarese 
language in Samskrita sutras, etc., the Karnatakasabdanusasana, written by the Jaina 
Bhattakalanka, dated A. D. 1604. It was edited by B. Lewis Rice, c. i. B., M. R. A. s., 
Director of Archaeological Researches in Mysore, late Director of Public Instruction iu 
Mysore and Coorg (Bangalore, Mysore Government Central Press, 1890). According to its 
learned editor it treats, in the order given, of the alphabet; avyayas; sandhi; nipatas; 
gender; tadbhavas; case affixes; compound words; -uses of personal pronouns; uses of the 
singular and plural numbers and numerals; taddhitas; verbs and verbal affixes. 

The first grammar of the Canarese language which appeared in English, was compiled 
by John McKerrell Esq.. M. c. s., who dedicated his work to the King (George IV), Madras, 
November the 16th, 1820. He calls it "A Grammar of the Carnataka Language". In his 
Preface he states: "In the course of my labours I ha\e derived much information from a 
very scarce and accurate treatise upon the ancient dialect, which was compiled, about seven 
centuries ago. by an Indian author named Ccuhaca, and by him termed iio SorfSo3~cso, or 

'The mirror of verbal gems' I feel myself under considerable obligations to 

Edward Richard Sullivan, Esq., of the Civil Service, for his kindness in procuring for me 
from His Highness the Rajah of Mysoor. the work of Ceshava " McKerrell's work has 
211 pages. 

in orthography. After the exact sounds of the letters have been once 
acquired, every word can be pronounced with perfect accuracy. 
The accent falls on the first syllable. 

12. The name of a pure, true letter (suddhakshara) is akshara, 
akkara, or varna. 

13. Each letter has its own form (akara) and sound (sabda); by 
the first it becomes visible (cakshusha), by the other audible (sravana). 

14. Kannada is written from left to right. 

15. The Alphabet (called aksharamale, akkaramale in the old and 
later dialect and also onama in the later one), as an instruction for the 
youthful (balasikshe), consists of 57 letters, in which case the so-called 
Samskrita and Prakrita kshala (the vedic letter 55 of certain schools) is 
also counted, though its form and sound are the same as that of the 
so-called Kannada kula. 

Of the 57 letters forty-eight (in various forms) are notorious on the 
"sea-girdled" earth, i.e. throughout India, and the order in which they 
are read (pathakrama) is as follows: S3 tJ ^ & wu ?TJ3 ado 3d. j en 
& o l Q aj* 7^,2?* so* * 9* 3* jty* r a^ s fej er & & PS* 3< qr 

tf tf t? 33* z? zf z? ^3 03^ s V s zf & 3S* 73* 35* V s . The letter & 
in this list is called kshala in order to distinguish it from the true 
Kannada kula. In Samskrita the kshala is a substitute for the letter Q* 
(c/. 230) ; in Kannada it is a substitute for the Samskrita letter 
<3* (see 31). 

The other nine letters are : ^ to S* & CO* o 8 X oo. Of these 
<o &o C3* V* &> are peculiar to the Kannada country (desiya), and this 
letter tf is the kula. 

The four letters o '& x oo, together with the above-mentioned forty- 
eight, form the Samskrita alphabet of 52 letters. 

In true Kannada (accagannada) there are 47 indigenous letters 
(su.l(lli;i-vi, rlz. (the vowels) ea w a & VUSA^OJ^SD ZM t> !?; ith'- 
anusvara) o; (and the consonants) 5* stf n* zp* CP* 13* op t3* dc^* '3T 3 * 
fej- g n* re 3* r n* s* s33*i# t sl 

16. The consonants (25) that in the preceding paragraph appear 
with the top-mark * (<5, 53*, etc.) which indicates that they are to be 
pronounced without any vowel after them (asvaravidhi, vyanjanavidhi), 

are commonly printed with the sign - 1 (a sort of crest, nowadays called 
talekattu) added to the top (^ ri, etc.), in order to point out that the 
short Kannada vowel a (y) is to be sounded after them. 

In the case of ten consonants (ajzsfci'sofcjrazoe;^!) C3), however, 
the crest does not appear on the top, as it is so to say incorporated 
with them. It is supposed that the sign - 1 is a secondary form of the 
Kannada vowel a (y, see 24); but why are certain other vowels (u, u, 
ero, OXE, etc.) united with crested consonants? See 37. 

17. The following is a tabular view of the forms of the 57 letters of 
the Alphabet as they are written and printed nowadays (cf. 6), the 
consonants bearing the sign -> (the talekattu, see 16). Their sounds 
are expressed in Roman characters with the aid of some diacritical 
marks, and illustrated, as well as possible, by English letters (the 
illustrations being given according to English authors of Kannada, 
Telugu, Tamil and Malayala grammars): 

S3. a. This letter has the sound of the English initial a in ' about ', ' around ', 

or of the English final a in ' era ', ' Sophia ', 'Victoria ', or of the English 

u in 'gun', 'cup'. (There is no letter in Kannada to represent the 

sound of the English a in such words as 'pan', 'can', 'sat', 'hat'). 
3 (ei 3 ^). a. This letter has the sound of the English a in ' half, ' father', 

or of the English final a in ' papa '. 

'S . i. This letter has the sound of the English i in ' pin ', ' in ', ' gig ', ' folio '. 
3?. i. This letter has the sound of the English i in ' machine ', ' ravine ', 

' pique ', or of the English ee in ' eel ', ' feel '. 
Ai. u. This letter has the sound of the English u in 'full', 'pull', ' put', 

or of the English oo in ' book '. 
erua. U. This letter has the sound of the English u in ' rule ', ' crude ', or of 

the English 00 in 'fool', 'root', 'shoot'. 
SJj. ri. The sound of this letter can only be learned from the mouth of an 

efficient teacher. (Rustics pronounce it like the English ri in 'rich', 

or also like the English roo in ' rook '.) 

srioja (S)dJ3). ri. The sound of this letter is that of lengthened s&. 
<>2 . Iri. The sound of this letter can only be learned from an educated native. 

(Rustics pronounce it like the English loo in ' look '.) 
<fy. Iri. The sound of this letter is that of lengthened *. (The letter is a 

mere invention of grammarians.) 

tO- e. This letter has the sound of the English e in ' end ', ' leg', ' beg ', ' peg'. 
>. e. This letter has the sound of the English a in 'ache', 'fate', 'late'. 

S3. ai. This letter has the sound of the English ai in 'aisle', of the English 
ei in 'height', or of the English word ' eye'. 

2o. 6. This letter has the sound of the English o in 'police', 'polite', 
'romance', 'produced', 'potential' 'located'. (There is no sound in 
Kannada to represent the sound of the English o in such words as 'on'^ 
'hot', 'got', 'object'. Uneducated Canarese people use to pronounce 
this English o, ^ (a) making, e. g. lost ^^ hot S53ib, top k>#.) 

L. 6. This letter has the sound of the English o in 'gold', 'old', 'sold', 'ode'. 

?3. au. This letter has the sound of the English on, in 'ounce', 'out', 'mount'. 

o. m. This letter, when it is final, has the sound of the English m in 
'botom ', 'bartram'. (When in the middle of a word it is followed by 
a consonant, its sound depends on the character of that consonant, as 
in the words ^o^, s!oa), Toori, ToosjJ', aoi$, eruo$, aoarf, tfo&Js', 5ocJ, sood, 

riossd, rioaoS; c f. 34. 39. 40.) 
8. h. This aspirate has the sound of the English initial h in 'hat', 'head', 

or 'hiss', the aspiration proceeding directly from the chest. (Rustics, 

in reciting the alphabet, use to pronounce it aha the a having the 

sound of the Kannada letter ^-) 
X. h. This aspirate is used only before the letters 5* (ka) and so (kha), and 

then pronounced like the letter * (h). 
oo (&3). rh. This aspirate is used only before the letters & (pa) and $ (pha), 

and then has a sound somewhat similar to that of the letter (h). (In 

Samskrita it is often represented by the letter S*, sh.) 
=^. ka. This letter has the sound of the English initial k pronounced with 

the Kannada letter (a) after it. 
SO. kha. This letter has the sound of the preceding one, but aspirated, the 

aspiration proceeding directly from the chest. 
rl. ga. This letter has the sound of the English initial g in ' gold ', 'good ' ? 

pronounced with the Kannada letter (a) after it. 
3^. gha. This letter has the sound of the preceding one but aspirated. 
22. na. This letter has the sound of the English letter n before g in ' kiii '. 

'ring', 'long', 'song' with the Kannada K-ttcr "J (a) after it. 
2c. ca. This letter has a sound similar to that of the English ch in ' charity'. 

'charm', 'chase', 'child', 'church', pronounced with tho Kruinai.l.i 

letter e (a) after it. 

Cp (ejj). cha. This letter has the sound of the preceding one but aspirated. 
fcj. ja. This letter has a sound similar to that of the English j in 'judge', 

'join', 'jar', 'jackal', pronounced with the Kaiuiad.i ^ (a) after it. 

dp. jha. This letter has the sound of the preceding one but aspirated. 

'SP. ria. This letter has a sound which is something like that of the English 
ni in 'opinion', 'onion' (the n being nasalised), pronounced with the 
Kannada letter & (a) after it. 

y. ta. This letter has the sound of an English letter t that is formed by 
curling back the tongue, forcibly striking the under part of it against 
the roof of the mouth, and pronouncing the Kannada letter & (a) after 
it. (It differs essentially from the true English t, for which there is no 
letter in Kannada. Natives, however, use to represent the English t by &.) 

ti. tha. This letter has the sound of the preceding one but aspirated. 

3. da- This letter has the sound of an English letter d that is formed by 
curling back the tongue, forcibly striking the under part of it against 
the roof of the mouth, and pronouncing the Kannada letter & (a) after 
it. (It differs essentially from the true English d, for which there is 
no letter in Kannada. Natives, however, use to represent the English 
d by & See also sub-letter 3, ra.) 

Zj. dha. This letter has the sound of the preceding one but aspirated. 

re. na. This letter has the sound of an English n that is formed by curling 
back the tongue, forcibly striking the under part of it against the roof 
of the mouth, and pronouncing the Kannada letter ^ (a) after it. (No 
English letter answers to it; see under letter rf, na.) 

3. ta. This letter has the sound of an English letter t that is formed by 
bringing the tip of the tongue against the very edge of the upper front 
teeth, and pronouncing the Kannada letter (a) after it. (There is no 
corresponding letter in English-, see under letter 6J, ta.) 

ZjJ. tha. This letter has the sound of the preceding one but aspirated. 

C3. da. This letter has the sound of the English letter d that is formed by 
bringing the point of the tongue against the very edge of the upper 
front teeth, and pronouncing the Kannada letter & (a) after it. (There 
is no English letter which answers to it ; see under letter 3, da.) 

c^. dha. This letter has the sound of the preceding one but aspirated. 

(3. na. This letter has the sound of the English letter n that is formed by 
placing the tip of the tongue against the very edge of the upper front 
teeth, and pronouncing the Kannada letter w (a) after it. (There is no 
corresponding English letter. Natives, however, use to represent the 
English n by ra, na.) 

3J. pa. The sound of this letter answers to that of the English initial p pro- 
nounced with the Kannada letter (a) after it. 

efi. pha. This letter has the sound of the preceding one but aspirated. 

to. ba. The sound of this letter is the same as that of the English initial b 
pronounced with the Kannada letter "J (a) after it. 

$ ( !0. 3XJJ . bha. This letter has the sound of the preceding one but as- 

o. ma. The sound of this letter is like that of the English m pronounced 
with the Kannada letter w (a) after it. 

OuO. ya. The sound of this letter is the same as that of the English initial 
y in 'yard', 'young', 'you', 'yonder' pronounced with the Kannada 
letter e (a) after it. 

d. ra. The sound of this letter nowadays has an indefinite character like 
the Samskrita r (which Canarese people occasionally mistook for their 
letter es) ; in ancient times it was formed by placing the point of the 
tongue against the very edge of the upper front teeth, producing a 
trilled, delicate sound of the English letter r, and pronouncing the 
Kannada letter 5 (a) after it. At present the sound may be said to 
resemble that of the English initial letter r in 'ring', 'risk' with the 
Kaunada letter (a) sounded after it. (English people often used to 
represent the Kannada letter z3, by their r, as in Canara, Coorg, 
Dharwar = ^^, ^firirto, 93d3sci) 

C5. ra. This letter has the sound of a very harsh English letter r pronounced 
with the Kannada letter (a) after it. Nowadays it is not unfrequently 
represented by a double Kannada 3, i.e. Q (see 39). 

w. la. This letter has the sound of the English letter 1 that is formed by 
bringing the tip of the tongue against the very edge of the upper front 
teeth, and pronouncing the Kannada letter & (a) after it. (The Kannada 
letter v has neither the same sound as the Samskrita & nor that of the 
English 1. The Samskrita letter ^ is very often represented in Kannada 
by the so-called Kshaja; see 15. 31.) 

SJ. va. The sound of this letter resembles that of the initial letter 3 in 
' wife ', ' woman ', the Kannada letter (a) being pronounced after it. 

2i. sa. The sound of this sibilant letter cannot be represented by any English 
letter; it is to be learnt by hearing an efficient teacher pronounce it. 
(Englishmen, however, have represented it by the s in 'sure' and 
' session '.) 

3Si. sha. This letter has the sound of an English initial sh (as in 'shoe', 
'shun') that is formed by placing the tongue in-ar the roof of the 
mouth, and pronouncing the Kannada letter & (a) after it. 

X. sa. This letter has nearly the sound of the English initial letter s in 
'sat', 'sin', 'so', the Kannada letter (a) being pronounced after it. 


3o (stl). na " The sound of this letter is something like that of the English 
initial letter h in 'horse', 'husband', 'hoop', the Kannada letter & (a) 
being pronounced after it. 

tf. la. This letter has the sound of the English letter 1 that is formed by 
curling back the tongue, forcibly striking the under part of it against 
the roof of the mouth, and pronouncing the Kannada letter ^ (a) after 
it. (It represents two letters, viz. the kshaja and kula; see 15.31.) 

tf. la. See the preceding letter. 

&3. la. The sound of this letter 1 is formed by curling back the tongue and 
pronouncing the English letter r, e.g. in the word 'farm', in a rather 
liquid manner (Dr. Caldwell) with the Kannada letter (a) after it. 

18. Of the above-mentioned 57 letters sixteen are vowels (svara). 

19. The initial forms of the vowels are as follows: 


ss a 



ero u 


sxk ri 

Present Tamij. 
<>! a 

^L a 

/^ i 
a. u 

>crr U. 

Present Malayala 
<3YD a 

o^ *^ 

) e 

S3 ai 

to 6 

t> 6 

25 au 

CT e 
<sr e 



D i 

GI u 

g_<D U 

<$2> ri 

(OO) pi 

6YO Iri 

o^J) e 

O_(.\) t' 

ffiaQ) ai 

a 6 

a>o o 

,<!) au 


*T a 

3TF a 

f i 

S u 

^37 u 

^T ri 

^ ri 

^ Iri 

? Iri 

^ e 

T ai 


20. Seven of the vowels are short (lirasva), viz. 53, *a, ero, sdj, j, o, 
&,; and nine are long (dirgha), viz. w, &, WXO, aJS>, <^, &, SO, L, D. 

Short vowels have one measure (matre or prosodical instant) or 
are ekamfitraka; long vowels have two or are ubhayamatra or 
dvimfitra. A consonant (3, su, etc.) is said to last half the time of a 
short vowel. 

Occasionally a vowel is lengthened to three measures in pronunciation 
or becomes trimatraka or protracted (pluta). See 140, a and 215,6, 
letter k. 

In prosody a short or light vowel is called laghu, and a long or 
heavy vowel guru. Such a long vowel is long either by nature, or 
by position (i.e. being followed by a double or compound consonant; 
see 38). 

21. Vowels are again divided into ten monophthongs (samauakshara): 
3 w, 'a, 3s, ero SAJS, irfo s>3j>, 03 H>, of which each pair is of the same class 
of letters (savarna) whether its letters be read in regular order (anuloraa) 
as e> w, r a -ds, etc., or out of the usual order (viloma) as y, & -a, etc., 
or as 3 w, e? w, 'a, di -d?, etc.; and (in Samskrita) into four diphthongs 
(sandhyakshara): io S3 lo 5?. The vowels > so to O, however, are no 
real diphthongs in true Kannada; in this language the radical forms of 
SO are eso&*, S5o5o, and those of O are 3^, sssj (see 217). 

Also the vowels <o ii ^ tj are such as belong to one class, or are 

22. By the way it is observed that, in so far as Samskrita is concerned, the 
true Samskrita vowels ( 15), except a and a, /. e. 12 of them, are subject to the 
peculiar changes called guna and vriddhi (see 217). Though the terms are 
mentioned by the grammarians Kagavarma and Kesava, their use is not stated. 
The same is to be said with regard to the term nami which they mention, and 
which in Samskrita denotes all the true Saihskrita vowels, except a and a, as 
changing a dental into a cerebral. The Upendravajra verso cited by Napa- 
varma and Kesava (probably from a Purana), in which the terms guna, vriddhi 
and nami occur together, is in praise of the 12 Adityas. 

23. In pure Kannada the vowels gtfj sriJS <*j ^ are not indigenous; 
they are found only in words borrowed from Samskrita. 

24. If the initial vowels mentioned in 18, follow a consonant, 
each of them uses a secondary form that is always compounded with 
one of the consonant forms (see 36. 37). 



The initial forms of the vowels together with their secondary ones 
appear in the subjoined table: 

Initial forms Secondary forms 

3 (See 16) 

SJ e) 




The form of the long initial vowel , and the sign ? (see 37) nowadays 
regularly used to mark a long secondary vowel form, are somewhat uncommon 
in Kannada manuscripts of the 18th century. Initial & is written oSo (euphonical 
o& s + <o) in them, but to be pronounced a, e.g. oSj^D^ = ass^; only occasionally 
we find <o? for <o. Initial ^ appears as OSJ3 in them (euphonical o&* + 2 +the 
sign ). The existence of the sign at the time that the manuscripts were written, 
becomes further certain e. g. by the form of the verb S-ees.) (miru), to transgress, 
etc. repeatedly used in them, a form which is used also nowadays (>J3-> for S-xeso). 
^, a and $ however in vowelled compound-syllables (see 36) are generally 
not marked as long by the sign in the manuscripts, e. g. ^esJri stands for 
i.o3o3, dd^ for c3?SJ, s^ for $<3, &c5 for ^c5, &,3 for ^^, ^es 3 for 
for ^J3?rlo, e< c . C/. also 41. 


25. The consonants (vyanjana, bilakkara) of the alphabet are thirty- 
seven in number. Bearing the sign which indicates that they are sounded 
with the short vowel 53 (a) after them (see 16. 17. 3G), they are the 

^ SJ ri $> 2S 

&, < W dtp *SP 

y <3 Ca (^ ra 

3i ^j 20 $ Si) 

The same in present Tamil : 

^ S3T 

Uj ff fO &) 611 ^y- fiW 6MP 

The same in present Malayala : - 

cb 6L\ C>D G1 6Y3 

01 r^a ^ (0\JU 6TO) 


ccn UD 6 cu no 

o_i on 6DJ e 2) 

oo> (0 o ej QJ c/a Q^I oro QD gi 

The same in Devanagari, as far as they exist therein : - 




26. It will be observed that 25 consonants are horizontally arranged 
in sets having five letters (pancaka) in each. Such a set is called a 
series or class (varga), and a letter belonging to it a classified letter 
(vargakshara, vargiyakshara). 

27. The five classes (pancavarga), each from their first letter, are 
distinguished as kavarga (^sjrtr), cavarga (^drl~), tavarga (k^rlr), 
tavarga (^drtr), and pavarga (sjrfrlr). 

The remaining 12 (11) consonants are unclassified (avarga, avargiya). 

28. The letters of the first perpendicular column (called vargapra- 
thama or vargaprathamakshara) are hard, those of the second one 
(called vargadvitiya or vargadviti) akshara) hard and aspirated, those of 
the third one (called vargatritiya or vargatritiyakshara) soft, those of the 
fourth one (called vargacaturtha or vargacaturthakshara) soft and aspi- 
rated ; those of the fifth one (called vargapaiicama or vargapaucamakshara) 
are the particular nasals (anunasika) of each class, which are used as 
such when, in combination, they precede a consonant of their respective 
class; see 220, and cf. 39. 40. 

The difference between hard and soft consonants is not expressed in words 
in the old Kannada grammars. By the way it may be remarked that modern 
Kannada grammars call hard ones karkasavarna or parushavarna, and soft ones 
rnriduvarna, or saralavarna. 

29. Kannada grammars distinguish between consonants with slight 
breathing or weak aspiration (alpaprana), viz. =s* 13* ktf s 6 S3- n* 22* &* 
S3* w*, and consonants with hard breathing or strong aspiration (maha- 
prana), viz. S3 6 ^ 3* zp* ^ ^ tty 6 ^ 9* 2^; but practically alpaprana 
is an unaspirated letter, and mahaprana an aspirated one (see 218). 
Nowadays some call an aspirated letter gandakkara (male letter) and 
an unaspirated one hennakkara (female letter). 

30. In pure Kannada the consonants ^ and 351 do not occur; they 
are found only in words borrowed from Samskrita. 

31. The letter $ in parenthesis in 25 is called kshala ( 15) 
by the grammarian Kesava. It is, in fact, identical as to form 
and pronunciation with the kula, as Kesava terms it, or the true 
Kannada ^ ( 15); and it is, therefore, unnecessary to make it a 
separate letter. It is often used by Kannada people as a substitute for 
Samskrita ^, the sound of which in the Samskrita language apparently 


bears a dubious character for them, one that is neither their <j nor 
their tf ; this $ is Kesava's kshala. Of. 227. 228. 

32. The consonants C5* and O have become, at the present period, 
obsolete (although they are of intrinsic value for Dravidian philology). 
Already the grammarian Kesava had to state in which words the C^* 
was used according to previous authors (see 233). In bygone times &> 
was occasionally changed into o* (see 236), occasionally into ^ } 
occasionally into the letter which it preceded ; in the mediaeval dialect 
and nowadays it is as a rule represented by & (see 228), is exception- 
ally converted into a following letter (as odo, for Jo or >c3of) or 

Q tJ 

disappears also altogether (as wdo^o, for zoejjo^o or zodor^j) l) . J*, 
in the modern dialect, appears as o* or as a double o* (oM. &? and S5< 
are up to this time in common use among the Tamil, Malayala and 
Badaga people; 3* occurs still in the present Telugu (see 3). The 
letter S3 6 appears still in Kannada literature of the 18th century. 

In the course of this work the ancient original forms have been 

l ) Some historical dates regarding the C3* (based chiefly on the very valuable inscriptions 
or sasanas published by Dr. Fleet in the Indian Antiquary are the following (cf. 109). 

1. From about 600 to about 900 A. D. the GJ* was throughout in nse; in that period 
we find e.g. nC3 J , a paddy field, 'aGJj^o^FC 6 , seven hundred persons, 3G3 | 3J., seventy, SO, 

to destroy, 'BCD*, to be (could this be the '3S3J, to stay, to be, of the Dictionary?), *Qj, 

to wash. 

We meet also with the strange forms tfMrt (for 3vrt), below, GJ'j^tf (for e3je?tf), the 
world, rtC3j (for rttx> ), having gained or overcome. 

2. From about 900 till about 1200 A. D. a transition of the C3* into r and v*, is 
observed, as we find aCS^, pleasure, nnd SaS^o (for aa^Oj), seventeen, s3?v* (for s3?C3*), 

to speak, in a sasana of 929 A. D .; *C3J and #&-> , to wash, in one of 951 A. D.; 

la la 

(for ecO' rfjcSj), it immersed, &:& ~ (for C3J), having fallen. >so (for >Qj), seven, 

(for toCS), increase, ndi^F (for nO^), a paddy field, in one of 1019 A. D.; to<? (for 
place, etc.. n 5 ? (for rtW*), staff, and r!C^ a paddy field, in one of 1048 A. D.; fSnO* and 
Srts-*, to shine, to (for wC3), place, etc., ffo (for ^OJ^), to wash, in one of 1075 A. D.; 
'att*, to be, and >Vj (for >C3j). seven, e<? (for 3O), to destroy, truiioC (for eruotoO), a rent- 
free grant, in one of 1076 A. D. ; f5rtC3*, to shine. SC3 s<. N. of a place, '3C3*, to be, and 
St^rt)* (for S(^c*), ^onv (for 5|3nC3), to praise, fSn^r (for rjncs.), fame, 5^v< (for CTC3), 
waste, ss? (for fC3>), to ruin, in one of 1084 A. D.; sj?"^ (for cj?::^), may he make, 
(for enC3), to dig, nv< (for ana*), a ditch, ^pnv* (for s&nK 4 ), to praise, $nv* (for 
to shine, rfn^ (for jSrSC^), fame, sfiurc? (for syncs'), praise, r5n^. (for jSnoy, fame, in one 
of 1123 A. D.; J3oO>^, N. of a place, loC5>, place, etc... 35;Q*. to speak, c3-;Q*, to see, 

to make, and *JF (for tfCOJ ), to wash, s<? (for eC5'), to destroy, s^jri^ (for ^jnc^), praise, 

(for e8nc^), fame, in one of 1181 A. !>.; sSrtv (for s^HCS*), to pr ; ii>,-. =tnv-(f,.r 
to shine, &v*, >VJ (for ^C, 4sC3j), seven, in one of Us:; A. !>.; 'a^ruo (for TSC'rtjo). IK- 
will (leseen.l. in one of 1187 A. D. Cf. _".!>; ;> l t'.O, 1. 

ss. The throat (kantha, koral), the palate or roof of the mouth 
(taluka, taluge, galla), the head or skull (sira, mastaka, murdhan), the 
teeth (danta, pal), the lips (oshtha, tuti), the nose (nasike), the chest 
(ura, erde), and the root of the tongue (jihvamula, naligeya buda) are 
the eight places (sthana, tana) or organs of the letters. 

The letters pronounced from the throat are guttural (kanthya) ; they are 
& & 3 3J ri zp & 3o (X). Those formed by means of the palate are 
palatal (talavya); they are ^ > so g ejj te dp *sp crfj 3; (> and 53 have 
been called also kanthya-talavya). Those coming from the head are 
cerebral (murdhanya); they are gtfj gjjja y^^^rsdGS^eO; 
(sometimes these letters are called lingual). The letters formed by the 
aid of the teeth are dental (dantya); they are ^ ^ ^ $ d q$ 3 o ?3 <. 
Those pronounced with the lips are labial (oshthya) ; they are sro erus L> 
j SJ $ to j do 5J oo ; (sometimes t, O 1 are called kanthoshthya, and d 
has been called dantoshthya). The letters uttered through the nose 
are nasal (anuuasika, nasikya) ; they are 23 'Sp ca rfo o; ( o has been 
called also kanthya-nasikya). The letters o3o o s3 (called semi-vowels) 
are not nasal (anunasika, niranunasika) and, under certain circumstances, 
nasal (anunasika, see 219); there is no mark in Kannada to show the 
difference. The letter pronounced in the chest or pectoral letter (urasya) 
is g . That uttered from the root of the tongue or the tongue-root sibilant 
(jihvamuliya) is X. 

When two consonants are produced in the same place or by the same 
organs, they are called ekasthani (see 238. 239). 

34. The labial sibilant (or aspirate) oo is called upadhmaniya, i. e. 
a letter that is to be pronounced with a forcing out of breath; it only 
occurs before the consonants & and Sjj. The nasal o is called anusvara 
or after-sound, as it always belongs to a preceding vowel; from its form 
that in Samskrita is a dot, it is called bindu, and from its form in 
Kannada where it is represented by a circle or cipher, it is called sunya 
or sonne; it is a substitute for a nasal letter, and when it does not stand 
at the end of a word (where it is pronounced like the English m, cf. 
215, 8), its sound depends on the following consonant (see under letter 
o in 17; 39. 40). The sibilant (or aspirate) g is called visarga or 
visarjaniya either from its being pronounced with a full emission of 
breath or from its liability to be rejected; if followed by another letter, 
it is frequently changed and occasionally dropped. The tongue-root 


sibilant (or aspirate;) jivhamuliya X can only stand before the conso- 
nants 3 and aj. 

35. The sunya (sonne or bindu) o and visarga g are semi-vowels 
(svaranga) and semi-consonants (vyaiijananga). They and the upadluna- 
niya oo and jihvamuliya X are so to say semi-letters, and as such form 
the 4 so-called yogavaha letters, /. e. letters always appearing in connec- 
tion with, or depending on, others. 

Visarga, upadhmaniya and jihvamuliya do not occur in pure Kannada, 
but are used only in words borrowed from Sariiskrita. 

36. As has been stated in 16 and 25 the crested consonants (in- 
cluding aj 2 'SP eJ ra w^65Cs3) are always sounded with the short 
vowel S3 (a) after them. When any of the secondary forms of the vowels 
given in 24 is united with the consonants to form vowelled compound- 
syllables, the consonants partly retain the shape they have when the 
vowel S3 (a) is sounded after them, but mostly lose their talekattu or 
crest. Here follows a tabular view of them: 

3 * sj rt r\ 5** V* K 

2^ d EJ jj i dOO OJO r ST 

&j do Cs Q> c^tjj PS 

^^ $<p do $9 N?> 

oj &j CKJ co 20 jj 2y) SJ o^O 

OJOOOO dO G3^ SJ0 2!& 

When the union has taken place, the vowels, like the short S3 (a), 
are pronounced after the consonants to which they are attached. 

37. In the Southern Mahratta country the vowelled compound- 
syllables are called ka-gunitakshara, i. e. syllables that are multiplied or 
increased in number after the manner of ka, this being the tirst of 
them ; and a series of them is called balli. In writing and reading the 
series of the ka-gunita-syllables it is customary to place the consonant 
after which the short s>3 (a) is sounded, at the beginning of each series. 

A table exhibiting the union of vowels with consonants is given on the 
following- two pages : 


18 - 

sj kha 

23 na 
2 ca 
eji cha 
dp jha 
'SC na 

y ta 

d tha 
d da 
^ dha 
ra na 
^ ta 
qj tha 
d da 
qj dha 
^ na 
3J pa 
cf! pha 
20 ba 
$ bha 
sjo ma 
Coj ya 
d ra 

f 1 -^ VQ 
^^w' JL ui 

^> la 
d va 
2! sa 
3l sha 
?j sa 
sd ha 
tf la 
CJ la 

^J"J) ixt* 

SJ3 kha 

rra ga 

233 ca 
ejs cha 
23*) ja 
doje) jha 


&Je) ta 

33 tha 
c33 da 
t^3 dha 
^4> na 
33 ta 
zp3 tha 
C3e) da 
qra dha 
73 na 
333 pa 
5p3 pha 
W3 ba 
2J3 bha 

03 ra 

C3 3 3 ra 

33 la 

S33 va 
33 sa 
3S3 sha 

TJe) Sa 
00^) ilii 

s?3 la 

* ki 
A gi 

2S 9 ni 
23- ci 
<> chi 

'SC 9 ui 
ej ti 

^ dhi 
r3 ni 
a thi 

a di 

a dhi 
> ni 
& pi 
^j phi 
) bi 
$ bhi 
Do mi 
o3o yi 
a ri 
C3 9 ri 
D vi 
& shi 
A) si 
3o hi 

ft" 9 li 

$? ki 
^D? khi 
h? gi 

o^ g n i 

2S 9 ^ ni 

23? ci 
^)? chi 

Soo? jhi 
'SC 9 ^ ni 
13? ti 
Q^ tin 
& di 
^^ dhi 
d? ni 
3^ ti 
^>e thi 
>? di 

ae dhi 

n i 
^ pi 
^j^ phi 
>g bi 
c^e bhi 


a? vi 

&% si 
&L? shi 

^o? si 
&> hi 


^o ku 
Sjj khu 
rio gu 
^o ghu 
220 nu 

2^0 CU 

^jj chu 
fc jn 

dcpj jhu 
'SCO nu 
eJo tu 
do thu 
do du 
<^o dhu 
C30 nu 
^o tu 
$o thu 
do du 
$o dhu 
^o nu 
^j) pu 
^j) phu 
200 bu 
2^o bhu 
doo mu 
o3oo yu 
do ru 
C3o ru 
vi lu 


s^j shu 
Sio su 

3cO hu 

s^o lu 

eoo lu 

^js ku 
SJJS khu 

^J3 ghu 
23J5 nu 

2^J3 CU 
^J3 chu 

dopfc jhu 



^J3 tu 
$J3 thu 
dJ3 du 
q^J3 dhu 
^J3 nu 
ojJ3 pu 

$3/3 phu 
20J3 bu 
2^J3 bhu 










^ x kri 

SJ N khri 


^ g n P 

22\ nri 

2^x cri 

^N ^hri 
2d\ iri 


dp>. jhri 
'SCx nri 
R tri 

d x thri 
e) * 

d N dri 

e) ' 

d\ dhri 

'a) ' 

F3\ nri 
^ tri 
CK thri 
d\ dri 
q$> dhri 
pJ. nri 
3Jx pri 
3^ phri 
20^ bri 
El bhri 
dov mri 
oio>, yri 
d\ rri 
C5 rri 

ex Iri 

rfv vri 

2K sri 

3^1x shri 

^ s Vi 
2c N hri 

> khri 






, dri 

, PP 

9 m P 

\3 J 



> bri 

- 19 

tf klri & klri tf ke tfp ke & kai tfja ko ^J3pk6 ?f kau 

"2 "? <> 

so khlri sj khlri a3 khe a3? khe s3, khai a!U) kho s3j?> kho ^ khau 



rt glri r( glri rt ge * fle g6 7\ gai rU go flja? go rf 3 gau 

"2 J O 

3^ ghlri e$ ghlri $ ghe ^ ghe SfXghai $J3 gho 

23 iilri 22 rilri 2C 3 ne ;3p ne zc 3 , fiai 232,0 no K^JSP no 2Sf3 nau 

"7 "J W 

23 clri 23 clri saf c<3 sP cu 23\ cai tJ3 co 2J8P 60 25^ cau 

on r* 

<$ chlri efi chlri ^ che ^^ che ^ chai ^JS cho e3^? ^ ^> chau 

to jlri to jlri tS je eS je z, jai 2J3 jo ^J3? jo zfa jau 

"2 J V 

dp f jhlri dp jhlri &p jhe d^^ jhe dp; jhai &pJ3 jho &pjs? jho dc^jhau 

'SO nlri 'so nlri 'sps ne 'so 3 ^ ne 'SO 3 , nai ^JS no 'ST 2 J3^ no '3p d ^ nau 

eJ tlri fej tlri tf te &3p te a tai fe3j5 to ^J3e to ^p tau 

7 * *J " W ' 

d thlri d thlri g the $p the ^ thai 3.0 tho ^JSe tho s^ thau 

07 <*i ' $ 

d dlri rf fllri d de d^ cle & dai ^J3 do ^jse ( ]o cf 3 dau 

"I ' "J W 

^ dhlri ^ dhlri ^ dhe ^^ dhe ^, dhai z^J3 dho ^J3^ dho ^) dhau 

fj ro ^j 

rs nlri rs nlri f| ne f|p ne f|, nai ffjs no f|j3P no ^> nau 

** *l w " 

^ tlri ^ tlri I te Jp te ^ tai |J3 to JJSP to 3^ tau 

^ ? w 

q5^ thlri q5 thlri zp the zp^ the & thai zpj3 tho zpja^ tho qf 3 thau 

c5 dlri d dlri cS de zSe de ji dai dJ3 do d>e do c^ dau 

i dhlri qS dhlri jp dhe zpf dhe zpN dhai zpjs dho ipjs^ dho qfa dhau 

nlri ^ nlri j5 ne ?S^ ne & nai ?J3 no fS>J3? no ^> nau 
i plri sj plri 5 pe 3^? pe pai o5p po ^js^ po 35^ pau 

3^ phlri ;jj phlri $ phe ^ phe & phai 5jp pho p% pho 3^ phau 

^7 "{ J 

20 blri 20 blri 23 be t3p be 23> bai 23J3 bo 23J3P bo ?&> bau 

"2 "J w 

$ bhlri $ bhlri ^ bhe E^^ bhe $, bhai $J3 bho 2^J3^ bho 2p^ bhau 

mlri sli mlri sSo me s3o? me sSox mai s3js mo s3JS)P mo 

2 -^ e> 

ojj ylri oJo ylri o3o ye o3op ye o3o> yai o3J3 yo o3J3e yo 

^7 ? ^) 

C3 rlri c5 rlri 6 re df re 6. rai d& ro 6 JSP ro o^> rau 

<vj en qj 

&3 rlri C3 rlri &33 re CS 3 ^ re CS 3 ^ rai CS 3 ^ ro Cfl 3 J9? ro 5^ rau 

e; llri e^ llri d 16 s3? 16 <s3> lai e3ja 16 e3J)f 16 pjs lau 

sj vlri jj vlri So ve dp ve s3i vai do vo dse vo ^ vau 

"2 W 

si slri ^ slri ^ se $ se ^, sai ^J3 so ^J3^ so 35^ sau 

3Si shlri 3^ shlri sS she sS^ she 3^1 shai 3&J3 sho 3J3^ sho 35^ >lian 

f*2 ^ Q^ 

^J slri ?j slri ^ so ^^ se ^ sai ?3js so ?3je) so ^> sau 

3o hlri 3o hlri 3o he 3 ho 3o^ bai ^j3 ho 3s/)? ho gp hau 

<3 llri s^ llri s? le s?f 16 ^ lai <&Q 16 ^J3^ 16 v^ ! :lu 

CJ llri C3 llri C3 3 le e^^ 16 ^ lai &&> 16 C^3j3p 16 C^" 3 lau 

en " c " 


At school the mark 9 used for the vowel <a and the mark -^ used for 
the vowel ^ are called rtoca?fo, rtoS?l) or rtodj^o, the mark o used for 

ero is called =^J3djo , the mark $ that descends 'from a consonant as the 

sign for the long vowels tJ and & (as in. ^s ) etc., and in 33 and 

is called 'S.C^, and the name for the mark ^ is a?^^. =&& =jd^ f{ 
etc. may be written also 5^1 51e AH 7Y1? etc. 

38. If a consonant is followed immediately by another consonant 
or by more than one, the two or more consonants are written in one 
group (samyoga), and thus double or compound consonants (dvitvakshara, 
ottakkara, dadda, dacldakkara) are formed (cf. 20. 240). 

When two consonants are compounded, the latter consonant is 
written underneath the former one or is subscribed; wlien three 
consonants are united in one group, the third is written underneath 
the second one; and when four are compounded, the fourth is subscribed 
to the third. In true Kannada a combination of more than two 
consonants does not occur. 

In reading, the upper consonant that is crested (including sj 23 & ^ 
eJ r3 w v 63 C3, 36) is pronounced like a half consonant, and the 
short vowel 5 (a) is sounded with the lower consonant; if three 
consonants are compounded, the second one too is pronounced like a 
half consonant, and the short vowel 53 (a) is sounded with the lowest one; 
and so on. 

39. The subscribed consonants, as a rule, have the uncrested shape 
that is used for the union of Consonants with vowels ( 36); but Jin the 
case of seven letters the shape is different, namely ^ appearing as 

. 3 as . sjo as . o3o as c , d as v as . and 3^ as d often takes 

=<.' <a' vJ' ov ^ 

also the form of p, in which case it is written after the following 
consonant, but sounded before it; the same is to be said concerning 3. 

The following are some examples of double and compound conso- 

^ kka, ^ kkha, ^ kea, ^ kcha, ^ kta, ^ ktya, J, ktra, j^ ktrya, 
^kna, ^ knya, ^ kma, ^ kya, ^ kra, ^ krya, * kla, ^ kva, 

nka; d e8a; K jj a , K jna; ^nSa; & tta, W taa; nda, ^ ndrya; 
tka, ^ tta, ^ ttha, ^ tna; ^nna; ^, ppa; ^ bba; r ^ bhya; S mpa, 
> mba, ^rama, ^ mra, ^mla; ^yya; ^ rka, ^,rta; ^rcha; ^Ipa; 
vva; ^ sea; ^ shta, ^. 5 shtrya; ^ ska, ^ sta, ^stra; ^ stha, ?^sma; s^ hna. 


Instead of d,, d , d, etc., C3, CA, etc., the forms tfr. 3r, dr. etc., dr, 

Q- <a eo 

, etc. may be used. The 'upper nasals (for the sake of convenience 
in writing) may take the form of the circlet called sonne ( 34), so that 

^' ^' *&' 1 3" ^' 1' *$' ^' ^ iS ii' ^ may appear SIS * 02J ' 
okj, orf, o^, 0$, od, 0$, o?3, osj, ow, o3j, e. g. in yotf, sioZc, woeJ, riozS, 

o3, oq5, zoori, ^o$, ciotf, ^osirs, <oozo, Wodo. See 220. 

40. If one of the secondary forms of the vowels ( 24) is to form a 
part of a compound consonant, it is attached to the upper consonant. 
In reading, it -is sounded after the lower consonant, or if more than 
two are compounded, after the lowest one, just as the short vowel 
S3 of 38. 

The following instances may be given, in which also the way of 
attaching the vowels appears in case the sonne represents an upper 
nasal ( 39) : 

&\ akki; $&, appi; ^4, appu; w3^ or ^csfc arame; ^^ or 'Sock i n du-, 
'gdo^ or 'Soyo imbu; ^^ or ^or irme; 2^ 6tti; ^ or z-o^ 6nte-, 3^ or 
3TO-S- kanki ; ^^ or ^o&j kanei 5 ^-^ kukshi; ^S, or ^:>o3 kunti; ^^ keldu; 
3^ or ^od tande; UE^ or 2Jo<3 bandi; ^? strl; 3-Q^ stotra; ^'^ sthana; ^-0^ 
or ^JSorfo, honnu. See 220. 

41. Many Kannada people pronounce and write the initial vowels 
r a -d ea> erua <>}>&&, ungrammatically, prefixing oi:* to ^ -Ss oi i), 
and s* to vo ?ru3 o to, thus: o3o 03J3 o3o o3oe; 4 4^ 4^ 4^- Regarding 
initial ^ they use also, instead of o3o, ojj e. _j/. OJo^, oiosli for 
osSo^. Initial i) may appear as o&e>, e. g. o&s>^^K (=wj^,), 
(=^^, see 125; 265 j, also when attached to an initial consonant, e.g. 
CTsVSJ (=d^s5), ^foe^eS (=s3j^e3). Initial 2,, is vulgarly changed into 3, 
e. g. 3^?1) for -cw^^o, and 3 into s, e. </. 1*$ ^ for d^i sJo. Cf. also 
remark under 24. 

42. With the exception of jihvamiiliya, upadhmaniya, anusvara and 
visarga, all vowels and consonants (the latter compounded with the 
talekattu or with any secondary form of the vowels) are named in four 
ways: 1) by simply using their sounds, e.g. w, , etc., =a, ^s, etc.; 
2) by adding ^tf, 'making', to their sounds, e.g. es^sd, 5e>0, 

O J 

sounds, e. g. 

3) by adding t to their sounds, e.g. e$3, 4i 
^i ^^; an( ^ 4 ) by" adding rfr?r, 'letter', to their 

oJ 00 


The letter d (o*, r) is generally called 6^ or 6e^, also when the F 
is a substitute of &3*. 

43. The system of punctuation in Kannada manuscripts is the same 
as the Samskrita one, viz. in prose at the end of a sentence the sign | 
is used, and at the end of a longer sentence, the sign || ; in poetry the 
sign | is placed at the end of a half verse, and at the end of a verse, 
the sign u . (In certain prose writings, as in Devarasa's Sanandacaritra, 
the sign | is put not only at the end of a sentence, but also after single 
words or a number of words.) 

44. The Kannada figures used to express numbers (anke, lekka, 
saiikhye) or the numerical figures are: 

n . * v . M . A. : e. ; : : . o 


They have been adopted from the Samskrita, wherein they first 
appear in the 5th century A. D. The Arabs who borrowed them from 
the Hindus, introduced them into Europe, where they were called 
Arabic figures. 

Ill, On roots or verbal themes 

45. Before introducing the chapter on declinable bases (IV.) the 
author thinks it desirable to treat of the so-called verbal roots (dhatu), 
as very many nominal bases are derived from them ( 100). 

46. "A (verbal) root (dhatu)", the grammarian Kesava says "is the 
basis of a verb's meaning (kriyarthamula) and has no suffixes (pratyaya, 
vibhakti) ", or, in other words, a root is the crude form of a verb. 

47. Ancient Kannada grammars based on literary writings, dis- 
tinguish between monosyllabic (ekaksharadhatu) and polysyllabic roots 
(anekaksharadhatu). These roots have been collected by Kesava in his 
'root-recital' (dhatupatha) or list of roots. 

In this list there appear as monosyllabic roots e.g. -ds, to, 

as dissyllabic ones e. g. eso, siD, &>2o, ^ooo, ,08, jft8, &>*>,, 


trisyllabic ones e. , 


; as quadrisyllable ones e. //. , , . 

"O la tJ 

; and as quinquesyllabic ones e. #. 


48. It is a striking peculiarity of modern Kannada that it apparently 
has no roots ending in a consonant without a vowel, so that e. g. the 
above mentioned roots 'SO*, flotf, =$J30i5, # 

tfJS^', rO?c3*, &S>ee^, SS^ocf , ^$0* tfjtfo*, by the addition of the vowel 
as a help to enunciation, have the forms of 

in it (c/l 54; 61, remark; 1G6; the present-future participle in 
181, and also the imperative ^jaofo for ^jaois* etc. in 205, 2 and s); 
further that such monosyllabic roots as 3s, )J3 and 2^, appear as 
and dectfoo in it ( 162. 163). 

But we have, in the modern language, e. g. the past participles 
(of wi&J, 3?io (of 3?i^}, J3o3oo (of ^JScdjjg), rtcdoo (of rtoJoo*, 155), 
^jdo (of 30i), 20^0 (of todo), ^c^, (of cJ^), w^^ (of w?3e3o), 23??j^ 
(of 23?sS&3o, 160), 3Q (of JC3o, 161), zSj^j (of zSeo^oo, 162), wcso 
(of eA)rso), ^rso (of ^rao), ^J3raj (of ^J3b,, 164), which forms prove 
the existence of roots with originally final consonants in it too 

49. When carefully examining Kesava's list of roots, one finds that 
the English term 'root', in many instances, does .not properly express 
the meaning of the term 'dhiitu'. The verbs ?3o,rio and Q?1> in 47, 


for instance, are formed by means of the suffix si?gj, from ^doj N and 
5^or and )Dj^or, by means of the suffix z^o, from 55^0' 
(see 149 seq.) ; ^jsrsp^j is composed of ^jsrao and 

sjj.i^o of 2^do* and 3Jck 3oJ3^>2johdj of (3oJ3e;20J and &d 

of j^rfdo ^s*, and so on. Such verbs are, according to European 
notions, no roots. Kesava's term 'dhfitu' may here and there denote a 
root i. e. the primary element of a verb or primitive verbal theme, but 


often stands also for a secondary verbal theme ;uul a compound verb. 
His definition of dhatu, therefore, is that it is the crude form of any 
verb which is not always a real root. 


50. In further discussing the subject of dhatus let us use the 
general term of 'verbal themes' for them. 

51. There are a good many monosyllabic verbal themes in ancient 
Kannada the vowels of which are short, e. g. 'ao*, eaco s , sro^, <0^, toS3* 
TJTO&* (or T^O&*), rio*, >G S , 20033% >e/, sJoo^'; other monosyllabic verbal 
themes have long vowels, e. g. 5^, ^a>o&*, ^es*, 3?o 6 , STOO&*, 

52. Some monosyllabic verbal themes appear with short and long 
vowels, e. g. es3* and W&3*, && and w^, ^53* and 3)&3, <oW and 

&3* and &e^, ^o* and 330*, ^ and 33$*, 200* and WDO*, 
and Ws)(!*3, &CO* and ^^0*, ?je3* and ?js>e3*. It may be supposed, 
that the short vowels are original, and the long verbal themes secondary. 
(About s)o* and w>o* see 210.) 

53. Because some monosyllabic verbal themes with a long vowel 
change, in the past participle, their long vowel into a short one, as -S? 
makes its past participle <-,^j ( 163), ^s>fo s ^rao ( 164), ^J3^ ^J3^o, 

^ C^ Q 

23^ 23^0, DJ) ^o^o ( 162), and ^oto* ^^ ( 163), it is reasonable to 

Q O ^^ 

think that their primitive vowel has been short (regarding ^fo* cf. =3^, 
^riiroo, ts'rso in the Dictionary). A similar lengthening of a vowel is also 
seen in the verbal themes Jjs^ and ^s^, as they have also the form of 
^ooSs* and f$3, (See also the remark under 59.) In such cases too we 
may consider the long themes to be secondary. 

54. In 48 it has been indicated that nowadays there are no 
monosyllabic verbal themes in modern Kannada, the vowel ero, as a help 
to enunciation, being added to make them dissyllabic. A similar 
tendency to lengthen an originally monosyllabic verbal theme with a 
short vowel by the addition of the euphonic vowel ^ is observed already 
in ancient literary works in which we find e. g. to for 2&, v> for 

tftfo for rio&S fl for tfo*, eo> for to^, for )^, s3o> for 
and also ^> for 

Concerning the lengthening of an originally monosyllabic verbal 
theme with a short vowel by adding the vowel ro it may be remarked 
that this practice too, now and then, took place already in ancient 
literature; thus, for instance, ^JSQ* and =J3oj, tfo*, and rtao, 
and ;3j^>-> were used therein. 


Also monosyllabic themes with a long vowel were in ancient 
literature occasionally made dissyllabic by the addition of ero, as e. y. 
$& was written ^tfo, r^pa* N?^O, and jgJSeo* ^jj^o (c/. 166). 

55. There are several seemingly dissyllabic verbal themes, with a 
short vowel in the first syllable, that end in d>, as ssc&, a^j, voct), 
:!>, sjdo, >rfo, rlidj. Were these originally monosyllabic, the final tru 
being merely euphonic or a help to enunciation? No doubt, for their 

past participles yejo ^IL ercWo., ejo, &>., >eJo and ?fcei> are formed 

6J Co *j vj Co CO w 

by adding the formative syllable ^o (which by assimilation becomes fcjo, 
1G4, 4) immediately to escs', 'as*, srocs 4 , etc., which thus represent the 
primitive themes. 

56. A small number of seemingly dissyllabic verbal themes having 
a short vowel in the first syllable and ending in 3o, represents itself in 
eru&3o, (oie5o), aeOo, ne3o, (tSCao), 3e3o, St^, ^C5J and 4^0. Like 
the ero of the themes 53^0, 'S.rfj, etc. in 55 that of ruC3o, etc. too is a 
euphonic addition, as their past participles are erus^, &4?c> ^^i (i nstea ^ 
of A^Og), 33^, i% (instead 3^,), sSaOj, and ^52^, the formative 
syllable 3o having been attached directly to the radical C3 3 *, which by 
assimilation was changed into 3* ( 160,4; 161). They are, therefore, 
originally monosyllables, and as such primitive themes. (For the past 
participle of <oC3o and ^C5o we have as yet no grammatical or other 

57- Also the verbal themes Q-&, sj^o and jj are not radically 
dissyllabic, as their past participles are ^e^o (for ^z^j), tefo, and 


(for fts^j), the formative syllable ^o having been added immedi- 
ately to the radical 75* with the proper euphonic change of consonants 
( 164, 

58. We have now to examine another class of verbal themes that 
(like those in 55. 56. 57) are customarily pronounced as if they were 
dissyllables. They have their first syllable long, and their second syllable 
is ^o. Three of them are ?2JS^do, z3?rfj and rfjs^J, and the final ero of 
these is simply euphonic, as they appear also as fSja^C^, t3^O and 
5iJe>3* ( 183,. 4). They are, therefore, true monosyllables and as such 
primitive themes. (According to the Sabdanusasaua, sutra 85, there arc 
also ^jJSCJjo of doJS^J, ^Je&3Jo of J3^J, sutra 514 ?l&3 of 

A A "-> 

and sutra 545 aeOj,%* of wd), sJjsWo,^ of ^j^rfo.) Cf. 234. 


Others are w^o, yxoei>, t^o, ^e>^J, ^JS^J, 33e>zi>, etc. Although no 
direct monosyllabic form of them exists to show the merely euphonic 
character of their final ero (but see the Sabdanusasana's ai^V$ in 58), 
they apparently are monosyllables, because their verbal nouns (bhava- 
vacanas) ejfej, SA^W, t>eJ, ^DeJ, ^J3iJ and srakJ are formed exactly like 
of f&aezfc, z3?W of z3?zi>, and rfjafej of sirazl>. Qf. 242. 

59. A further number of verbal themes similar to those mentioned 
in 58 are the following: 

7TO&3J, ty3J. The difference is that they have 

C3o as their second syllable. As a rule their past participle shows the 
formative vowel a (epjatS 9 , etc. 166), and the &3o remains before the 
formative syllable sj of the present-future participle relative 
etc., 180, 3); but there are exceptions. Thus we have 
160, 4), sjr (ye^ + , 3J=rf, 183, 2); ^es* and 

166); ^&3od and ^JS^F (^J3-S3*+rf, 18 6 ); 

166), ;iJ3e3^ and Jja^Sr (loe&F+ri, 183, 2); 
, 180, 6) and 33 F (^SS* +3J, 183, 2j ; 
166), sjsC3o^ and 53?)dr (33^"* + ^, 180 ' 6 ); 

do, 166), ^eesj^, and ^e^r (a?t3*+rf, iso, 6) ; 

, 183, 2) and ^jsdr (sJ333<+rf, 180, 6); 
and jsci>F (^JSG5*+rfj, 166). At the same time we have the 
verbal nouns Z>3 (for ^F of 3o), g^e^ (for s^e3o), SJo)S5* (for rfjsCSj), 
and the past participle ^s^j (for ^S^OF of ?je)3j, 159). It must, 
therefore, be concluded that the final ?ro of the verbs is nothing but a 
help to enunciation, and that they are originally monosyllabic themes. 

It may be remarked that the long vowel of ^)C3o, 33e>&ib and 
is short in the nouns ^&3o sj5o and 

60. As has been stated in the preceding paragraphs (51 seq.) there 
are many and various monosyllabic verbal themes in Kannada. 

As examples of dissyllabic verbal themes may be adduced e.g. 

90, ^6, 53^, o^SS 3 , S5?3, tf, W^o, oS?, S5S?, eAiW; but with respect to 
their finals Q and ^ it is to be said that they are not radical (see 157; 
165, letter a, 3. 4. 5; 172; 180,5; 243,;, 


and in the vulgar dialect some of the themes may become mono- 
syllabic ( 151, a, 4 ; 158; 165, a, 7). 

61. Another class of verbal themes which in Kesava's list are 
introduced as trisyllabic ones with the final syllable C3o, are really 
dissyllables, which by several of them can be proved, e. g. by ewtf3j, 
3cte3o, rteeSo, 33tfC3o find 233S3J, as these occasionally add the participial 
syllables dj and ;j (see 59), with elision of the merely euphonic vowel 
eru, immediately to 5 S (e^dor, ^ddor, etc., rtw^F, ZocS^r, 166; 
180, e), by S5SAC30 and 23*^63 J, as they always attach the participial 

v IT 

syllable 3j directly to 53* feW^oF, &<&F), and by ^MCSo, ^S3o, 

v '0' ~ ' 2T 

ti &3j and ^^30, as they do the same, changing the C3* into 3* 
(oiW^,, w*&k, etc., 160, 4). 

Let it be remarked here that dissyllabic themes with the final 
consonants o , a s , s* and 0*, such as 5co, sroac. 6 , tSdoo*, ssC^ej*, 
iJ3Oo*, 2o(!^j*, ^rtav*, e3rtoCs3 s , are never written as trisyllables in the 
ancient dialect, although they are occasionally trisyllabic in the 
mediseval dialect, and always so in the modern one (see 48. 166). 
An exception is formed by a few ancient themes when they suffix the 
particle 'S,?l>, for which see 151, letter a, 2. 

62. Some instances of verbs that are always trisyllabic, are the 

; and some instances of such as are always quadrisyllable are: 
rio>A?3o; quinquesyllabic verbs are e. g. 

Two trisyllabic verbs with final do, viz. tSr&o and ti^orfo, appear 
also as dissyllabic when their forms become zSrlCu* and /rk~3* 
(see 183, 4). 

More or less of the trisyllabic verbs can be derived from monosyllabic 
or dissyllabic themes. Of the above-mentioned terms zocioro^o is 
another form of wc^oo^o, which has sprung from zjC^, to live, 
has arisen of eszS, to fill, etc.; ^odo^j of =3^0, to beat; si>2jrt> of 
to bend or be moved out of a straight or standing position ; ^o^&orto of 

, to bend; >o23or of )>oo*, to be stretched; c^dotjj of cf6, to join; 
of riodos?*", to contract; B^^o of =^0, to be mixed; sjd:i> of 3Jd, 



to spread; ^r^ of ^r, to grow cool; ^ejodoo of ^C), to be mixed; 

of the noun ojcl, adjustment, compared with the verbal theme s2fl, to 

be joined, etc.; S3&3?jj of e33 9 , to learn to know; ^)a?fo of ^sjoi, to 
trust, (cf. % 49). 

Of the above-mentioned quadrisyllable verbs LroDroo comes from the 
noun L,?od, >rt>>o 3o from ^riodoo rtso 0?oo may be connected with 3*$ , 

vs) &0 cO O 

to dig. 

Of the above-mentioned quinquesyllabic verbs enieo.rjsixcii is composed 

of erc>U.n)o and sj^o (cf. 49); regarding ^d^a^o see 211, remark 2. 

63. We have seen that the vowels <a ( 54) and ea> (48. 54-59. 
61) at the end of verbal themes are often simply euphonic, also ^ and 
oi when they seemingly belong to them ( 60). 

64. Kesava says that there are no Kannada verbs which end in 
aspirated consonants (mahapranakshara), the nasals KP* and ^3*, the 

consonants s, 35* and 35* } and the double consonant & . With regard 

to go* it is to be observed that his statement was true only for his own 

time, as in a later period many verbal themes with final so 6 (300) were 
in use, this letter often taking the place of 53* (S); see e - 9- ^G^SoG, 
'S&^Soo, erueoosoj, =5^0560, ^JSdsoo, ^rfoaoo in the Dictionary. Cf. 223. 

65. Kesava's list of verbs (47) is so arranged that the alpha- 
betical order shows itself in the final letters, 3* and C^ coming after 7$, 

Of verbs that form a single vowel, he adduces only two, viz. -d? and L, 
and of such as consist of one consonant with a long vowel, twelve, viz. 

The final consonants and syllables of the verbs in his list are the 
following : 

3*0, 03^0; tfO, OHO; e^O, OZJO (^0); KJ, OKO; &JO, C30^; Q, do, d; ra, rf, 5; ^0; 
Q, do, c3; J3 e , ^, fS; =y); EJO, dO^; rfOO, ^0; 0&*; 0^, 0, 6; e3 e , 6; 5), ^); A, ToJ, 

Cgrfo), ^ ; ra 9 , 63o, et 5 ; <a, C3", c#; v, ?, tf. ((y. 149-151.) 

The'finals often are essential parts of the verbal theme. That they 
are not always radical, but sometimes mere formatives, e. g. ^o. o^o, 
rio, orto, wo, owo, eJo, rao appears to a certain extent from the 62 
and 63. We add as a peculiarity that what may be called the root of 
verbs of frequentative action, is seen in the first form of reduplication, 
as in dooWo 3oo53orto ( 211, 6), 


66. A peculiarity of some verbal themes is that they change their root 
vowels. This, in the ancient dialect, is especially seen in the past 

participle, in which -a^o takes the form of ojs^o, )?*) that of 

( 164, 10), <& that of 3fejo ( 164, 8), e3J that of g^, ftS3o that of 


that of >z ( 161 )> tfurk tnat f 2o^, S)rt^ tnat 

(164,12), ^jci) that of tfjslb., ^jdj that of 3J3&>. (164,7). 

u u 

in the later dialect, has become <o?oO and o?3, &C*J ^rfo, 

o tek, e5o 3C3o, erorta trto, s^rfo s^rk, and 
and z3?3. 'ae*3 s , already in Kesava's time, appeared as 
as aojl, eros?* as ts?*; ^23* must originally have been 
as ^oS (not ^J3j is 'a killer', and =&)^j, to take, 3o<ff<, as 
the verbal noun ^J3^o exists also as ^o^o. Observe, further, that 
appears also as aoO&% ^J03i* as ^JSok*, ^ooi3* as Jjaois*, ^a as 
oi:* as =aoi3 s , 'aaz^or as ^dO?oo, and that several themes have a 
long and short vowel ( 52. 53). Observe also the change of Q into 
d?, <o and > and that of eru into erua and to in 101 ; that of eros* f the 
locative into eo<s*, and that of <o of the instrumental into ^ in 109; 
that of <a into <o, ii and w, that of ro into z in 247, d, 9. 10. 13. n. is. 
21. 22, and that of > into ^ in 251. 

IV, On declinable bases 

67. According to grammar there are words called bases (linga, 
prakfiti). Such a base is defined as follows: "It does not express 
verbal action (kriye), has no case-terminations (vibhakti, cf. 105 seq.), 
but embodies meaning (artha)." 

68. According to the grammarian Kesava baees are first of four 
kinds, viz. 

1, verbal bases (krit, krillinga), /. c. such as arc formed directly from 
verbs by the so-called krit-suffixes attached to the relative present and past 
participle (krit, see 102, 8. e; 177. 180. 185. 253,9, d; 254), e.g. to 

, doAArf; L?)0*d, 

2, bases with other suffixes (taddhita, taddhitalinga), t. e. such as are 
formed by the so-called taddhita-suffixes C9rf, 33, 3<^, *, woJ^, etc., see 243) 
from nouns and verbs, e. g. ^ r! . riart, y^^si^, doQ^*, tfcs, 3rfc3 ; 


3, compound bases (samasa, samasalinga), i. e. such as are compounded of 
two (or more) words, e. g. icrras?, 'gd.ra^, Socks w, 3ooofioi3 5 ; 4333, S?s3j8?^t), 
3,&ew, ?Wo5o (cf. No. 4, i; see 244 seq.); 

4, nominal bases (nama, namalinga, namaprakriti) or crude nouns (see 
242) which include 

a) words not etymological ly derived by the public, but commonly known 
and used in a conventional sense (rudhanama, ditanama, niseitanama), e. g. c3t>, 
^py, zasJ, that by their number of syllables (aksharavyitti), also without being 
compounds in the generally accepted meaning (asamasate), may be monosyllabic, 
etc., and even quinquesyllabic, as ^-, sod, ^.o^tf, ?r3$tf, rfU-rf^rt; 

b) words whose meaning is intelligible in themselves (anvarthanama), 
expressing either quality (gunanurupa) of beings, as eras, 3 0333.33, ^zparasj, 
stos^ao, or circumstance and condition (arthanurupa) of beings, as B&sProo, $i 
3oJ3rt (or sc&dojsri), SoArlodD ( c f. No. 3, so that Kesava enlarges the compass 
of nominal bases by including also compound bases, and, we may say, also all 
the others) ; 

c) words by which one of a species is pointed out (aiikitanama) or proper 
names, as ^3^, &ti3, 3J9Z3, drad, which though occasionally without a clear 
meaning (sarthakam alladuvu), are current everywhere in Kannada and 
other languages. 

Besides these four kinds of declinable bases there are three others, 
which will be given in 90. 


1, When a verb (kriye) stands at the end of the description of the character 
of a person, it too has been called a krillinga by poets, e. g. (with case-termina- 
tion) rfsiiacTo^rte* 'gsfr o^Q^ 'srifo, he who was as Jainas are. 

2, When a series of words (vakyamale) is considered as a whole, as in 
attributes, poets have called such a series too a nominal base, e. g. (with case- 
terminations) 5&>o?o3 S)d^x 

32tfd ^obo^d d?3o; riora 

CS CO ^ "o 

69. A word is termed tv or 3Jd in grammar, sjrf, however, has 
two additional meanings, signifying also either a nominal base ( 68) 
with a case-termination (vibhakti) attached to it (namapada) or a verbal 
theme (dhatu, 50) with a personal termination (vibhakti) attached to 
it (ukhyfitapada, kriyapada, 144. 192). 

70. Not only Kannada words do belong to the nominal bases or crude 
nouns (linga, namalinga, namaprnkriti), but, as seen in 68, also words 
that have been adopted from Saiiiskrita. These often exhibit the form 


they have in Samskrita dictionaries, in which case they are called 
,3 terms, e. y. 




O Q 

71. Another series of nominal bases called 33 s3o terms which have 


not been borrowed from Samskrita, but of which nearly all exist in the 
same shape in Kanuada as well as in Samskrita, are 5o^, esortre, e5J, 
s^fej or tfjs^y.), rtre, 

., , 

(c/. S252, 3). Also the nominal bases jj'^e)^!],. siooa^oO are tatsauias. 

MM f <*> 

72. Samskrita particles (avyaya) as o^c^, EOcoO*, 4^0^, O r Samskrita 
pronouns (sarvanama) as ^ Dtf > ^ > oion^, or Samskrita participles ending in 93* 
(sattrinanta) as ^j ra3 S djorss 5 , t^jj^s 5 , cannot form by themselves declinable 
bases in Kannada; but compound bases (samasalinga) with a final vowel, of 
which they form the first member, are declinable, e. g. a^^Joraj, jjjotiort, 

333?r; 4.^^ ^dj^rf, OJO^OSJ; 


73. The Samskrita numerals (saukhyavaci) o^, Qj, 

sec 86), sl&J*, 7o^ (?orf,55*), e5^ (^c5*"), N^ (rf^?s e ), rfs! (SsipS*) are indeclinables -, 
but with suffixes (pratyaya) in the form of 0,^3^, ^,^oJJ, ^^^, rfo^^, ^^, TJ^, 
and in compounds (samasa), as assort, Q^^ooa), ^djs?^, iS^j 
Sor, rf^Ojtrf, w^^ozs, ^^s^, dsJ^atora ( O f which they form 
the first member), they are declinable bases in Kannada. 

74. Samskrita words with final w, e. g. 3J3CJ2 (which is one of the tatsamas 
in 71), W303, 33^3, aejss, sns,, 6?a33, change this w into <o to become declinable 
bases in Kannada, in which case they appear as Srad, wsd, 333, wy^, 

or are <oaO3^ terms. 

75. As an exception to rule 74 the Samskrita words 3*^03, efurfsL 
539^^3, do^ ?D, ssyo^ and others change their final w into ^ to become 
declinable bases in Kannada, appearing therein as ^$3, sro3^, etc. or being 


76. When the Samskrita words f^tss and $53 are used as declinable bases 
in Kannada, they appear as (y3 or (V,^, $^ or $# 

77. Some Samskrita words with final (^5303^ terms), u/2. ^^, $O3s!, 
enjcjs^dra, d^r, ^^, QA^>^ and ^^ (/'. 74), change this v into oi to become 
declinable bases in Kannada, and then appear as 3d, ezpsssi, etc. 

78. Sathskrita words with final * (^5303^ terms), e.g. w* fc . rP3, ^^3, 
53^0^?, 330?, always change their ^ into "S to become declinable bases in 
Kannada, and then appear as w^^, n^D, etc. 


79. Samskrita polysyllabic words ($W*d$U) with final 

terras), e. g. rodoi>J3, ?rraj^, aifcs-er, ^o5o^oj|^, so^sgp, change their A> into w to 
become declinable bases in Kannada, and then appear as sWoJoo, ^ra^, etc. 

80. All Samskrita monosyllabic terms (Oss^cJsJu ), e . g. %, 3ra, 333,, |,<, 
r^? 5 zp, zjS^, 5\o, remain unchanged when used as declinable bases in Kannada. 

81. As a rule Samskrita words ending in ^ (Kb^soa^ terms), e. g. &^, 
?to^, rfsj^, 5^F"i <3^ d> 3oJS>e^> 33dJ3^, djoo^, Sjs^, qra^ remain unchanged 
when used as declinables in Kannada. 

93^ however, often takes the form of $3^, also in 3 re 3^ 3, and that of 53^ 
in az?3^,. For the afo in &^ the substitute <3tf (oad<5J) may be used, so that 
&^ appears as &^d- 

82. The declinable base of ^sO may become *>& in Kannada. 

83. The second class of Samskrita words that are used as nominal bases 
in Kannada are such as end in consonants (Z^oBcSaf^ terms) 5 but before they 
become Kannada declinables, they have to undergo various changes, as will be 
seen from 84-89. 

84. The Samskrita words 3&, ^vs*, 2^00*, 3;>&>3, zwzjj*, tttq*, 3rt&&, 
s^o 6 , sjoon*, To^doJjTJ 5 , rtoraspats 6 ', ^saoJJTJ 5 , ?o^c e and others add *=> (^) to their 
finals, and become 83, ^ (cf. 85), d&d, etc. 

85. The Samskrita words x 6 , a^s* (B^z?*), ^^si3 ff (sj,dzia*), srfoa* (aSotJ 6 ), 

^dJ.3 s , as>3 ff (SdC^), Si03o3 ff , Z^SaS*, ^^ (^j^ 5 )' ^^^ 

c/. 84), QJJ* (^^) ^5^^ ( 53 5^^ ff ). ^^ (a^ 6 ) and 
others double their final consonant (or take SJ^F'SJ) and add 
^Ssi^, scowo^, etc. 

86. The Samskrita words oaasjs*, 

20,^ 5 and others drop their final (or take ^^do^), e . g, oaas, dojsrfr, etc. 

But ^>?3jj3 ff and en/a^cS*' dropping their 3 s become ^^ and 

87. The Samskrita words tiritf, 383^, 3oii^, rfo5j?3 5 , 

either drop their final consonant, or double it and attach eft), in which case 
they appear in Kaunada as oi>sJ or oksJroo, i?a or i &?&>,, ^oii or ^QJJ^O, 
sJoij or sJohrio, Sjrf or 3jrfrf^, ^,oij O r ^,a5o^o. 

88. The Samskrita word aso 6 remains as it is; A?o* (A0 ff ) does so too, 
but appears also as A6. 

89. Lastly, the nominative plural in Samskrita of some Samskrita words, 
after having dropped its visarga, is used as a nominal base, e.g. S^rf (of ^ )> 

(of Oi>03$ 5 ), e^rf (of ^^c3 5 ), rf'SJaOJJ (of *>lO), 233.od3DO?o (of aSg 
?o (of S'SCOJO?^), SC330?J (of a^73 s ), JjJS^^ (of ^3^3 e ), ^?^J^ (of l,? 



The grammarian Kesava does not class the apabhramsa or tadbhava word- 
( 370) with the words given in 74-79. 81. 82. 84-89, probably because he 
did not consider the changes they undergo in order to become declinable bases 
so essential as those of the tadbhavas. 

90. In $ 68 it has been stated that first there are four classes of 
declinable bases (lingas) in Kannada, viz. ^orf. 

Besides these we have a fifth class called ?d53Fo5a>53J, pronouns, e. ;/. 
'ack, srodo, wdjrfj, owd), s3S33j, >$*', together with the enj* , 

00 ' 

words, wo, (f3e>o), >o, sso (see 102, 8, letters a and 6; 137, a, i, 
255 se</.); a sixth class called rtorasd&ci, rtj353a>z3 or r 
attributive nouns or adjectives, e. g. toS?,;^), ^jO^o, WrocSj, esA)d>, 

Hf> oo 

^oO^o (see 8 273, sea.); and a seventh class called isjo23 or ?ooso 

(v, V. O fo 

numerals and appellative nouns of number, e. g. ao^j , oidzl), 5JoJSC3o, 


ZuS^F, (and, with the termination of the nominative plural, 
dojsrio*, etc., and also sj^s^), ^o^, SJ^^D*, ^^SJD*, see 278, 4). 

Thus there are 7 classes of declinable bases in Kannada. 

A subdivision of the numerals may perhaps be adduced as an 8th 
class, viz. the four words 3^30, oa^^o, ero^^o. oj^o, eO^>oo that express 


indefinite quantity (nirviseshapavan; see 278, 3. 4). 

Regarding the avyayalingas or adverbial declinable bases see 281. 

91. What has been said regarding verbal themes ( 47. 51 seq.) 
that they are monosyllabic, dissyllabic, etc., applies also to the Kannada 
nominal bases or crude nouns (namalinga) of the ancient dialect. 

92. In modern Kannada all monosyllabic true Kannada nominal 
bases with a final consonant generally appear as dissyllabic, and all 
dissyllabic ones as trisyllabic; in the mediaeval dialect the two kinds 
are optionally used as dissyllables and trisyllables. The lengthening. 

a rule, is done by the addition of a euphonic vu to facilitate pronun- 
ciation (cf. 48. 54 seq.); monosyllabic nominal bases ending in oU* 
may likewise use the vowel *a to become dissyllabic (cf. the euphonic 
oa of 54; see 93), doubling or not doubling their final. 

93. Monosyllabic true Kannada nominal bases of the ancient dialect 
end in consonants (or are ^koSi^Df^ terms), these consonants being ?, 



otf, cS (t5<), s , v*, and &y (c/! 61), e. #. 

(s?5*). See some exceptional forms in 121, a, and c/. 
the remark under 96. 

In mediaeval Kannada the above terms are also dissyllabic, viz. 

, 33) WO, 

In modern Kannada they are dissyllabic (as far as they are used 
therein); but see the exceptional forms in 120, c. 

94. Dissyllabic true Kannada nominal bases of tbe ancient dialect 
ending in consonants are e. g. 

See a few exceptional forms in 


121, a. 

In mediaeval Kannada the above terms may become trisyllables by 
adding a euphonic en); in modern Kannada they always are such (as 
far as they are used in it), e. g. era A) do, ^$do, ^rJCSo. 

Observe that ancient 23??te becomes rfcTte, and ancient <ae^tt becomes ^& 
in modern Kannada. 

95. There are a few trisyllabic true Kannada nominal bases with a 
final consonant in the ancient dialect, e.g. ^53 9 roo*, S^We&o*, ^>p?j> &. 
The last term occurs in the mediaeval dialect also as 3aJ3?o<^o (with the 
euphonic ero), i. e. quadrisyllable; but in the same dialect and in modern 
Kannada is trisyllabic too, viz. 

96. Dissyllabic true Kannada nominal bases ending in vowels 
terms) are used in the same shape as well in ancient and mediaeval as 
in modern Kannada (as far as they occur in it). The final vowels are 
S3, r a, ero and oj. With regard to the bases with final sro it is to be 
observed that, in this case (see the contrary in 97), this vowel may 
somehow originally have been euphonic., as it is nearly always elided 
before a following vowel in sandhi (see 213 seq., also the optional use 
in 215, 4), and as we have =5e>20 for ^do, and ^fc^O* for 

35 - 

We give the following instances: skrt, 3d, ^oCJ, tfJStf, 3d, ^d, 



Observe that dvSe>s3) occurs also as sjjs, id as 3dJ), rfd as 
cSd as j5d4, ^^ as ?5J?)^sJj, tod as wos, toV* as lo^sjjj tne unradical 
eru being suffixed by means of a euphonic 53*. 


Kesava in the sutras and vrittis of his Sabdamanidarpana (but not in the 
instances given) occasionally adds a final euphonic era to the suffixes ^o* and 
we;*, so that they appear as &&> and eJJ (see pages 120. 121. 123. 124. 147. 
278. 296 of the Mangalore edition) and treats them according to the rule laid 
down in 215, 4. Also with regard to the suffixes w^i, w$, ^o, ^^, e^ 
he does so (pages 264. 265). Compare also the & (for wo*) in 119, a, i; 
the 2*> (for eej^) in 109, a, 7 ; 120, a, 7; 121, a, i; 187, i; the z-^ (for 
in 109, a, 7; see ^^ $?rio in a verse quoted in 271. 

97. There are a number of true Kannada dissyllabic nominal bases 
with final eru in which this vowel is not euphonic but radical, and are, 
therefore, never elided before a following vowel in sandhi, in this respect 
resembling the final SAJ of the Samskrita nominal bases rtodo, 

035), ^^ i etc - S ucn bases are e. g. S5?l>, ^^o, ^SSo, =^^o, 


^oC5j, sJCOo, e^)0o, siodo (see 128), and their euphonic letter in sandhi 
is 3\(215, 3, d). 

98. Trisyllabic true Kannada nominal bases which end in the vowels 
ss, 'a, ?ru and to, the ero being like that of 96, are e. g. 



(see also Jd^) etc. in 96); 

The bases cOddo and ^-s^rfo are also dissyllabic, appearing as 
and &s3)W<. 

99. As quadrisyllable true Kannada nominal bases which are not plain 
taddhitalinga words ( 68, 2) may bo mentioned zoridrt and ^cLj^ (see also $ 95). 
Quinquesyllabic and sexisyllabic Kannada words, as esrtdo^rf, {Se^otoja 
are plain taddhitalinga terms. 



Taddhitalinga terms will be treated of separately in 243. 

100. As will be seen, from the Kannada-English Dictionary very 
many true Kannada nominal bases (lingas) are identical as to form with 
verbal themes (or are Foaoaqrs^J terms), e. g. weJj pursuing; esz^o, 


piling; e5j3o, cooking; ?5a , embrace; ycie^, flower; e$d, ground state; 


esd, wave; ws^o^o, pressing firmly; *5S?s3), hankering after; ss^o,, fear; 


destruction; tjrta, coming to pass; wdo, motion; -^c&j, putting; 
swimming; erurtaeo*, spittle; SAJ^J, making loose; y\j&, fragment; 


, swelling; eroO, burning; en^or, rising; en}&3orto, crookedness; 
sound; eroe^ 9 , remaining; SAPS'*, outcry; o^&S*, waking; 


raising; ^&33, pouring; >e3a, rising; &oC9rt>, drying; ^rt, fitness; 


reading; ^^J binding; ^a, cutting; =3!^, theft; : ff^o3J*, unripe fruit; 


=00^^, cuckoo; ^oljj blow; ^o^o*, coolness; ^jsrao limping; 

50 6v 

crying as a peacock does; ^ct, obstacle; ^rfor, training, etc.; 
blame; J^rb, belching; Ijsc^^o, entanglement; cj^rso passing over; 


walk; ?SJS^o, looking on, etc.; ^, flowering; sSs^or, increase; 
fear; C^, seed; ^?1), soldering: e3s?, crop; rfoe^or, fondness; 
infatuation; ^JSsJ*, saying, word; etc., etc. See 242. 

Such nominal bases represent the true &}Q>53o3z3c3 or <Sa>53o3a>23 terms 
or verbal nouns, signifying the abstract notion of a verb either as to 
state or action. Regarding bhavavacanas see 243 and the paragraphs 
quoted there. 

Other nominal bases are formed by adding e. g. w or oj to the verbal 
theme, as ^ (from ^^), TZW (from jroo 5 ), iaJ3e3 (from &ej*), ^^ 
(from ^eJo); these and other formatives will be treated of in 243. 

Several nominal bases have a form in the ancient dialect that differs from 
that which they have in the mediaeval and modern one, e. g. ^GM^ sto^, ^po^, 
aK i (see 233). 

101. Kannada nominal bases derived from verbal themes by altering 
their radical vowel (cf. 66 and see 242), are e.g.. -Ssd) (from 'azty), 
(from >zSo), ?jJ3<^j (from ?djc^o), ^dj (from c3oj, ?!> (from 
Jj5?do (from 3ocly), ^J3^j (from ^o^o). 

Others alter that vowel and add a formative vowel to the final con- 
sonant, as 3C3 3 (from -o-es^), JSi 3 (from sea*), ^s3 (from 


102. (Theoretically) it may be said (the grammarian Kcsava teaches) that, 
according to properties and qualities, there are eight genders (lingas) for the 
seven declinable bases (lingas, prakritis, 67. 68. 90), and that there is also, 
as a ninth kind, a gender of particles (avyayalinga). Compare 11';. 
(Remark that the term 'linga' thus has two distinct grammatical meanings.) 

The nine genders are the following: 

1, The masculine gender (pum, pullinga, purusha). It is seen in the names 
of men, male deities and demons, e.g. wre^, 33^, 3d, fc?dx!, d<3, ?kd, w*kcJ, and in 
those of some animals, e. g. aSOre, #js?ra, adori, a$?iojo, ristfr, 

2, The feminine gender (strl, strilinga). It appears in the names of the 
female sex of the human race, of deities and of demons, e. g. 3aoi3 6 , w^, ws^, 
e3,, esdA, da, rPO, 3,re3, ca^A. 

3, The neuter gender (nappu, napumsaka, napumsakalinga). To this 
belongs everything which is destitute of reason whether animate (Setana) or 
inanimate (aSctana), e- g. $&, ^ or5 . ^ort, ai>i rt& (but sec Nos. 1 and 5); ft 3, 

4, The masculine-feminine, i.e. common or epicene gender (pumstrllinga). 
This is seen in the plural of nouns and demonstrative (see No. 8, remark 
pronouns ($3o, 'sao, sroSo) wherein the sume suffix o ego*) is added to 
masculines and feminines without regard to sex, e. g. 'Siac* ^tfosSo*, ^30* ^oi) 
o*; eso^ rtrao e , yao* s5do s ; rojit3< d?So*, eru3o* d?soijo s . cy. 119. 132. 

It is seen also in the singular, namely in that of iJJc:i_, which term by itself 
is masculine and feminine. Cf. 243, B, 1. 

5, The masculine-neuter gender (punnapumsakalinga). This is found in 
the nouns oa (or ?oJSoi)F), a;j (or tfri ), doorty, U)^, z^ao^S, &>%, sis, 

(the nine planets, navagraha), w* (see 120), *J?te, tJ^ 
and 3O3^, which are used either as masculines or neuters. 

') The Kannada grammar called Nudigattu (p. 1'2'_') says that e.g. 3-e?5?rSj, sl)on?Sj have 

their verb in the neuter, e.g. * eas!o&> lufSJ Ae?Vfio '33J/. s3oon^SJ Stu *AiiJ3rf; but 

*" ts -* 

that animals, if they aro introduced as speaking, have their verb in the masculine, as ^-^ 

?Jj Tatf sj pi), or in the feminine, as tosSosJ 'afS * VJ. 
.<s ; ca 

! ' With regard to masculine and feminine terms the Nudigattu (p. 122) says that in dis- 

dain (Adsj^rf) they may be used as neuters, e.g. $^ rtrs >=io Cj 

wrfo fjjs^ao, e ft!\5rf. In a Bombay sohoolbook we 

find likewise: 3 aSoart ioSj. cSj?jtJj 

The Nudigattu (p. 120) says that such is also done in ignorance (was?!), i.e. if tho oon- 
ones are ignorunt, <.//. aljaonOj wso^rf; j3jn u^o.; aSjcijrf sro^d| sSjes^t^d 

sJj coo <fd, -aaflO isij *rfl, ed. In a 

Bombay schoolbook we find likewise: fta nn^dO iiSo. 

t t* w 

38 - 

6, The feminine-neuter gender (strfnapumsa, strinapumsakalinga). This 
is used for the nouns 33**, &?^, AO, rids^ and c3e3J, which are treated either 
as feminities or neuters. 

7, The masculine-feminine-neuter gender (trilinga). This is employed e.g. 
for the words wo, SKO, 33o ( 8e e No. 8, letter a, cf. 256), and the nouns 5*>, 
aorios?, dJrio^, 5rJ3?oo, j?.as), sir?, ^tf, ydrio, 3do3>, which are either of the 
masculine or feminine or neuter gender. 

8, The adjective gender (vaeyalinga) or the gender that depends on the 
word which is to be distinguished or defined (viseshyadhtnalinga). 

This gender comprises 

a) the words (ukti, sabda) ^o (5330), so, 330 ( 90). 


Neither Kesava nor Nagavarma (sutra 99) reckon Wo, jxo, 330 among the 
pronouns (sarvanama), though Europeans would call the first two the personal 
pronouns, and the last one the reflexive (reciprocal) pronoun. In order to 
distinguish them from the pronouns mentioned under letter b let us call the 
three words simply 'pronouns' here. 

b) the pronouns (sarvanama, 90) IJ , viz. &, 'Srio, wd), wsgcfc, coy do, 
edo (neuter) 2J ; a?!* (masculine, feminine, neuter, see 255. 262) ; 

, eruSo, 5j63o (masculine); was*, gas*, ova?*, Sjess? 5 (feminine); *^o, 
(masculine); wtf, ^^, enja^ (feminine); c/. also *, ^, yvs in 264. 


Both Kesava and Nagavarma (sutras 42. 49. 66. 102) call these terms 
sarvanama. d>, t|do, enjdo, sSa^), Sjodo, ^^rfJ, ?5^o, ndo, eroSo, Sjeso^ ws? 1 ^, 
'gSP 5 , ero^? 15 , Sjesv*, w^o, ^^o, enjs^o, #, &$, ara^ are what Europeans call 
demonstrative pronouns, and w^do, (Wdo, wdv 5 , oiasridj, aiJ3^rfo, cxJ3D^s#0), OeS 5 
are what they call interrogative pronouns. To distinguish these pronouns from 
those under letter a we may term them ' adjectival pronouns ' in this place. 

*' In Samskrita ;333F^;>53J means originally ' a class of words beginning with SjSr (^53r 
, enj^i, etc.)' under which native grammarians have included also the real pronouns 

, I, ^0, thou, !, he, etc.). 
*) As seen in the Dictionary under tscSo, the Basavapurana and Jaiminibharata occasion- 
ally use the pronoun SE!J in combination with masculine terms (see 270). The Nudigattu 
(p. 122) says that in disdain (Sd^d) esrio, 'ScSo and their plurals es4> ^4 are used for 
males and females, e. g. esrio (for sssJfSo or ssdvo) tfjaSS; s$ (for ess3dj) 

It (p. 162) further says that in order to express positiveness (&& odjs>qjr) srf^ and 
are combined with masculine terms and feminine terms, e.g. *cS? 
w.; sd 

?J tforfrt^o: 'aS? tafSSo esO d do. (In such a case w and 

. ""a 

might be used instead; thus: * Cj^iilsSAc 6re?iJ *fJ fiij d sSort?5? 


About possessive pronouns see 272, and about indefinite ones 290. 

c) so-called Kannada adjectives (gunavaeana, $ 90, clearly formed in this 
case from nouns by means of pronominal suffixes, see 276), such as fStOdo 
(masculine), c^Orfe* (feminine), 3?03o or 3<03o ( nou t er ); 'SSioJJo ( m .), TJSo3ov< (f.), 
'SSici) (n.), and Saihskrita adjectives (which partly are used also as nominal 
bases, 68, 4, i), e.g. rtodo, wa^, &'&>, *&& a$3rea, naa, $a< 

d) so-called adjective compounds (bahuvrihi, 249), e. g. 

e) verbal bases (krit, krillinga), e. g. EDQdo (of 35D<2d, masculine), 
(of 333Qd, feminine), ssaQdodj ( O f ad, neuter); nsdoio ( O f 333C&3, m.), 

(of 333do3, f.), zncfoddo ( O f Backs, n .). See 68, I. 177. 180. 185. 198, 3. 7, 
remark 1; 253, 2, c; 254. 

f) bases with certain suffixes (taddhita, taddhitaliiiga, 68, 2), e.g. ios 
*, zsjsoatf, dJ33D?, t?oix^?, s!?ocJ ; o<?, SoesJ^os? (see 243). 

g) numerals (sankhye, 90), e. g. ^tfod (sa^d, Tjand), because it is put 
before nouns in the plural whether these are masculines, feminines or neuters. 
See 278, i. 

9, The gender of particles (avyayalinga), although they are unchangeable 
(avikara, avikrita). It appears in words like ^a*do (masculine), (taici** (femi- 
nine), tiStojh (neuter), in which from the particle (avyaya) ^^ (cf. 273), by 
adding ^+D + o, ^+^ + $59* and r 3+& (see 276), a masculine, feminine 
and neuter term has been formed, so that one may say that &Q in such a case 
represents three genders; and then in the particles or adverbs themselves 
(avyaya, nipata, 212. 281) used to modify the sense of a verb, e. g. ^J8?o3r^, 
^jafej^, B'dyS, *o4y5j ^^i which so to say are of the gender of the agent (kartri, 
344) of the verb to which they belong, the agent (whether actually given or 
only understood by the verbal termination) being either masculine, feminine or 
neuter, and being in any of the three grammatical numbers (vacanatraya, 
vafcanatritaya, 107). 

103. Although the nine genders (Kesava continues) mentioned in 
102 are occasionally accepted and used (kvacitprayoga), practically 
there are only three genders (lingatraya) ia Kannada, ri-z. the masculine, 
feminine and neuter. Words denoting males (purushavficaka) are of 
the masculine gender, e. g. 3rf, Oe>si>, $?s3j, e5tf;3; words denoting 
females (strivficaka) are of the feminine gender, e.g. sra^r-S, >& t , ?33 
S3, &i&, 6ja?3or3, ffe>3o$, epa>a-, drforS, sj, 3>a3:*; uiul all other 


words, whether Saiuskrita or Kannada, are of the neuter gender, 

^Sv' &^> $^> ^ a ' ^ 3 ' ^^' ^ ? ^' 3rt, r^j, tj*,, s3)3 
y., tsu., ^d, ^^, ^^.a, *ti*. cf. us. no. 

W 50 "^ 



If it happens to be necessary to distinguish the sex of any animal, (tree, 
river, etc.). rtre^, male, and & 6 . (^ ra ^, ^^> ^ ra ^) < female, are prefixed. 

104. As a special rule it is to be stated that the terras &c3, SoS3K?5, and 
(jn the sense of 'man', 'men') are neuter in Kannada, whereas the terms 

rias rf, and ?3o&3 are masculine; but ?o& 3, if it denotes a woman of 
good family (kulastrt), is neuter. Likewise ^J,. wife, and &&, child (whether 
male or female) are of the neuter gender. 

In metaphorical diction (rupaka) a substantive (viseshya) in the neuter may 
represent a feminine noun, as <3y, the earth, may mean i^333$i, the earth 
considered as a woman ( 239); or an attribute (visesha), e. g. Krt^^rre, may 
be masculine, feminine or neuter according to the gender of the noun to which 
it refers (239). 

105. For the seven (or eight declinable bases (linga, prakriti) 
adduced above ( 68. 90) there are seven (sapta) cases (vibhakti) and 
case-terminations (vibhakti, namavibhakti, pratyaya). 

106. The names of the seven cases are slqjsl) or the English nomina- 
tive, a,3?C& or the E. accusative, ;^<l?03b or the E. instrumental, 2^0 

r or the E. dative, sjo^^io or the E. ablative, 35l& or the E. genitive, 

and Zo^iDo or the E. locative. (About the vocative see 140.) 

107. Kannada declinable bases have two numbers (vaeana), viz. the 
singular (ekavacana, ekate, ekatva, ekokti) and the plural (bahuvacana, 
bahute, bahutva). 

A third number, the dual (dvitva, dvivacana), may be thought of with 
propriety (ucita, aucitya), that is when two persons forming a pair are 
so introduced that the first one is without a case-termination and the 
second one has a termination of the plural, e.g. ^d-JdWOF^o*, o>53o 
w^ ipc 4 , N^ot)?o3dcS^D*; or when objects are mentioned that exist as 

pairs in nature, e.g. =rsv", ^J3dri<s^, i^v* ^ (see 102, 9). 

108. The case-terminations are attached to the end of a declinable 
base, and therefore are suffixes. 

109. The instances of the case-terminations (or their series, vibhaktimale) 
are taken from writings of the three periods; if from inscriptions (sasanas), 
they are marked by 'in a sasana'. The period of the written ancient dialect 
extends from about 600 to 1250 A. D., that of the mediaeval dialect from about 
1250 to 1600 A. D., and that of the modern one from about 1600 A. D. to the 
present time. Compare ^ 32, note. 

The terminations for the singular of neuter bases ending in ea are the 

f () in tho anciont dialect 

1, Nominative o,e.g. 3odo (of aod), ^poo (of &>->), 3uo ( O f f5w), tDuo 
(of 3 u), tf^o (of tfW ), tfowo (of stow). 

Tho o or tf-Of^ whon followed by a vowel, becomes 3*. 3s , or a* (see 215, 8). 

2, Accusative 53 o, *. y. SJCirfo ( O f 3JO). 3pt>3o ( o f ^pJ), jSojio ( O f So), 
tfwsJo (of fly), or tf^aoo ( O f soeJj), ri&J^o ( O f riU,), 3os^3oo ( O f aStf,), tf.e<^ooo 

(Of T?J8fy, U^300( fUfy. 

It will be observed that in this kind of accusative either the augment (agama) 
3* or the augment so* is, for tho sake of euphony, inserted between tho base 
and termination. 

In true Kannada words it is optional which of the two augments may be 
employed; but in Samskrita words the 3s 6 is always required, e. g. 
(of voej) ) lasjsjo (of t^y), w^e33j^oo (of 3dd?sJ). 

3, Instrumental ^o, ^o, 'SN, <O, e.g. 3od)o ( o f 
jjicxJoa^o (of JiJoJj), TO oJoQ^o (of ?ipdj); ^oJoO?3 (of tiJoij), oarlO^ ( O f 03rt) } 
(of OT^dra)- ^^jjS (of ^>ao), NOJjtf (of sojj), zjJoJod ( O f i^oJj). 

In this case the terminations are annexed to the base by means of the 

augment 3, that is the secondary termination of the genitive, q. v., tho final 43 

of w losing its sound when it coalesces with the terminations or in sandhi 
(213 seq.) . 

T)rf o and 'MfS are forms of ^o lengthened by the addition of the suffixes o 

GQ Co * 

(in the later dialect J) and <o, and stand for ^ and ^N, the c ff being simply 
euphonic or a help to enunciation. 

The first three terminations of tho instrumental are often used also for the 
ablative, e. a- 3o*)3r3o, ea,3 3J3ofiQo, wrf 3o, 3s?rU>tfQ3o, S^rtjstfa^. See i} 352 

U A C& ijS 

4 a, 1 A-eg 1 . 

4, Dative 3, , c. g. *&# or siod^ (of sod), <3o# or 8o^ (of J3J), 4( J^ 
or ^w 1 ^ (of JSsy), u$3 or 2J?o^ (of Wei), s\>wtf or ^ow^ (of s'JW). 

The doubling is optional (see g 371 regarding it). * ( = "*, >i HT, , 4) 
with the vowel -o (or with the vowels ^, ~, &-) conveys the meaning of pointing 
at or exciting attention to. Cf. -*, ^-^, c ^-^, ^-5-", 'S-^-et, ^-^t in the 
Dictionary, and see also in 265 the * of *, ^ 

5, Ablative ^r3o, 'J^cfo o, W^PSrS, e.^r. ao^d^do (of 

(of s3orf); zSU^ddo (of zSUp; rt^d^rfj (of 

The suffixes ?3^r3o, e5^rf,^o, 533 r&3 ar e tho ablative of ^. that side, moan- 

_S _J Jj ' _8 Q^ -J 

ing 'from that side' (see $ 123, a, 5). They aro att:u-hod t. tlio lu<r that hu- 
tho secondary ^ of the genitivo. 


In the dialect of the present time tMofrif^ or ^dcOo^, both meaning 'from 
the side', are occasionally used to imitate the form of this so-called case. 

The terminations ^o, ^^o, ^^ of the instrumental are, as has been stated 
under No. 3, often employed for the ablative. 

6, Genitive d, C3e>, e.g. 3odd (of sod), 3Jc& (of aorf); ^d^ro (in a 
sasana between 597-608 A. D.), s^rro, 3?$rcra (i n sasana of 804 A. D.). 

The suffix d is not the primitive termination of the genitive. It is composed 
of n*, a letter of euphony facilitating pronunciation, and w, the real termination 
of the sixth case (see 120, a, 6). as is 3* + y, i.e. a long form of & Of. 
the lengthening of the genitive in 117, a, 6; 119, a, 6; 120, a, 6; 128, a, 
6; 130, a, 6; 131, a, 6; that of the accusative in 122, , 2. About the o* see 
also 119, a, i; and compare also the euphonic oij' in 130, a, 6. 

If ' drf ' of the word, in the Sabdamanidarpana, page 53, is not a mistake 
for ^dd, the existence of the termination rf (i. e. euphonic 3 s + w, = & + e ) of the 
mediaeval and modern period is proved already for the ancient period; cf. the 
S in ^Jsyrftf under the locative, and cSeJ&isdak (c3ys!+ ^c3oi>) in 243, B, 23. 

Regarding the augments & and $ 6 compare the augments os* and S3* in 
122, a, 6. 

7, Locative ?ro<?*, fc^, Sw^o, 2otfri, S5O*, SS^J, S5, '3,, e. g. S33dra3)2 
rfj^ (in a sasana of 689-696 A. D.), sgprsF^tosldJV*, a^orfrfov 5 , nsrarfo^ (in a 
sasana of 707 A.D.); aoddjs^, So^djav 6 ', ^js^djsv^ ; ^rfdjs^o, ^j^^djss^o (in a 
sasana of 1084 A. D.), :S?c3j2tfj, aotfdetfo (in a sasana of 1123 A. D.); 20^ 
djs^rt ; w^rdy* (i n a sasana of 1181 A. D.) ; z^aoJ^saddyo, s302j33nrft>o (in a 
sasana of 1132 A.D.); 3OC33tfrfyj, wasadd^o, ^^dwo (in a sasana of 1182 
A.D.) ; ^Ja^d^, ws!de ; agjsyrfO (which form occurs in a sasana of 1186 A. D.); 
*odo if ?^,Q (in a sasana of 1187 A. D.). 

The suffixes A>v 6 , ^v*, ^tfo, z^tfrt mean 'inside', 'within', and wo*, 
(c/ 1 . remark in 188), ^<2 niean 'place', 'in a place'; ^ is composed of 
and the termination "9; the e^ of 2^^J and ^^-> is a help to enunciation or eupho- 
nic (cf. 92. 96, remark). The suffixes are added to the base by means of the 
d (i.e. 0* + ^) or rf (. e. ?5 5 + t?) o f the genitive. 

6) in the mediaeval dialect 

1, Norn, o, ?3o, ^), and (the nominal base itself without any termination, 
i. e.) the crude base, e. g. 3orfo ( O f slid), ^JS^o ( O f ^J3^), Joo ( O f ^es); fiortrfo (of 
(of 3ra), ^jscsrfo ( O f cSjsra), Sodrfo ( O f sod), aofs^o ( O f aora), siiaa&i (of 

! (of ?r?J), rtOfS^) (of I^Jra), S3J3^ (of 3-03^), ^(O^J3o^) (of 

^?J, arf, dod, aojo, oc 

In NJ and ^ the o or ^-8^ has been changed into ?* and ^ , to which the 
euphonic sru has been added (regarding which see e. g. the locative under letter 
a; $ 92. 111. 112. 113. 119. 121. 125. 126). 

43 - 

Compare the crude base for the nominative in the ancient dialect in 110. 
120. 121. 122. 123. 125. 126. 127. 128. 

2, Ace. Wo, 3f3o, *3, 3r$,, * ff> dodrfo, 3o3 

J, &8ci3?iO; 

, WorfSo, 

aid, s'ouS, drid, riS ?a 

The euphonic augments 3', 3o and s are inserted between the base and 
the terminations. fcJNO j s c with the euphonic SAJ; in s^ the termination ^o 
has taken the form of wrf, and its final has been doubled on account of euphony. 

Concerning compare the w of the genitive ( 120, a, 6), and see the remark 
on the accusative in the ancient dialect in 117, a, -. 

3, Instr. *ao, ^NO, -s^, "atf^, "arf, *a, . 

A ta 

v oiJOrf ; OrfO, Sl'BDtfQ, 
i a ca ' ^ 

in which 

of the genitive in 

(in a sasana of 

In ^^^1 (z. e. ^o+n* + w^) the o has been changed into s* to which 
the euphonic SAJ has been added; ^^ has dropped the ^-df^. The 'S is another 
form of the ancient > of the instrumeatal. C^. the note under *3 2 in the 
Dictionary and see also 151, 4, 2, and the close of 282. 

4, Dat. 3, 3,, g. ^. ^^#, 

5, Abl. 5^^o, 533^^ 
the &(^ has been dropped. 

6, Gen. d, ^, e. y. JWdd; 

The augment c3*, like a*, is euphonic. Compare the 
109, a; 117, a, 6, c. 

7, Loc. SwSP, fco^J, ktfrt, ewo, S30, es, a, e. 
eructedstfrt; ^wdwo (in a sasana of 1509 A. D.), 
1533 A. D.); z3ridO, partd, ^jrfdO; sgitia. 

^^ is a curtailed form of ^^,- 
For the augment E occasionally 3* is used, as in 
C) in the (later and) modern dialect 

1, Kom. &,, 5^, and (most frequently) the crude base, e.g. 3oat>& ( o f 
sJo ( O f Sod), Adrio ( O f Ad); ^^.^^ (of ^^,*), 33*^ (of 
( O f dJd), ajj^d^ ( O f oSrfrf), wtfrtd (of satfrt); Ad, sod. 
, ^, and (most frequently) the crude bases, e.g. 
23uarfo; wartds-^, ^arf^, sa^ds^, Adarf^, 3od3j^; 
tfwrid, AdS, dodS, ^ds, ^S3 ; w^ (of w^, ^ba (of 

(of 333C5), ^?C33 (of $d), rfjJOT> ( O f SJ2e3), 3dR3 (of a^C8), a5V3, ( O f *^) J 

Ad, sod. 

The euphonic augments are s 6 and S*; in t?^ the final of & has been 
doubled for the sake of euphony ; the w is attached to the crude base. 


, 2Jo3o (of ues), 
, Ac&5( fAd), 
2, Ace. 


3, Instr. 's.rS 'a, e 

4, Dat. =$, il, e.g. 

5, Abl. ^3 e. g. , 


The augment ^ is the same as c*. 

6, Gen. c3 C3> ?5, e. g 

The lengthened era appears frequently in poetry. 

7, Loc. 

110. In ancient Kannada no nominal bases receive the o or 

" <, 

in the nominative singular, except masculine, a few feminine (see 102, 2), 
and neuter bases with final e5. 

Words of which the crude base forms the nominative singular, are e.g. 

See some exceptions in 111, and 109 under b i. 

111. In the mediaeval dialect, as has been stated in 93 and 94, 
nominal bases ending in a consonant may receive a final euphonic pro, 
in which case their nominative singular shows such an ero, e.g. ^rro, 

=5^0, ^OJ, ^O^, 23(3^, 5^0, 3^0,, S^JO^O, ^00^0,. 

Exceptionally this is the case in the ancient dialect too, as we find 
in a sasana of about 778 A. D. also sjori^o (for doris 5 *), in one of 1048 
A. D. =5^0 (for ^3*), in one of 1084 A. I). erusoo (for yxoo*), in one of 
1123 A. D. 3ojsddo (for ^J3dc*), in one of 1182 A. D. 
(for djafe, Aias? 4 ), and in one of 1187 A. D. sjo^do (for 

112. In modern Kannada, as will be seen from the same paragraph^, 
nominal bases with a final consonant generally receive the euphonic y\), 
and their nominative singular, therefore very often ends in such an yv. 

113. A strange peculiarity of modern Kannada writings, especially 
of school-books, which begins to appear already in mediaeval works, is 
that also to nominal bases with the final vowels r a, -6s, ^ro, i, tfvs, 3)io, 
g)dJ3, L, 23, the nominative singular of which in the ancient dialect has 
no termination at all (see 110), an T O is annexed, at option, as the 
termination of the nominative singular, by means of the letters ox* 


and 53*, these c&< and s< being merely a help to enunciation, e.g. 

, , , 

v T=9 ,3 

rtodo^, 2^^, ^sj, slo^, ^?4, rf 3 ^. See 
^ 128. 129. 130, and compare letters b and c in g 109. 

114. As very many ancient true Kannada nominal bases have no nomina- 
tive case-sign in tho singular (see 110), as already in the mediaeval dialect 
neuter and masculine bases with final 3 too occasionally appear without it (see 
10 ( J, letter b and 117, letter ), and as in later Kannada such neuter, 
masculine and feminine bases are most frequently used without it (see 109, 
letter c and 117, letter c), the thought arises that the ancient o (sonne), the 
termination of the nominative singular of neuters ( 109), masculines and femi- 
nines (>j 117) ending in 5, of which 3 , 30*, &, &> and 4 are but other forms, 
originally may have been a sign introduced by grammarians, partly for the sake 
of euphony in sandhi ( 215, 8) in order to avoid an hiatus (e. g, Sod?* qriOFCi) 
for 3od 'Sidordo, tsdro?* s^do for wbrf a^dc) and partly as a help to the 
formation of the oblique cases, especially the accusative and genitive, it forming 
also therein the euphonic letter (e. g. Sod -f- ?* + wo, Sod -f & + w ; 0323 + 3* + Wo, 
O3K + ff + W). Let it be added that Tulu, one of the sister-languages of Kannada, 
never uses a nominative case-sign for neuter bases ending in S3- 

115. Kannada grammarians teach that by the suffix a (which means 
'he', as We learn from 193) true Kannada masculine nominial bases are 
formed. The application of this rule appears e.g. in the following instances, in 
which the formative w is annexed to the & of the genitive ( 109, letter a, 6), 
the two letters w being euphonically joined ( 214, seg.): 

tftrffi, a reddish foot, Gen. tftrfaofc ( 130); ^<7ooJo-f t h e formative suffix 
t?, or joined and forming the crude base 'tftrtfcoto', and combined with the nomi- 
native case-sign o ^?7j<3o3oo, a man of or with reddish feet; ^S, charm, Gen. 
^3oi> ( 130); ^030 + w, or joined and forming the crude base 'Siaoij', and 
combined with the nominative case-sign o tiJjoioo, a man of charm, a charming 
man; ayrfresff, a flower-like eye, Gen. worirre^ ( 120); oortrra+o, or 
joined and forming the crude base 'WsJrtFC^', and combined with the nominative 
case-sign o oajnrr^o, a man of or with flower-like eyes; 2&S3*, gold, Gru. 
a8*^i ( 120); 3J3f^ + w, or ^-8?^, or -^o, a man of gold, a very proeiou- 
man; z3eJ*, a bow, Gen. 3o ( 120); z3y +, or ao, or 3wo, a man of th 
bow, an archer; d-i-fjrf, the east, Gen. sojsdra ( 123) , 3ojdre + w, or so^dra, 
or sojsdrao, a man of tho east; 3u, the side, Gen. $*>& ( 109); tf<^d + e, or 
or ^do, a man of or on tho side; >*, youth, Gen. otfoii ( 130); )<? 
w, or <o^oiJ, or *itfcioo, a man of youth, a youthful man; *Jo>. vainness, 
Gen. uewai ( 128); too^ + a, O r JJes^a, or UOJ3o, a vain man; tfootJJ, on% \ . 
Gen. 0020 ( 122); ?rOJ20 + w, or ^eww, or ^JUo. a man of envy, an envious 


man; aV, theft, Gen. ^ ( 120); ^ + o, or *fy or *<Jo, a man of theft, 
a thief; rire^ strength, Gen. rtra ( 122); rtf^ + w, O r rtt|, O r rtrao, a man of 
strength, a powerful man. Of. 224; 243, 5, remark; 249. 

Analogously the formation of the true Kannada masculine nominal bases 
wra v ***i' ^^ ^^"i s&ri^, ^ aaj > etc. may have taken place, although the 
themes to the genitive of which the formative & was attached, are nowadays 
out of use. 

116. But the form of true Kannada crude bases with final e, used in books 
and the language of ordinary conversation for the nominative singular, e. g. 
3od, sgpy, j3ej, oyrtFC^, rir|, e&a^, does not by itself indicate the gender of them 
(see also 102). Likewise o (the sonne), the grammatical sign of the nomi- 
native singular of bases ending in e ( 114), does not express distinction of 
gender; thus, for instance, the neuters Sodo, ^pe;o, sSyo, E3j,o cannot, by their 
sonne, be distinguished as to gender from the masculines era o, ^3^0, Tlra^o, 
e&ei^o, or from the feminine tadbhavas ^^o. e^o ( 117). 

This impossibility of discerning the gender by the sonne appears also in the 
oblique cases of neuter bases ending in e, because they show, with regard to 
their final o or sonne, frequently the same forms as such masculine bases do 
(see 109. 117), e. g. Nora. &>ti3 f (i. e. 3odo before a following vowel; c/. its 
vocative 3odc3e and the vocative ^J3tf?3 in 8 140), era 3* (/. e. erao before a 

O ''<> J*3 

following vowel) or also aodrfj, ecs^o; Ace. 3odrfo, era 3o; ^pyrfo, a^^c; ^J3^rf, 
rarf ; Gen. ifjstfrf, era rf; Abl. 3oda3, wra s? { ; L OC jiodrfe, tsra^O. 

P9 WJ CO O9 CO "^ t*9 **> 

Hence it is to be stated as a general rule that all Kannada nominal bases 
with final $5 are, in the singular, destitute of a particular sign to express 
their gender, except in the nominative when it has the euphonic s& in the 
genitive when it is formed by means of the euphonic o* ( 109), and in the 
dative ending in ^ or ^. ( 109). 

When the grammarian Kesava says that there are eight or nine genders 
in the Kannada language ( 102), he does not found their difference on outward 
signs in the nominal bases, but on their distinguishing properties and qualities. 
It is a fact that in Kannada no nominal crude base in the singular, whether 
ending in w, 's, v\> and ,0, or in a consonant, shows a difference of termination 
expressive of the distinction of male, female and neuter, except in the feminine 
pronominal suffixes e? 1 *, etfo(g 120. 121), in the neuter pronominal suffixes 
3o, *i and rio ( 122. 169), in the neuter pronouns edo, gcfc, wrfo ( 122> 
and in the feminine suffixes $*, ^ and 3 ( e . g. a^ans, ^sseDS, rradft^, s5ra d), 
although also these suffixes and words do not bear such terminations as specify 
absolutely their gender by themselves. 

The termination e has above been treated of as to the impossibility of its 
expressing by itself a distinction of gender. The same absence of an outward 
sign of gender is seen in the final vowels 'S, SA> and A as there are c. g. &*>> a 


profligate, 3oA, a younger sister, tf^Q, a female friend, 3->^, male or fomale 
persons, 3f^, a hog, &J&, a sheep, rto*, a feather; rt^^ a male person, rt^- 
a malo person, aoortxb, a fomale, ^^ (^re^), a fomale, *&>, a child, o^, an ox, 
3JOJ, a cow, 5^, the neck ; *>' a master, ^^ a father, \do, a dumb man, 
ws3, who? which V ^, such a woman as, WT?, that woman, &**, a damsel, C3f ). 
a whore, w?3, an elephant, &&, a tank, 33, a wave, ^*, the crescent ; and in 
final consonants, as there are e.g. Wf* (WtfJ), a person (masc., fern, and neuter), 
5jss, a female, &&, a stone, 3?o*, a chariot, $*&, (3W), a scorpion, w^c< 

(OTCO), life. 

Let it be added that also in the plural no terminations exist by which 
the gender is fixed (see 118. 119. 131. 132. 134. 1 35); also wd, ad, n>3j 
(>j 136), the plurals of &3>, ^\ snjdo, do not show such forms as at once 
distinguish them from the singular of the neuters &&$, eroc^, t?ojs^, etc. 

117. In 109 the case-terminations for the singular of neuter bases 
with final 3 have been given according to the forms they have in the 
throe periods of the language; here follow the case-terminations for the 
singular of masculine and feminine bases with final es, viz. 

a) in the ancient dialect 

1, Nom. o, e.g. ^&o ( O f srs&J), ^^3o ( O f 
Qdo, 3?do^o, tsyrtrre^o, ^rfaoioo 

23fc3,do, ija?0do, oOdo, aAoJoo; asl 

CO ^ C t 

^^o appears also as w^Po (c/. 119 and 120, letters a; 122, letter a; 
193, 1 and remarks). 

2, Ace. wo, W^j, (9), e. #. odrfrfo (of wdri), drarsd^rfo ( o f djarad^), 
SraQd^o, odrfatfrfo, adrfo, wsj^o; o^.rfo, S5do. rfo, asJ.NO; djdrfrfo (i n a sasana 

v ' c3 ^ 

of 1182 A. D.). 

y^NQ appears also as ^^Prfo (Sabdanusasana sAtra 175). 

The augment 3 s is euphonic like that of neuter bases in the accusatives} 109, 
letters a and b). 

In wrfo the euphonic SN has been added to the sonne of 5o. 

The termination & in the parenthesis refers to a quotation in the Sabdamani- 
darpana (page 164), viz. <o^3P?, SW* <o^ jarfoij ( O h, thou killedst me), in 
which, as Kesava supposes, the ^c^ (of Wo, I, 137) is the genitive used 
instead of the accusative <0?^o. Kesava appears to be wrong ; our opinion is 
that in this case ^^. is the accusative with final & that so frequently occurs in 
the neuter, masculine and feminine singular of the mediaeval and modern 
dialects (cf. TO&J and ^oesjri^ j n ^ 122, <t, 2; jj ;i,">2, i, b). 

Likewise when Bhattiikalanka in his grammar under sutra 231 thinks that 
in cOf^ dOK*do (he forgot me) the genitive is used for the accusative, we believe 
that in this case too ^ is the accusative with final ts. 


Another similar instance of Kesava that belongs to a neuter noun with final 
w, is ^pesij (of 3&&) in the obscene sentence ^pesd ^ (Sabdamanidarpana page 
75; see 215, 6, remark 3); it too is the accusative of the mediaeval and 
modern dialects. 

It is reasonable to think that the accusative ending in 55 existed already in 
the colloquial dialect of the ancient period, but had not been generally accepted 
by classical writers. 

3, Instr. 'S.o, 'S.rfo, r <SrS, e. g. 3333FSO (of S533F), 33^0 ( O f 32^ 

The terminations are attached to the genitive, the final & of which disap- 
pears in sandhi (213 seq,). 

4, Dat. (fl), ort, e.g. (3wjJrt, i n a sasana of 1123 A. D., if the reading be 
right; ftSo&JFdrt in the stanza under rupaka in 239); ti*or 


fi is the true termination; the sonne before it is merely euphonic (cf. 137, 
a, 4). n 5 -f <o has the same meaning as & + (see 1 09) ; cf. e. y. fcJ-tf-ia, 'S-fl-O 
in the Dictionary. 

A. D 1 & 3 c) . w 5' Co ^5 . 53 3 c) ^ . 6 . ff . 

_0 Q ' _C Q' " 

- a - ' - ' ii- cv '- ' ^j ' a" -* <a ' a -* "a 

The terminations are added to the genitive the final tJ of which disappears 

in sandhi ( 213 se^.); those of the instrumental are optionally used for the 
ablative. See 352, 4 a, 1 seq. 
6, Gen. y, y, e. g. ?rreF^ ( O f 

The augment 3* is a letter of euphony facilitating pronunciation; c/*. the n* 
and 5 of the genitive in 109, letters a, b and c. About the lengthening of 
3 see 109, , 6. 

7, Loc. ij<$ 6 , ffco^ri), S3), ?. g. S3dsic 

" \ / " <^*" ^ 



The terminations are added to the genitive according to the rule of sandhi. 
I)) in the mediaeval dialect 

1, Nom. o, rl), and (the nominal base itself without any termination, /. c.) 
the crude base, e. a. vtitio, &3o. wo; ^^.o; aarfrfo, -So^irfj, woii,?Sj, 

* */ "jy t) 

In NO the sonne has been changed into 6 before the euphonic vowel 
2, Ace. 5o, SS^O, S5^a, S5, e. ^. tfSS^o (of 

In ^^ the c3< has been euphonically doubled. 


3, Instr. -ao, 'S.N.o, ^{3, ('Stf^, '3N )", e.g. *~So; Wo33.ft3o; Zfo? . 

^ O Q O^ ** 

4, Dat. rt, ort, e. </. woi^rt, &3rt, osrt, 3<*rt; g&s&sort, curort, 

5, Abl. ('.s^rSo, y^rl^o, tf^f&fS), the terminations of the instru- 

0, Gen. j, e.g. ^o^tf; s5^5i. 

7, Loc. fcov 6 , fctfj, (fctffl), 90, ('J0, so 109, letter 6), r.g. 

C) in the (later and) modern dialect 

1, Norn, tfo, frequently the crude base, e. g. 3dodjrtNO, aiet;i33o, 

3, 'g3;3 J . 

2, Ace. 55^0, Wr^o,, ?5, W?3 , e. y. 

, 353d33rf, 

3, Instr. ', e. 

4, Dat. tf, j^rt f ^^ e . ^. ^d^, jjtert, ia^drt, wrart, 

, , , , ^. 


The augments rf and S and other forms of the euphonic sonne, to which the 
vowels and ^9 are joined for the sake of euphony, so that 3r5 an d art stand 

for orS. 

5, Abl. atf, c. o. , 

Q' 7 CO w 9 A 

6, Gen. S3, W (especially in poetry), e. ^. oo^ciJrtrf, 3rf; 

7, Loc. e^ri S5 S3 e. a. 

^vj* 5 ^ 

118. The case-terminations for the plural of neuter nominal bases with 
final e. (C/. 131. 132.) 
ft) in the ancient dialect 

orts 3 *, oriv'j, ort^o*, <?. ^. aodrtv*. s3i;rt^, ^y,-(v s ; 3od: 
; rtoreortv*, 3Jioriv s , c3<j!ortv f ; rfrtdoritfj (in a sasana of 1 r.':; A. 

D.V, ?iocl?332JaJjorts?D 5 , sSod^lsrfrf ?iortD 5 . 


rtv 6 is the true termination-, in ortv the sonne is euphonic, likewise the W 
in orttfo. The ort^o* is composed of rfv* and 'Sio* which is another termination 
of the plural (see >$ 119). 

Hither riv or ortv s are added to true Kannada bases. Samskrita bases 
according to grammar always use to receive ortv* or ortto* (cf. 109, a, -'): in a 
sasana of 1076 A. D., however, we find 3?tfr,itfj;tfj and 

11 The absence of instances for certain terminations iu parenthesis in this and other 
oases, only means to say that instances with them have not been met with by the author. 
:ilthoiigh they do exist; see e. g. ^^S) in vj 11'.', l>: "D^ in i 1 -<>. '. 


2, Ace. S5o, e. g. 

The terminations are attached to those of the nominative. A final w, as 
in oritfo, disappears then in sandhi (213 seq.}. 

3, Instr. 03,0, is^o, Q$ e. g. ^Jdrteo, ^uorteo; rioreorteo. 


The terminations are added to the genitive, the of which disappears in 
sandhi (213 aeq.). 

4, Dat. fl, 'art, e. g> ^odrftf, 3Jdorf<2 ; e5jjort ; qtoorrterl (in sasana of 
1076 A. D.). 

The *3 in r 3fi is euphonic. 

5, Abl. S3^ do V3&3o ^3 C$3 e. 

The terminations are attached to the genitive. 

6, Gen. 55, e. g. 

7, Loc. ^s* 

JjJrrttf.etfo(in a sasana of 1076 A.D.)-, 
The terminations are added to the genitive. 
6) in the mediaeval dialect 
1, Nom. rV, rt^o, orV, 

2, Ace. 

3, Instr. 


4, Dat. fi, *^rt, . ^. rfoorttf, 


5, Abl. 

6, Gen. 53 } e.^. rfdris^, ^ 

7, Loc. 

3 S3Ci e. o 

, d.aort0; 

* 9) %*A ^ 

c] in the modern dialect 

1, Norn, rt^jj e.^r. Adrttfo, 

2, Ace. S3f30, 

3, Instr. <^^, e.q. Aciritfri 

Q* "-CO 

4, Dat. -art, <?.#. Ai3ri?r>, 

; erorfwadort^rt, 

the terminations of the 

5, Abl. -atf, e.g. 


6, Gen. e, 

7, Loc. Zotfrt, S3 3 e.g. 


119. The case-terminations for the plural of masculine, feminine and 
epicene ( 102, 4) bases with final e, including also some bases that 
occur only in the plural. (Cj. 131. 132. 134. 135. 137.) 

a) in the ancient dialect 

1, Kom. orV, 3&, wo*, estfo, 2*0% wo*, C&JD<, sic*, 

< ao', woo*, ortSo', e^FSo*, oao*, oaoo*, oarirv*, . #. 
nv, w^ortv*, ^onv*, erua^oris 1 *, ^jsaorw 5 , dra^orts*; tt^oriv*, 
(of 3on); yjJToo 5 , ssziJ^o*, saadFO 5 , dJaSdo*, oo6^o, rfoa^D*', Sjeso*, ic*, 
do*, doC do*, cScOdo*, 'sisoijo 5 , ^OcxJjo*, ^orfnsoo*, 'SIZJFO*, 
acJ?od), Je^rldo (both in a sasana of 1123 A. D.), 
^ordj, 3s^?od) (the four terms in a sasana of 1182 A. D.), 
(both in a sasana of 1187 A. D.); ^i^&aro* (in a sasana between 
680 and 696 A. D.), sio.oj&ro* (in a sasana of 866 A. D.), rfjarirOSj^o* (in a 
sasana of 916 A. D.); 

Sdo*,eo4io c , 

fid t> a - 

OO; 'SlSSriF^. 


wdo is yo 6 and a euphonic en> (c/. 96 remark)-, &>o* is another form of o* 
(r/. 117, letter a). lu wo*, ouo* and 3o* the letters 13*, ow and & are 
euphonic augments; y^rv 5 , W^FV^ are composed of ^o* and ^V and rv*; woo 5 
is composed of o* and ^o*, and a^F^o 5 O f ^o 5 , ^P 5 and ISO 6 "; in oOo 9 " the 
sonne is euphonic; oaoo* is cQo* and 'SO 5 ; o^rtF9* is composed of o>o* and 
nv*; So 6 is composed of a euphonic n 5 and *9O* (cf. the euphonic c* of the 
genitive in 109, a, 6 ; that of >o s in 5j 132, a. 134, a; that of wC^o, etc. 
in 243, /^, remark; that of z-^do in 276). 

2, Ace. wo esrfo <?. </. ecsor\s>o; jjj^*o; e^.orS^o. wd?ido. etc.; 

> v > *J p^ TJ Tj 

(in a sasana of 1182 A. D.). 

tsrfo is o (?*) and a euphonic era. 

3, Instr. ^o, a^o, 'S,^ ,e.<7. 


The terminations are added to the genitive according to the rule of sandbi 
( 213 seg.). 

4, Dat. fl, ^, ^7^, =#, e.g. raon; ^tf; ^^ ; dtsrtF or dtartF, 
or zoodrt F, za^ci srtr or ^)N 3rt F, <od3rtF or <o6drt F, etc.; c530rt (in a 


52 - 

sasana of 1123 A. D.), $^0rt, aa^j-aort (both in a sasana of 1181 A. D.)-, 
(in a sasana between 597 and 608 A. D.). 

1^ occurs optionally after the repha; such a doubling of a consonant after it 
is very frequent, Of. 132, a; 155; 240, under 5; 246, under a; 371, 1. 

The ^ before ft is a euphonic prefix. 

5, Abl. y^riio, tf^djdo, 53^rl?3; the terminations of the instrumental, 
e . a . era orftf 3 e&x etc. 

*J P^ * 

6, Gen. S3, M, e. a. araoritf; 3^,$- e35-,oritf; del d; etc.; 3;f3<$> oi>33 (in 

i/>3 TT " T7 ca ' v 

a sasana between 680 and 696 A. D.), tjJ&Jsdoa (in a sasana of 804 A. D.). 
w is simply a euphonically lengthened S3. See 109, a, 6. 

7, Loc. e*^, (fctffl), e, e.0. wraorttfjav*; e^orttfa* ; c33djsv*, datf 
srfjsdjsy 5 ; etc. 

6) in the mediaeval dialect 

1, Nom. the same case-terminations as in the ancient dialect; further 

, rttfo, 

The terminations show a free use of the euphonic en) and an occasional 
omission of the euphonic sonne. 

2, Ace. yo, 55, e.g. SoOokdJAtfo; riojssdo; t?oio 6 rt^, yjftkritf, d>?rtd, 

3, Instr. -ao, ^^o, 'SfS, ^^4, . ^r. 

4, Dat. ri 's^ 

rfort, rireor^, do^ar^, dorfozsof?, dra^^ar^, asori, <oy art, 

The ^ and ^o are euphonical prefixes. 

5, Abl. es^ pSo, ^5^ c^rd o, y>^ r^^l : the terminations of the instru- 

O Q 


6, Genitive S3, e.g. woixris 1 , 

7, Loc. so v 6 , aotfo, B^rt, S3, (JQ), e. 

fiddrt, tf^rt^^rt, esde. 
c) in the modern dialect 

1, Norn, rttfo, ^^0, =^*do, &>, WOo, ddo, odOo, oDdo, e.g 
, aoredo, 



Another plural is formed by adding W3dj, the nominative plural of the 
pronouns &3 or O3tfj, to the nominative singular, e. g. yd^Sdo (3o or wd 
3 4. w;3dO), e^rfado, wai^risdo, or to the nominative plural, e.g. 
Cf. 131, c, i, and see 258. 

2, Ace. S3^o, ssfiJ,, jl, S3, tf, e. g. 
( 135); -30 d, ofcad ( 135); $j&p*> 

3, Instr. <3^, e.g. ^odortOi^. 

4, Dat. esrt, 'art, .flf. ^Ujdrt; otf^oort, akrfortort. 
The w and '3 before rt are euphonic additions. 

5, Abl. atf, .*. 


6, Gen. e5 %3 e.a. 

J J *? 

7, Loc. Zotfri, es, (e), .^. 

120. The case-terminations for the singular of neuter and feminine bases 
(and of one that is either masculine or neuter in the ancient language, 
viz. e3$*, $ 102, 5) ending in consonants. 

a) in the ancient dialect 

1, Norn, the crude base, e.g. ^0*1 *to*, vv 6 , soov*, ^ofc*. 

, 3rOo3oy ff , ^?dv ff , ^dr? 1 *, ^ZOFV*; wv*; wno*, 
, 5j(0o' (see 55 187, i). 

appears also as y^pv* (Sabdanusasana sutra 175). 
2, Ace. S5 G . Wo. the crude base, e.g. ^Jo, 23^0, s^o^o, ^oi^o, wdc 

(in t3w v 5 ), J3tC5 5 (in J82* ->)> : -^3^ (in y 
appears also as *40tfo (Sabdanusasana sutra 175). 

The doubling of the consonant of monosyllabic bases with a short vowel 
takes place on account of euphony (c/. 215, 7, d). 

Kesava (page 297) gives the following quotation (see 365); zooto rf tf^ACtf 
rio* <o;3d^> wz5,ojod ^dortv*, and remarks that the * in otf?ic* is wrong 
(abaddha), as it ought to be ^X or <otf7odsdo or <otf?jdc:3;3, because a new 
agent or subject is introduced, viz. 3donv*, ^a^ae^ therefore, is the crude base 
and stands for the accusative. A translation is: 'When (they, certain 
people) desired the purple sunshine of the evening, the trees of the hermitage 
appeared'. Cf. the ancient accusatives a in 125, SJJS^o 6 in $ 126, ?Jo in 
$ TJ7, As? in 130, , -.', especially also the Kriyasamasa ($ 253, i, a) in which 
the crude base represents the accusative, and 352, 6, b. 

3, Instr- ao, arfo, atf, e.g.VQo, ^^,^0 


The terminations are attached to the genitive according to the rule of sandhi 
(213 seq.). Of. the ^o in the Dictionary, Additions, p. 1711. 

4, Dat. ^, ft, e. g. 

, , 

A' A A' n A' A A' A 

5, Abl. ef^Zc'O, S5:^r3r3o, ss^rlfS, the terminations of the instrumental 

e. a. 3v 3 do, t^oix^ do, 

3 n _ _s 

6, Gen. y, , <?.#. ^o, 

^J^os?; sjfs^, sacjj; y^s^, 'gis^, erud 1 ^, wdtf, 2-Srs^; y^; eruaoa (in a sasana 
of about 750 A. D.). 

Here we have the primitive form of the genitive, viz. ^. About the doubling 
see the Accusative. 

7, Loc. v\JV*, aoS*, (toVri), S5S3*, S5s;o, 5, e. ^. ^ori^os* (in a sasana of 
707 A. D.); )*a^ (o 

(in a sasana of 971 A. D.); #aoe (in a sasana of 1187 A. D.); ^ra 

The terminations are added to the genitive according to rule. 

6) in the mediaeval dialect 

1, Norn, the crude base, e.g. ^o*, sse^; a?; 

2, Ace. e5o, S5, the crude base, e.g. 

erjstf* (in A)39 5 'gdo), 23*0* (in ^3?o ff yvsesi), z3^ (in 
(in & 333^ 

3, Instr. 

4, Dat. ^ rt e. o. ^rt'i?; addrfei, yrtd, ojj3,; warir, araoSo, ^e3. 

7 TT iO O O O 

5, Abl. ss^rdo, y^rii^o, 53^^^, the terminations of the instrumental. 

6, Gen. S, e. ^r. ^^ ^o^-i 3ora, aooo, eruad, ^ojj; 33oio (or 3^^^); &z$, 

7, Loc. 

In ^ the auxiliary augment 'S?^ of 121 appears to have been 

c) in the modern dialect 

In 92. 93 and 112 it has been stated that, in general, all ancient nomi- 
nal bases with a final consonant appear with a euphonic final n> or ^ in modern 
Kannada ; but there are exceptions, that is especially when such bases are 
immediately connected with another noun or verb, e.g. tf 


d, 530* 3rt, ^oi3 tfari), ^oij* tfjatfj,. doafc* ud.>, or also when they 
are in union with case-terminations, e. g. SDOJJ; 133<XO^, tfoSx^; rfoi^, *k^; 

3i>oi>, saoJj; iboJxC, usojid; djoijj.v'rt, W3o5.tfrt. See also tfcto and uactoC 

J) \> t7 $ " 

(of waoi:*) in 121, and rfoij*, wsoir in a proverb under **> in the Dictionary. 

121. The case-terminations for the singular of neuter and feminine bases 
(and of the base wtfo that is masculine-feminine-neuter in the modern 
dialect) ending in en), this vowel being merely euphonically suffixed to 
ancient bases ending in consonants (see 92. 93. 94. 9(> remark). Such 
bases appear nowadays chiefly in the mediaeval and modern dialer 
but there are proofs of their existence also in the ancient one, namely 
in its dative and genitive, and in the words dorttfo (for dorl<ff), 
(for ^J*) , ^a?^, Ao&5>x>, rfo^do, 3$ok<ix> (S5^o3o^j), 3&zit>j 
Xvi. Cy. 187, i. 

a) In the ancient dialect 

1, Nona, yu, i.e. the crude base, e.y. sjtftfo (in a sasana of about 778 
A. D.), ^ejo, (in one of 1048 A. D.), sJPtw, ASex> (i n one of 1182 A. D.), io^dj 
(in one of 1187 A. D.), eofcM (in one of 1076 A. D.), ci*riex> (in one of 1123 
A. D.), $>3*rfwJ (in one of 1182 A. D.). 

4, Dat. 'Sort, 3, e. g. wrteort, -^rttort; yx^Oort (in a sasana of 1084 A.D.), 
^jac^Oort (in a sasana of 1123 A. D.); s&rttfu^ (for J&ricoyo^), yrtoo^ (i n one 
of 1123 A. D.). 

The grammatical bases of the terras wr!?ort, ^rtPort, vusOort, ^J8^3ort, ^prt* 1 
oj^, tfrtwj^ are wrtv*, ^rtv ff , yuso ff , ^ja^o 5 , ^srt^s^, yrto*. According to rule 
their dative ought to be wrt, ^rt^, wartr, Aadrtr, ^srttfe^, wrte^ (see 120); 
but they have been treated as if they were *ritfo, ^rttfj, yuadj, ^jsddj, ^prttfwo, 
tfriu>, analogously to the ancient wridj an d ^rt^J ( 122), for which 'Sort is the 
grammatical termination of the dative, and somewhat analogously e. g. to the 
modern 3-*3ciwo and sLocrtoo, for which *=1^ is the grammatical termination of the 
dative (see under letter c). Thus the forms trrfv*, *rt"~, erjao*, *jsd3 s ", &rtfo'. 
wrio 5 have existed with the euphonic suffix SAJ of the mediaeval and modern 
dialect already in ancient times, and have been used like the bases with h'nal 
ero in 122. Observe that OG3 5 and acw, seven, appear in these two forms in 
the ancient dialect. 

'Sort consists of the euphonic augment 'So and the termination of the dative 
rt (see ^ 120). The en; before ^ is simply euphonic. 

6, Gen. ^N, e. g. 'Sd^rf, rfrteDrf, ^Jjc^rf, ert3, ^rtorf. 

The bases of these terms are 'SdJV 5 , 3rt3 6 , ^jaca*, wrtv*, ^rtv, an d the 
grammatical forms of the genitive would be 'Sdjtf, rfrfy, ^ecs, wrt^, ^rtV (s. 
120). Kesava remarks that 'Sdotfrf and sirtDrf are optionally uscil tor ^dotf and 


, which goes to show that 'Sjdjtfo and siiltw, forms with the euphonic w, were 
together with TJJSCW, wrttfj, ^,1^j, i n common use at his time an'd in the time 
preceding. Kesava adds that it is wrong (dosha) to use such forms as z3do03, 
3ora3, SootfC^, etc. He evidently opposes the too free use of forms of ordinary 
conversation, which presuppose the existence of many bases with the euphonic 
final en) ( 122), in the present case of 233o&>, doreiw and 3ooAuo. 

^ is 9, the termination of the genitive, and the euphonic augment ^o C9c3 ). 

b) in the mediaeval dialect 

1, Nora. ?AJ i. e. th.3 crude base, e. g. <o^x 

, ?oJ3Ko, orftfo, stos^do, ^jsc^do, 3G3i>o; oatfo, 'gatfo, (ydtfo), a-artfo, 2*20^ tfj; 

, wrltfo, 
2, Ace. Wo, 2, the crude base, e.g. aoritfo; joojjyo, $53^0; 

It is impossible to settle whether &oris?o, 2joJJt)o, a^s^o, any, 
are the accusative of bases with final consonants ( 120, letter b) or of bases 
with the euphonic n>. 

3, Instr. ao, (^foo, -ScS, -arf), ^^N, 9- ^^, , ^Qo, etc.; 

O O CO ' O 

It is possible that in such forms as ^fi,o. eao3o, etc. the bases are 
etc. (see 120, letter b). 

^^ is ^^ attached to ^ of the genitive. 

4, Dat. 'aofl, 'art, 'a^, e. 

Like the ^o the ^ that precedes the terminations rt and tf, is a euphonic 

5. Abl. (5^d)o, etc.), the terminations of the instrumental. 

6, Gen. b, < a^ J e. </. ^^, ^J 

etc. may be referred also to *?*, 3)*, etc. (see 120, letter 6). 
7, Loc. a^JSv 5 , 'a^O, <? g- rt?rf:3J8V ff ; 


^) in the modern dialect 

1, Nora, ero, i. e. the crude base, e. $r. 

ej3; aSra^; es^o, 'as^j, oijsa^o, 22J^j; tfrt 

2, Ace. e^j, ?5^, w, w, the crude base, e. g. 

eiA, tfwrfo,, agjBcifSo,, dttftix, rf?it4),: wa^iii. 'g^^rfo,; y^rfo: aou, yuaci, ^sej, 

<. m ^' t. v t "t. *< t o^ m 

to to 

It is impossible to decide whether ;%, y^d. etc., also in this case, are formed 
from ao^w, enrado, etc. or from SoO J , CAWO^, etc. (see ij 120, letter c). 
3, Instr. "atf, -a^fi, e. ^. doCrf; ^ 
may come from sS-xyo or ^;3^. 

- 57 - 

4, Dat. ".s^, -a^JL 'art, e. (). 3eitf or , t or 

(sec 370, 4); agrfrt. qacrt, wstfrt; wrt; ^<Drt, uoo^rt, rirt, riert, export, 

5, Abl. s^, 'aarf e. r/. eaaOrf , 3.xOrf ; yxuoarf , 

Q " \ Q* <7 Co Cv & 

erusOi^, 30:0^ may, also in this case, come from 

G, Gen. w, ^f^ e. #. s^ra, 5*0, tfw, 53^, asau, jfcedtf, 

^d rf, ^0 rf, ijrf?S, odrf rf, iorf, c&orf, ajajorf, suOrf, 

r* P 

^^,1 etc. may, also in this case, come from ^^ ^^i' etc. or from 
, etc. 

7, Loc. Zo^ri, , J, 'arfS , ^FJ^, r aO, O, e. #. 

^^, etc. may, also in this case, be referred to bases with final 

In O the or ^C has been mutilated (c/. 130, letter c). 

122. The case-terminations for the singular of dissyllabic and trisyllabic 

neuter bases, (of the masculine bases rtrs ?oo. rte^o, of the feminine base 

ca ca' 

3cor1^!o, and of the masculine-ferainine-neuter bases e3d?do, tfJS^io) 
always ending- in the euphonic yu in the ancient, mediaeval and modern dialect 
(see 96. 98). See etfo, -s^o, eA)?3o, ^^j in 127. 

o o o o 

Concerning the terminations ^o, s^ and d> in 2-^^, 2-^^,1 ^^^ ^^i, 
S-e^cii, ?3?0do, etc. (which are classed with the so-called adjectives, 102, 8, 
b. c.; 273. 276) the grammarian Ivosava teaches only that they are their 
base-terminations. They are pronominal forms; ^ we find again in o^caj^ 
(Jjjj 123, a; 272), in w*JF ( 135. 270. 272 under 2), in )<&,, Rrfo, ^^ 
( 272, 2), in ^ ( 125), in WWJ, ( 212), in past participles (^ 166. 168. 
169), in erorWj ( 194), in a personal termination ($ 193. 198. 199), in the 
formation of the pronouns 33 ( 138, d, 3) and w3, etc. ( 138, d, 3 ; 265), in 
fcrfi, aojjdb ( 243, A, remark 6), and & in past participles ($$ 106. 168. 169) 
and in the modern t3J23do^, dradrf^, etc. ( 254, 1, a and remark 3). 

^, ^J, (euphonically doubled) and & represent the letters 5*, &,, n^, the 
primitive signs which point to an object in a general way, with a euphonic w. 
When the vowels w, '9, en) (other forms of , ^, SAW, see $ 264) an 1 to 

&> (rfo, 'gdi, ero^o which are the commonly used demonstrative neuter pro- 
nouns) the direction becomes distinct; 53^, ^^, (which are substitutes for w^J) 
are met with in combination with <o3 (of me), etc. as *>c3^->, 033^, etc. (>; 1 
a, 6; $ 272, -), w^o, -q^, 'q^ (=l|dj) as personal terminations ( < 1!I3), 



erodo) in combination with ^ (of us), etc. as <o3oo & 3.), etc. (272,2, and 

as a participial termination, 173). Compare also 124, es*. 4 ; 265. 
Regarding the neuter plural of 2*<?,3o, etc., -d-a'do, etc., wrfj, etc. see 136. 
The case-terminations are 
rt) in the ancient dialect 

1. Nom. P/O, e. the crude base, e. g. 2-^, ^cs^, ^pra^, ^JSTOJ, 333^, 
, wrfd), FsaQdo, ^raorto, ktfrto, ^tfrto, d>?rio, 

appears also as 2do (in a sasana between 594 and 608 A. D.-, cf. 
117, letter a). 

2, Ace. S5o, (S5), Wo, e. <?. 2-^,, #-03^o, sado, FSDC^O, ^J3ao, rfdsio, 
t??)^o, 2*.^o, &sdo w^irfo, ^es'do, 2orf o, ^d^o. eoj^o, do?wjdo; (3C^, ^o^jSoj; 

V CO CO ^ "0 

(in a sasana between 680 and 696 A. D., in one of somewhat after 732 A. D., 
and in one of 750 A. D.). 

The ts in parenthesis refers to 33^ and ^esi^. We take cK>^ to be the 
accusative in the sentence quoted by Kesava (page 164) in ^o2r?sd 3ae3 3 o3)^ 
(Octf^o 3o?ta 2J3\>r;l} (could it ever come to (my) mind to forget the southern 
country?). He, however, supposes that c33^ is the genitive used for the accusa- 
tive. ^a)^ stands (according to a Mdb. Ms.) in the passage qnoted by Kesava 
in page 288: tftira^ ^pa^OcS* yyrtoSAdo^ ^jes^rf^ (they scratched the (*'. e. his 
or her or its or their) navel and clawed the hair-knot). Cf. the note under the 
ancient accusative in 117, and see 352, i, b. Regarding the lengthening cf. 
109, a, 6. 

3, Instr. -So, ^0, < 3?3, ^FS, S3&3 9 o, e. g- 

4, Dat. 

, , e.g 

A " 

; doerid!, ^ 


CQ n 

; e^rf^r. 

The terminations are rt and ^; 
5, Abl. 

and ^es^ are euphonical augments. 
o, the termina 

tions of the instrumental, e.g. 

6, Gen. w, 'S.f 

, 20030 rf, 

e. <- 

; ade, rgdes, w^jdes, 

, dartre, 
s, ?59e>a, 


'Qti is tho euphonic augment 'So (-33*) and W, the true termination of the 
genitive; in wra the augment is wra 5 , and in wo it is wo*. Compare the 
augments & and c3* in $ 109, letter a, and see 141, remark under Dative. 

7, Loc. 'a&av*, 'SNJStfo, *aSJ3v*rt, -arfS, e5C3-v* wCS 5 ^^*, esCSO 

CO '- 

e. #. sjJ^&av*, dja^(3j8^, 3jaa?3.e9*, CDA^JSV*, stores 1 ; <53affltletfo (in a 
sasana of 1123 A. D.); zorfctetfrt; 3DSrfC ; ^tfo^ewv* (j n a sasana between 680 
and 696 A. D.); 'Sides* JSVT*, e^do'.a v* , .oddetav* 

6 , <o Siesta V*; odexD , eafcosD. 

&) in the mediaeval dialect 

1, Norn. wx>, i. e. the crude base, e. y. -o^, ^^, 
), ewQ ^o, i-"?^.), z^j, eiy.^o, -a-es'rfj, z^rfo , <odd>, o 

2, Ace. e5o, y, the crude base, e. <j. ^^o, ^rfrfo, 

, wdo, ac3o, o?oo; wus'r, ^rf^, -S-ii, ?roe3js!, ^td, ^i, 5oi^, ed, 'gd, 

3, Instr. 

), S5&5 9 r^, 6. //. 

4, Dat. 

, rfwart, 

, 3ort ; 

'S)!?, 'g^ are r^, ^, t^, the terminations of the dative, and the 
euphonic augments *9o and *%. In ^^o3o^, ^'^o3o^, Zotfo^oo^ the final letter rto 
of T?^r<o and 2-tfrto has been changed into o3->J- ^^, 55^ generally are mutilated 
forms of we!- ^oO"#, do?o^,, ^Joorf^, ^oorf^, 20^^, &o^, either stand 

tr 03 & V Q w v 

for A)oe8, uoo^e^, 2o^| (see letter a), or for s3o<^r, doorfrfr, fcrf^r, 
, etc. 

5, Abl. ('s^^r^io, etc.), the terminations of the instrumental. 

6, Gen. w, 'atf, S3ra, ?3S5, e- ^7- ^^=3, 353^, ed* ^oetwd; t,^?J, LQrf, i6 rf, 

^OQci, 23*0rf, wdArf, So?ooOrf; ^tfrtre, ^o?r<c8, Soo^cs, Sorfre, 
, z-^rira, rfo^re, sojsescs; wde, w^es, 

es, e3*de3, defines, zSWj^es. 
The Basavapurana, exceptionally, has oo^red; see ^123, letter c, 4. 5. 6. 

7, Loc. -ajSjav*, -acSJa^o, ca^jatfrt, a^, -arf, 



c) in the modern dialect 

1, Nom. ero, i- e. the crude base, e.g. &,, 23^, 

2, Ace. ss^j, 3^J, 5?$, 5?^, 3, w, 5S3?j4, the crude base, e.g. 
, adrfo, cgdrfo, 

( , 

=1 _ <. 

About e3c&, etc. see e. ^. 109, letters 6, c ; 117, 6, c. In the vulgar 

the ^ is attached to the < O f the genitive. 
3, Instr. -arf 

, , , So? S^ 

6. <a a' ! a o to < 

4, Dat. r ar^, es,, 

^, ridri, rira&ri, a6or^A^, ^jses'^; ^d^, 5^ =, 

comes from T?tfrto, and z-tf? (for ^s?oij^) from ^s?no (see letter 6). 
5, Abl. the terminations of the instrumental, e.g. 

a o 

6, Gen. y, , r a^, S5rc, <9^, ssC5, e. 

): rtC^ rf, ^JSArf.-^^O ?S, ioArf, z3-3-,^, 5r3A3, E3s>Arf, ^J3Si 9 rf, ^^A^, aj^Aci, 35J? 



tf is another form of ra. 

7, Loc. 50, (S3), ^?J3^^, 'Sri, '3, 

co T \ / ' ro' 

; eroirfO, 

123. Eight neuter nominal hases with final e> (words denoting direction. 
digvacaka, digvaci), which, in the ancient and mediaeval dialect, and 
partly also in the modern one, are declined like some hases with the final 
euphonic of e/x> 122. (Their lengthened form appears in 126). 

a) in the ancient dialect 

1, Norn. 5, i.e. the crude base, I'iz. ^, '9^,, A^, <o 

I, Dat. 5fl e. #. W^E? 

^ / - 

5, Abl. erso, esr^^o, 3r??2 jrsa do, e. g. 

o o 

oS'rfo, SJ^rfE^O, dOJS^^O; dOJS^rs^ do. 

6, Gen. jrs, 5?*, e. ^. w^ra, 'S^cs, Jo^ra, jj^os 

The simple ^ appears in o^rao., that stands for the full form o^rerfo (see 
i> 272 under No. 2). 


l>) in tho mediaeval dialect 

1, Norn. 5, L e. the crude basei a. //. *, *a*, >*,. 

4, Dat. 

5, Abl. 


6, Gen. ees, wtf, e. /. ', o^re, 3o*re, zWjsto, urfrtrc, 3-xacte; 
c) in the modern dialect 
1, Nom. s, i. e. the crude base, e. y. w^, '9^,- 

4, Dat. 3r3=# or S3rs ! 3\, T? or =3* e.g. So^retf or io*re; udrttf or zJdrttf,. 

T7 & 

In ^o^ra#, ^o^rs^ the augment ^^ has received an o, and as wre has 
become a part of the base, which is declined like a neuter base with final 
(tj 109). In w^rt^, wdrt^ no augment appears, and wdrt is treated as a neuter 
base with final . 

5, Abl. <sr^, wrsa^, *arf, e.^. *o3d^; d^rfrea^: wsrf, -a*^. 

O O O 

For SJJa^rsOrf the base ^J-CCars has been formed like that of io^re of the 


dative, and has been declined like a neuter base ending in & ( 109); cf. the 
So^fsrf in 122 under letter b. 

The bases for w^, a^rf seem to be 3o, ^^o (i, 'a*, with final ew, < I -J-Ji. 

6, Gen. yrs, sirad, e. g. 3o5='re, rfciodcs, S-xoc^cs. 
Regarding ^rad see the ablative and locative. 

7, Loc. ssreco es e. q. sJc&sredS ; urfricic 

m 1 PO' * 

The bases are Sj^oare and zo^rt, that are declined like neuter bases with 
final ( 109). 

124. Remarks on the employment of the augments vt? and SSR* of 
$ 122 and 123. (See also the declension of the pronoun ^3* in 125 and that 
of the plural of ^d>, etc. in 136). 
es3< is used 

1, in numerals (saukhye), e. g. fccfc^ oci^j, 3JJ8S3J, 

orao., JM^.^O, srf^o (oo^oi, N-aew; 
*j' v) -' _a v _; f 

2, in pronouns (sarvanama), e. g. wdJ, 'ad), erjdo, 

3, in terms denoting quantity (pramanavaei, pavan), their finals 
(*b, eJi) being pronominal forms (see 122), e. g. &, ^S;^, ^ft^J, wa 

^rfo, a?oJ, weJo, ^6i), aii), as!^, -a^o, osl^; (the w^J is probably another form 
of t$s>3o; wkb one of ^siOj; ^ ono of w^o^j, the ^ having taken the form of 
kk and the tf having become short); 

4, in the so-called adjectives i^uiiavacana), their finals *). ^, do being 
pronominal forms, and tho pronoun ^d), e. g. z-*^ ^^i *'do, tJAdOi 
(modern) draddj, xlredj, ^ff,dj; 

x *A Pfl w 

5, in verbal bases (krit), their end-syllables srodj O r do being neuter 
pronouns, e. g. SJafidjdo, ^Sdodo, 

6, in the term sfowod), it being composed of sS-XO* and the neuter pronoun 

The Sabdanusasana under its sutra 269 states that ^ (^^,)' which is one 
of the words which express indefinite quantity ( 90), exceptionally receives 
the augment in the neuter forms <osJ,es s o, o^f, <oe^e3, .osuefov*. The dative 
^,^ appears in the Sabdamanidarpana, and ^^, "^^ in the mediaeval and 
modern dialect, in which forms the repha has disappeared. See the neuter 
plural of -ow in 136, its epicene plural in 119 ; cf. 266. 
is used 

in nominal bases denoting direction (digvaeaka, digvaei), e.g. 
^, ^^, 3o^, 2Ji3ri. Compare the terms rf&>, &d, ^<3, w, 
in 139. 

125. Declension of the interrogative pronoun b^s 6 (>o, cf. 262. 269. 
301), the augment being S5&3*'. This is not directly attached to >o or 
its crude form, but to Si^o, i. e. and the pronominal form 3o ( 122), 
literally meaning ' what-it '. 

a) in the ancient dialect 

1, Nom. o, the crude base, i. e. &o; a. 

2, Ace. eso, the crude base, I. e. &3o; & 

3, Instr. e5S5 9 o, /'. e. &3&o. 

4, Dat. e5s , S5^, 3, /. e. ^^^i"; ^^; a* 


a^^ is a mutilated form of a^f; compare the mutilated forms of the dative 
of the mediaeval and modern dialect in 122 and in this paragraph. Such 
forms, therefore, must have existed in ancient times. In &$ the termination ^ 
has been suffixed directly to a. See also 124 ^<^ ^$ for 

5, Abl. es&^J^o, i.e. 

6, Gen. e3, *. e. 

7, Loc. &3 3 J3^, 

b) in the mediaeval dialect 

1, Nom. o, (3o, the crude base, i. e. 

arfo is ao (*>5S*) and the euphonic ew. crf33 is another form of & (see 41). 

2, Ace. wo, 55, the crude base, /. e. 

3, Instr. W3 9 o, i. e. 

4, Dat. W5\ S5=^ "# i. e. Se^r or ^^, cxbs^i? or 

* ' 

5, Abl. (wSS^rso), the termination of the instrumental. 

6, Gen. ejfid, *. e. a^es, oijs^es. 

7, LOC. wc5 3 J3v*, we^js^o, we^jsVri, 55550 



c) in the modern dialect 

1, Nom. ?1), the crude base, i. e. o&; oka 

2, Ace. jgo, S3?l>, y, the crude base, i. e. 

3, Instr. S3S3 9 ?*, *. e. oto^o^. 

4, Dat- 3^., SS"#, =, ^. e. o&s^ or 

f>, Abl. s$e3 9 rf, i.e. 

6, Gen. W&3, . e. 

7, Loc. aesSjatffl, 53, (w3j, e.g. 

126. Concerning the eight nominal bases with final $3 mentioned in 
123 it is to be stated that in the nominative, accusative, and locative 
they may receive the termination 3g or e3^j; $353* or 3^x> appears also 
in the ablative of the mediaeval dialect, arid es^>o in the ablative, genitive. 
and locative of the modern one. The declension of the lengthened bases 
is the following. 

a) in the ancient dialect 

1, Nom. the crude base, sro, e. y. dJ-^^, Sri-J^o 6 , o^o*; jjrfrtoo (in a 
sasana of 1123 A. D.). 

In this case the & means 'place' (see 109, letter a, Locative). The question 
arises whether e. g. &>$&& may not be s3^e^, the genitive of sk-edj, the east 
(see the genitive with w in 120. 122), and o r , i. e. the place of the east. 
For w^o*, ^o r , yu^er, ^^o , however, no base ending in SAJ has as yet been 
established; but see the curious modern ablative ^t,^, ^^ in 123, letter c. 

2, Ace. the crude base, e. </. 3oja;3o*, rfc^sy', o^ej*. 

Here we have an accusative represented by the crude base; cf. the ancient 
accusative in 120. 125. 127. 

7, Loc. the crude base, e.g. 3>Jdd&, zfcfrao*, w^o*. 

In this case && means ' in the place'. It is not impossible that ^o* has 
been suffixed to the genitive of 3&Q& and ^J^; but, as remarked above, a 
base ending in en) for a^o*, etc. is still to bo established. 

b) in the mediaeval dialect 

1, Nom. the crude base, sro, e. g. :&J3do 

5, Abl. 'So, e. (). es^eDo. 

7, Loc. the crude base, sru, e. g. 3-i.edo*; 

c) in the modern dialect 

1, Nom. ero, /. e. the crude base, e.g. 

5, Abl. ^^, c. (i. &3C3, ng^crf. 
Q' J - o -* a 

('., Gen. y, e. ^. sorirtu, a^w. 
7, Loc. e5O, e.g. 


127. Declension of four nominal bases always ending in the euphonic eru 
(see 122) that express time (kalavacaka, kalavaci), viz. ?3^j, 'ajl), 
A)?>o, cO?i), the nominative, accusative, and locative of which have the 

O O 

same form, though the locative may receive also the terminations 
(6y. the declension of e>s?, etc. in 139.) 
in the ancient dialect 
Nom. the crude base, /. e. ^, 
Ace. the crude base, *. e. wrfo, 
Instr. -so, e. tf. ^, 

** CO 

Dat. -aori, e- g. w^ 
Abl. ^3 r^o e. . 

1 _ ^ 

Gen. ^3, e. <7- a^rf, ^N. 

Loc. the crude base, oa?3j?<? s , atfg, <?. ^. wrfo, ^rfJ, wrfo, orfo; 

6) in the mediaeval dialect 

1, Nom. the crude base, i.e. 

An instance for ^^ has not been found by the author. 

2, Ace. the crude base, i. e. 

3, Instr. the terminations of the ablative. 

4, Dat. 'actf, 'arl, e. .9 

5, Abl. 'a^o, -a^|, art, 

6, Gen. ^, i. e. e^rf, nsi^ 

7, Loc. the crude base, -i. e. 
c) in the modern dialect 

1, Nom. the crude base, /. e. 55^, 

2, Ace. the crude base, *. e. 

3, Instr. the termination of the ablative. 

4, Dat. *art, i. e. e^rt, ^^ri, J^rt. 

5, Abl. v^,e.g.v^,^t>l. 

6, Gen. -a^, e.g. ^, ^^. 

7, Loc. the crude base, ^$D, e. g. &, 

128. The case-terminations for the singular of nominal bases with a 
radical final e/u (see 97), whether masculine, feminine, or neuter 
(see 139 regarding ^do)- 

The bases comprise Kannada and Saiiiskrita words. They can easily 
he distinguished from those in 121, 122, and 127, as their final SAD 
never unites with a following vowel without the euphonic augment ^ 
being inserted. For instance, we say ^scsso^J^O (c3e>cl) 


, but we cannot say, as every intelligent teaci. 
knows, ^oosoSj^j, sjocSejO&j^j, but must say =g\)do;3e>oaj& (tfjck-o*- 
woSo^o), rfozliSTOOaj^j (3oc&-;3*-o2>j3j). See 215, 3, d. 

The case-terminations are suffixed by means of a euphonic 53*, except 
in one form of the dative. 

a) in the ancient dialect 

1, Norn. /o, i. e. the crude base, e.g. &, erook, <o 8 -u, stoo, 3roi, ^ 

2, Ace. e$o, e. </. 5%)d>3o (^odo.a^.ao), steoso (Jicso-a^.wo) ; rtodJSo 

3, Instr. 'ao, 'ajjo, arf o, ^^?io, 'a^ , e. 

o o o 

OC&SSO, rtoOJi)?)0, dJ^OilSO; 

4, Dat. rt, 'SicF^, e. g- ^^Jr5, ci^rt, ^c^ort; ;i>cl)ort, 

5, Abl. 'a^^rSo, 'stf^riirfc, r a?i^.cli^, the terminations of the instru- 
mental, e. g. 9^b>ii^i4o. 

6, Gen. y, y, ^^,e.g. SocfciS, 

7, Loc. M* (550), 

V fv^ ' 

6) in the mediaeval dialect 

1, Nom. ero i.e. the crude base, vu, e. #. 
otdo^) (see 113, and cf. 130, letter A). 

2, Ace. eso, (S5?l>), ?5, e. (7. tsrfjso, 2rew3o, ^ 

2J03, ^OJiJ 3, 


3, Instr. ao, ^^o, e. g. 

4, " Dat. rt, ^7^, CSLO^), e. g 

5, Abl. cs.f^do, etc.), the terminations of the instrumnntal. 

6, Gen. (es), Qtf, e.g 

, SN. 

7, Loc. los^ 

C) in the modern dialect 

1, Nom. enj /. e. the crude base, yu (see 113), e. g. 

2, Ace. e, ?5, *a^, -arf, the crude base, c. //. 

The strange forms rtoctoarf, rtodoi)?^ are given in hia 'Outlines of K 
Grammar', page 17, by Venkat Rango K.uii. lv;ui;u\-sr Translator, K 
Bombay, 1886. 


Forms of the modem dialect like rioJJsA^sS^ (of ?jorf^) and a&JA^rf5^ (of 
in which the final w is wrongly treated as if it were radical, are modern 
licenses in literature. 

3, Instr. arf, <ad, e. 


4, Dat. fart, e. g. wrfo^rt, ^oo^tf, riodo&ri, 

5, Abl. ^N, ( aa,e..9 | . riodoa^, adrfj^rf; rtod>aa;|, 

O O 

6, Gen. y, -a^, e. g. 

7, Loc. 39 'S.rS e. (7- 

co' <<o' 

129. There are some nominal bases ending in en/a, ak, sd/9, &>, and 
which in the singular are declined like those in 128, e.g. ^JP, 3o 

a) in the ancient dialect 

1, Nom. the crude base, e.g. 43, &^, #>. 

2, Ace. S5o e. ^. o^So, (L^.So. ^J3?so, n^^io. 

In Sabdamanidarpana p. 67 there is si/sS^o or the crude base. Cf. letter c. 

3, Instr. -ao, 'SuS, 'S^o, 'aJio, e. o. 3&z>, b% Lao ; 



4, Dat. rt, "aort, e. .9' 

5, Abl. 'a^c^o, e.g. 

6, Gen. 55, 'a^, e. 

7, Loc. ^S 1 * 

6) in the mediaeval dialect 

1, Nom. the crude base, ero> e. #. 

2, Ace. ?5o, e. 
6, Gen. 'arf, e. 

c) in the modern dialect 

1, Nom. the crude base, vo, e. g. ao-o, r^-Q?; 3oJ3^), 

2, Ace. S3rfo,, the crude base, e.g. 


4, Dat. 'art, e. #. 
G, Gen. ^^, e. g. 

130. The case-terminations for the singular of masculine, feminine and 
neuter bases ending in 'a, -g and o. (Regarding some exceptions see 

The terminations are suffixed by means of a euphonic o& s , except 
in the dative (cf. the o* in 109, a, 6). 


a) in the ancient dialect 

1, Nom. '3, 3s, }, i.e. the crude base, e.g. 3)O, tfda, roa, *a, 

2, Ace. ?5o, (the crude base), e. g. 3&oijo, na*oi)o, nsaoJoo, stoojoo, 

OiiO, dOZaOJJO, OODSOJJO, ^djrfoiiO; Ai ?OJJO; 30(3oJJO, tf?3oi>0, *tfoi)0, ^tfoii 

The crude base is seen, e.g. in the following instance of Kesava: A* 
. See 120, a, 2. 

3, Instr. -So, ^o, ^?S, aj, e.#. -frSoDJo, 33^^0030, ZJ^OSOo, 

. ricSoOoo, ^ewrtoSoo. e^7rae3o5oo: 


(in a sasana of 929 A. D.; Pampa Bbarata 1, 140; see 
^S'ripatunga's Kavirajaraarga, edited by K. B. Pathak, B. A., introduction p. 2). 

4, Dat. rf, e.g. *art, dorfrt, ^art, 23rH, rf^Srt, ^drt, doc'rt, s? 

5, Abl. ^o, S5^r^^o, w^r^^, e. g. 
ifes'oij^ rso, sirtaJi^ r3c, d^oio^r^o; ^o'oij^rfrfo 

_o _ j^-s _ao _ 

6, Gen. w, y, e. 7. naflcxJj. fWoi), ^^jcii, d^^oio, ^artoio, 

ajdj6oio, W(3oij, ^^oij, w^oio; ^Cofcu, -S-oaiobD, fSt^oiss, nortobs. See under 
109, a, 6, about the lengthening. 

7, Loc. ero V s , kv*, &sk, 2^r^, wo*, 

(in a sasana of 707 A. D.), OTdra^obj** (in a sasana of 866 A. D.); 

(both in a sasana of 1076 A. D.), tfQ^oletfj (in a sasana of 1123 
A. D.); en>Qo3J3tfrt, SJ^ol&tfrt; oa^oko 5 (in a sasana of 1 186 A. D.) ; 
(in a sasana of 1076 A. D.), aSu^ofceH (in a sasana of 1123 A. D.), 
(in one of 1182 A. D.)-, wixrfoO, To^olxD. 

&) in the mediaeval dialect 

1,~ Nom. *a, 3, (^, i. e. the crude base, the augment ero (see 113), e.g. 

31)050, ^?0; & ? ; dO?S ; SQoiiO, W^OJOO, To^OJOO, Sie3oJOJ. 

The augment u, like that of 128 and ij 129, is in reality not euphonic or 
a help to enunciation, and is so to say, a superfluous addition. Like that of 
128 and 129 it disappears in sandhi (213 seq.). 

2, Ace. ?5o, Wfk, S5, e.g. ZjJ-S^oioo, ?toioJoo, es^oioo; jj 

j, rte?,oio. 

3, Instr. 'So, 'S ^ o, -aS, arf , f. ^. 

, ., , , , 

a T vj_i> a > a A -* A 1 a 

4, Dat. ri, e. g. rf^rt, saoaort, "cjj-^rt, sojaSrrt, ^rt, wtfrt, ?Joirt, 

5, Abl. (y^r^o, etc.j, 'a.ri s^;, the terminations of the instrumental, 
e. a. ^oOoiorfd; odosoti. 

* a o 

6, Gen. 55, P. a. && oi), ^oAoij, wsol), ^o^oi^, ^~ osj, wrfoi.\ *3o3o. 

,7 _ 



7, LOC. &oS*, &otfo, to^tf, S3A), OO, S5 

^oSja? 16 ; ?3;3ao3.tfo, $dr3o5,tfo 

te d&otfrt, s^ototfrt, 


C) in the modern dialect 
1, Nom. ^, Q^, ,0, i. e. the crude base, the augment ero (see 113), e.g. 

33-3- oJoo. 


2, Ace. y^j, e^, 5, 5?5, lengthening of the final vowel, the crude 
base, e.g. BDO^^O, eStooijrfo, ttiQoiicfo, 

; ^=ia, riorio, w3, 

*- o 

wrf is ^o with a final , and 3oAerf, a^srf, etc. stand for 
etc. The forms ?3oA?, etc., a;^, etc., stand for ^oAoii, etc., ^Q^oio, etc. 

3, Instr. 'arf e. <7. s3ooso5o?i. rfoQoaorf, ^?5 

I Q'^/ C5 A A 

4, Dat. tf, e. ^. Soo^ri, ^or^, 33 sort, 

5, Abl. ^fi, e. ^. 

6, Gen. j, y, lengthening of the final vowel, e. g. 

oix dojj, ^J3?Ae 
, 0033. ??, ^ ?, tfj3, 

A eoij, ^fS oi), ^JS^cdi, w^oJo, -^oix dojj, ^J3?Ae3oJ^; uiS.oija, S3QoJJ3: 

= a eJ 

33C&, etc., ^4, etc. stand for ssofooi), etc., ^^ojj, etc. 

00 <Z 

7, Loc. ^rt, *5g, S5, ^s, ^0, , e.g. ^ps 

:; ay ( oio, 

, etc., S^O, etc. stand for W3Soi>, etc., ^oJ^C, etc.; and 
etc. are corrupted forms of ^eOoi>>, etc. (c/". 121, letter c). 

131. The case-terminations of the plural of neuter bases with final y 
are given in 118, and those of the plural of masculine and feminine 
(and epicene) bases with final 5 in 119. 

Here follow the case-terminations for the plural of neuter bases, (the 
feminine bases 3s)0&*, lc=3*', and the masculine-neuter base e*vM ending 
in consonants ($ 120), in the vowel eru that, occasionally also in the 
ancient dialect, is euphonieally suffixed ($121), and in the euphonical 
vowel ero that in each dialect is always suffixed ( 122), and further those 

- 69 

for the plural of masculine, feminine and neuter bases endin* in the radical 
vowel vo ( 128), in srua, si>, 8&fi>, to and 2J ( 129), and in -a and ^ 
( 130), the case-terminations nowhere indicating the gender (see 132 
wherein the gender, to some extent, appears from the terminations of 
the plural). 

The case-terminations are 

a) in the ancient dialect 

1, Norn. rV, ***, rt*>, e.g. 
tov* arexiocsv* 

A r 

(i n a sasana of 1187 A. D.); 

; rtodorJ^o. wajOorttfo (both in a sasana of 1182 A. D.). 

2, Ace. $o, e.g. sautfo, enjsrir^ 

3, Instr. -so, (stfo, r a?S, e. ^. 

4, Dat. ri, e^rt, e..^. yvariF^; *an; ^5^0^ (in a sasana of 1187 A.D.). 
The ero in wrt is merely euphonic. 

5, Abl. (e^cSo, w^c^fio, W^cS^), the terminations of the instru- 
mental, e. a. ^-EKcaSo; 3 f oaoio<#.ri?^. 

1:7 v a 

6, Gen. y, 53, e. ^r. s'retf, ^ooi)^, ^ocSo^"!?; rlodorts^, ^oiwrt's'; sgprttf; 

7, Loc. LoV* Cw 1 ) e. a. 

' V fr,/' 

6) * in the mediaeval dialect 
1, Nora. rt<s*, rttfo, e. ^. 

, rteSnv*: sa 


In ^TJo^rttfo the termination rttfj has been appended to the euphonic ^J of 
the nominative singular (see 128, letter b). 
2, Ace. e3o, erfo, S5, e. ^7. ^s 

3, Instr. ^o, 'atfo, "aS, -arf, a, e.^r. ^,sr,*o, ?iodr(oi 

, , 

For the ^ in JJjsoSoris? see 109, letters 6 and c. 

4, Dat. rt, 'art, e. #. 

70 - 

5, Abl. (ea^c&o, etc.j, the terminations of the instrumental, e. g. 


6, Gen. s, e. a. ^sejtf; tJdrioritf, <o^> rttf, Soo^oritf; zfctforttf, =325orftf; 

t/ rt * * 

7, Loc. &,$*, (&>b), ^tfri, , eO, e- 0. 

raoJMto ; ;3o3ritfe, aocSrftfC, do^rftfe, 3?s?ritf, rf^rttfO, 

c) in the modern dialect 

1, Norn, rttfo, e. g. ^rsorteO, sfoitfaritfo, sora^ri^o, ssej^rt^o, ao?odori^o, 
; .o^rttfo, ^jsjforftfo, jjja&irttfo; nodori^o, S^rts^o, aorfort^o; sgp^rttfo, 
; 33cOJrts#o, 

Another plural is formed by adding the plural of the pronouns 3 or 
W2. s5JiciJ, to the nominative plural, e.g. dotfritf^cio, |,?rl^rido, or to the nominative 
singular, e.g. ^33raoJJddo. ^ g 119, c, i. 

2, Ace. S5?5o , e, e. #. 

, riodon^, 
3, Instr. 'a^, e. g. 

4, Dat. ^ft, e.g. ^3^Ayortf ^ ^; o^rtsfrt, ^JSToortsrt, ss^ort^rt; rtodort^rt, 

5, Abl. the termination of the instrumental. 

6, Gen. w. e. a. ^wort^, 23?dort^; ?rJS7oort^, z3?rirt^; rfodontf, ^ 

^^" ti7 PO *CT 

7, Loc. 

132. As has been remarked in 131 there are such plural case- 
terminations for nominal bases as indicate their gender, but only to 
a certain extent; for these terminations are of an epicene character (c/. 
102, 4), and besides in poetical diction are appended even to neuter 
objects. (C/. the terminations in 118. 119. 134.) 

The terminations that are affixed to bases ending in ^ 3% (v, e. g. in 
o, ,0, (o&, in ssois*), (<3*, e.g. in 3oofto e ), are the following: 

a) in the ancient dialect 

1, Nom. wo*, sao*, rt$o, 30o s , f^rs? 4 , w^r^o*, So*, 
. ^. ^(|oi)o s , 

C^O 5 (of 

6 * 6 * , 


, . 

The o& f in ^^o3jo f , etc. is euphonic or a help to enunciation. rt0* consists 
of rtv* and 'SO*, >0o* of wo* and 'SO*, atfrs* O f JO* and ^v*, *FO* O f c* 
and *V and tio*, OS^FV* O f So* an d *v*, SOo* of ^o* and 'ao*, JJ^FV* o f so* 
and ***, )rtrv* O f so* and rts*. In Qo* and so* the c* an d a* are euphonic 

2, Ace. wo, e. g. 

3, Instr. -ao, fa^o, 'SifS), e. 

'V Q ' Q/' 

4, Dat. rl tf e. a. A toJortr O r A ;oi)rt r, ca^ oi>rtr O r ^3f? 

i - i *7 ^ -e^ /-\ _6 _A 

or ^^OJJI^F. See 119, a, 4 as to the doubling. 

5, Abl. (y^jio, etc., the terminations of the instrumental). 

6, Gen. w, e. #. 3;|o3oo. 

7, Loc. (ioV*, S3). 

6) in the mediaeval dialect 
1, Nom. 

stands for e^oiid). The wo* in BkwrfoKJdSO* has been adopted from 
TarniJ. (by the-Basavapurana). 

6, Gen. 5, e. #. 7oJ8^oi)d. 

7, Loc. (&v*), Zotfo, (S3), e.g. 
c) in the modern dialect 

1, Nora, ydj, oSd), e. 


stand for 5-3ft^ oi)dj 


133. Let it be remarked here that many declinable bases are optionally 
pluralised in Kannada, 1, neuters expressing the idea of genus, species or 
kind (jati), as 

2, neuters of numerical character (saiikhyeya, sankhyaiiavastu), as 

oi-wrt; 3, numerals (sankhye, sankhyuna), as c53^, 5^, sUew; and 4. 

abstract neuters (bhava), as ^Jas^r, z3tfj_, ^5d)F. See 354, I. 

134. The case-terminations of the plural of feminines of which the singular 
in the ancient dialect ends in estf*, in the mediaeval dialect in esv* or 
estfj, and in the modern dialect in ^tfj. (Regarding their singular see 
$ 120, 121, and regarding the plural of their masculine has^s. ^ 110.) 

a) in the ancient dialect 

1, Norn. >o*, (and with the elision of "*) ^0% ^V*, <? ^ij * (of e;3 

V*), 'SlS^O* (of t)3V*), STO^O* (of WU3V*), y^ 0*, 33i?0 J , 

- 72 

(of av), 'Sdo* (of 'Siat*), eroau* ( O f A)S*>, wo* ( O f 
'SiSioiiO* (of ^aoJJV*),* ( O f ^Oojje*); ^o^v* ( O f 

wo* stands for w3o s ( se e 135). The case-terminations for the oblique 
cases are identical with those of the plural of the masculine bases. 

b) in the mediaeval dialect 

1, Nom. 230 s ?$dj 6. (/ S33O*, -cjojw, cowi- u", (Xujru", au" ; wjuj, - GJJUJ) 

c) in the modern dialect 

1, Nom. 3c!o, e. g. 93dj, ^ado, 2^20 do, oiasdo. 

135. In the preceding paragraph we have met with the forms 
and o&e>dj as the nominative plural of feminines with final 

and ?5^o. It is to be added here that the same forms of the plural are 
also those of the masculine interrogative pronouns ?do, (wdrfo), o&>^?^, 
ne>;5^o, their singular being declined like that of masculine bases with 
final ss ( 117). Cf. 270. 
) in the ancient dialect 

1, Nom. wo* . 

wo* is a contraction of wSo* (see 265). 

2, Ace. wdo. 
4, Dat. wrir. 

6, Gen. wd, wo 5 . 

wo* occurs only in W^JF for wd^J or wddo, of whom it? whose (is) it? 
( 270). 

b) in the mediaeval dialect 

1, Nom. wo*. 

2, Ace. 
4, Dat. 

6, Gen. wd. 

c) in the modern dialect 

1, Nom. (wdo), o33adj, csudo. 

2, Ace. od33dt^, oadcfo: oisnd, 
4, Dat. ofcaort, naOrt. 

6, Gen. oi^d, asd. 

136. The plural of the neuter pronouns y^j, xx^o, erocSo, 
o5S3^o, ojejdj (S 102, s, b. c), oi3?)rfdj, cj^dulj, and of the neuter 

n v 

pronominal hases (so-called adjectives, 102, 8, c) with final 3o, ^ and 
So (c/. ^ 116. 122. 276), such as 


Regarding their singular see 
<< 122. 124, and regarding their masculine and feminine or epicine, 
plural ;< 119. 134). 

a) in the ancient dialect 

1, Norn. 4, ^3), enj^i, w43>, 353), *>3); z-^ck^, s3o0cta$, tfU^ii, ic, 

In wsS^ w3> is attached to the base W3 ( 117), and in &*!, JW,^) 4 to 
siisii, iy ; in z-*,rfJ^, etc. (of ^^, etc.) the eru^i is joined to a euphonic a 6 (//.the 
masculine bases z-*^, sSJ^c?, ^^, etc. in 117); in tSAoJJ^, etc. the pronominal 
rfj ( 122) has been dropped and ts^) (for ero^>) been suffixed to the original 
base *, etc. by means of a euphonic 3& 6 , or to their genitive (see 276). 
Regarding the 4 compare the plural signs So* and d) in 137. 193, remarks. 

2, Ace. 3o, qrfo, erodo, (e^do, rfia^o, ^do^o, AoJ)do), J^ 

3, Instr. ? 3^e 

4, Djtt. S^ 

5, Abl. (aa'es^rfo, ifses'O). 

6, Gen. wdes, 'gaes, Sja^es, <oy lia, 

7, Lo'c. wae#^9 J , 'gsesVav* 
6) in the mediaeval dialect 

1, Norn. 

The plurals 33i4, a-^dod), etc. have not been found by the author. 

2, Ace. wdo, gdo; ^e^doo, <oy a. 

3, Instr. (eaa'o). 

4, Dat. 3. or 3*, ^d or 

5, Abl. (^se 

6, ^Gen. ? 

7, Loc. waesC; .o^aes^. 
c) in the modern dialect 
1, Nora. 

In osSrt^o, etc. the termination rttfj (see it e. </. in j} 131) has been added 
to ^53, etc. 

2, Ace. 

3, Instr. 

1, Dat. ^^ d or w^^, W^. or 
5, Abl. 
G, Gen. 
7, Loc. 

137. Declension of the personal pronouns and of the reflexive pronoun 
(see 102, 7, 8, a). 



a) in the ancient dialect 

1, Kom. o (3 s before vowels), viz. wo (e*3"), (530, 533*)- ?>?o ($*); 330 

According to some ancient poets also FSSO (N3c3 ) is used (Sabdanusasana 
sutra 288; see the plural. 

The long vowel of the crude form of the above terms, as will be seen, 
presents itself as short in the oblique cases of the singular as well as of the 

2, Ace. S5o, viz. ^o, a^o, g^o; (rfc^o); (^, see 352, 16). 

The 3 s is an augment-, its doubling is euphonic (see e. g. 109, b and c). 

3, Instr. ao, r arfo, 'a??, w. JS.o, aao, 3ao; oario, aarfo. 3 ado? 

A 1 ^ CO ^CO *^U) 

^3, Hi- ^i ; (^4' etc -). 

4, Dat. ofl, viz. o^, arir!, 3rfrt; (rfrirt). 

The forms are irregular, as after the euphonic augment 5 (o) the letter ^ 
has been inserted : <^^^, etc. stand for ^of(, etc. (c/. e. g, letter c and 1 17, a). 

5, Abl. SJ^rlio, etc., e. g. <o^c3o, s^^rfo, '^^rfo; (^f|^do. etc.). 

6, Gen. ss, ?;^. <o^, srf, ^^; <o^, ssl, ^^; (<o^, s^, ^^); (^^, etc.). 
The not doubling of the augment ^ appears when the pronouns 

(substitutes for 55 oo, see 122) are added to the genitive, e.g. <ojdoJ, 

<orf^, (rfrf^). Exceptionally the pronominal form ^ (see 122) is suffixed to 

xs*, o)? 6 ', ^^, 6.^. ^rf^ (see 272, 2). 

7, Loc. Eo< (^), vte. oj^ v, Stio^v*, gSJ^v*; (rfcSJ^v*, N^). 


1, Nom. o (^^ before vowels), ^, orty 4 , ws. ^o (ySo 6 ), sxo (p)^ ff ), 
330 (53rio); (?rao); ?3^ (j n a sasana of 1181 A. D.), 33^) (in a sftsana of 1123 
A. D.); wortv ff , s?ortv ff , 33ort^. 

The change of the sonne into ^* and ^ (see also the mediaeval and modern 
forms) reminds one of the & as a sign of the plural in JS, etc. ( 136) and of 
that of the plural of the personal terminations ( 193). Cf. 265. 

2, Ace. 5o. viz. <o^Ap, ftdoo, ^^0,0; 

c- e* e- 

3, Instr. 'S.o, etc., e. g. siO^o, ftao^p, 

4, Dat. ori, vie. oSjrt, ad^rt, irfort; 

Regarding the form see the remark under the dative singular. In the often- 
used form of reduplication 33* 33ort the ^^-3 is an abbreviation of 

5, Abl. (^^riic, etc., e.g. <o^.rfo, etc.); 

6, Gen. 5, viz. <^^->, ^^J, ^^i *>^, 33-i, 

The not doubling of the augment ^^ appears when the pronouns 
are added to the genitive, e, g. <o3o3.), codo^. In the often-used form of 
reduplication $3$ ^\ tne ^^ i 8 an abbreviation of ^^-> or 33\- Cf. 250. 


7, Loc. ^v, (S3$), viz. 

l>) in the mediaeval dialect 

1, Norn, o, <tfo, the crude "base, rie. yo (WoJ*), a<o (StjJ*), sac 

rfo, (a30), 3330; 33, N, 33. 

2, Ace. eso, W2. i^o, S^o, 3^0; .Ocio^o, arioso, 33^30. 

In (Oidi^o, etc. a euphonic ^ has been added to <o?^, etc. which has been 
treated as if it were radical (see 128). 

3, Instr. ( f ao), si#o, 'S 

4, Dat. O ri, viz. <orfrt, srf 

5, Abl. (W^r^o, etc.). 

6, Gen. ?5, viz. Af^, ftj^, ^c^. 

7, Loc. k<$*, aos#j, ^s^?^, (0), e.g. 

1, IS'om. (o or 3o), sj, W0. (o, etc.); 

2, ACC. S3o. W2. i30,0, (^SO^O), ftdOO, 

o && 

3, Instr. (-so), -a^o, (-3^), e.g. 

4, Dat. otf, W2. -OSJ^, <o^rt, rfzsor^, 

The s ff in <o3rt and Srt is an optional substitute for 30 s ; see 225. In the 
often-used ^30 ^stotf and ^53 ^srl the ^3o and ^^ are abbreviations of 
and ^J3rt. 

5, Abl. (a^rSo, etc.). 

6, Gen. 5, e. 5f. ^^; -03 

7, Loc. (fcv*), 2^^o, etc., e. g. 
c) in the modern dialect 

1, Nom. ?^ the crude base, W2. ?ra?fo, ft?rfj, 33^0; 53, a?, 33. 

2, Ace. S5fl), 5^0,, 55, W-3. cic^cdo, S^rfo, ^i^ci); rf^rf^, R 

3, Instr. a^, v* 

4, Dat. ort, 'sri, v2. ftort. sort, ^ort; )rfrt, sSrfrt. arfri, ^rfrt; rfsrt, ^srt, 

In rfart, etc. the euphonic ^ of 117, letter c, has been inserted. <ojirt is 
occasionally used in proverbs. 

5, Abl. the termination of the instrumental. 

6, Gen. tf, viz. 33, Brf, ^^i 33^, ^, ^; (rfcJ*, S3*, ^3). 

s!^ in rfrfri, rfrf TO, S?^ in ftiirt, srf,?S, an d ^5 e in ^it> (/. f. ^J^ ^>) are 

O o v *** 

abbreviations of 33, $3, 33 (see 272, -2}. 

7, Loc. &tffl, aS, >, w'2. ^'^- *3^ ^e : fi^C f:S, 


~ 76 


1, Norn. ^), viz. 

2, Ace. 


<*i; ^L c530,, 330. 
=< a 7 a a 

. 3, Instr. -stf, via. 
4, Dat. otf, via. 

For srio ^^or^, which is often used, see under letter b. 

5, Abl. the termination of the instrumental. 

6, Gen. , viz. rfao, $3o, ^3J; rfso^, ?>^>, ^J3o & . 

in rfS^rt, rf^o^o, rf^<3, SJ^ in $3o o 3, an( j ^30* in 

abbreviations of 
7, Loc. 

138. As it is possible to trace the origin of the personal pronouns and 
the reflexive pronoun almost with certainty, the following etymological 
remarks on them may not be out of place. 

a) Forms of their nominative singular in the five chief Dravida languages. 

Kannada ^o (?*3 5 ), 3ao 





Malyaja SK; 
Tamij. 8t; 
Tulu *; 
Telugu S>?d), -^^i. 

Kannada 330 (33?!*), 3srfo, 33; 
Malayala 3355*; 



Telugu 33^o, 33. 

b) Its crude forms. 

The finals o, 3*, rfo, ^) are not radical, as is learned from the forms 33, 3?, 
a; ft?, ; 33; they are signs of the nominative singular. Cf. 114. 

Without them the bases are w, 33, "^^3, oias, a, 3; ^, s?; 33. (Cf. also 
the interrogative O in 265.) 


c) The forms used for the oblique cases. 

In the oblique eases the long vowels are, as a rule, short. If we accept the 
long vowels to be primitive, the shortening rests on nothing else but euphonism 
employed in attaching the case-terminations (cf. (OsD^ysJC^, o-faC^ in 265). 

Kannada w appears as <o, c3e> as 3, Malayala ^s as 3 and 'S (this occa* 
sionally in the dative), Tami). &3, c33 appear as *, Tulu oka appears as oio 
and following a consonant as <o, Telugu &, ^' appear as 33 (in the genitive 
and dative) and as rf (in the accusative). The forms of the oblique cases for 
the first person are, therefore, oJ, *S, F5, ^Se). 

Kannada and Malayala ftt appear as ft, Tulu & appears likewise as ft, 
Telugu ft? appears as ft (in the accusative) and as ft? (in the genitive and dative), 
TamiJ. S appears as ft, rfo, ro- Thus the forms for the oblique cases of the 
second person are ^ ? >, f3o 5 ero. 

The form for the oblique cases of 33, the reflexive pronoun (the pronoun of 
the third person), is ^ in Kannada, Malayala, Tamil., Tulu, and Telugu. 

d) Probable origin of the three pronouns. 
1, That of the first person. 

The vowels used in the formation of this person are S3, w, "a, <o, Zj. 
The exceptional ^ of the dative of Malayala may be dismissed from further 
consideration, as the regular vowel of its dative too is i; it may be added that 
^ and <o frequently interchange in Kannada (see e.g. 66; 109, i, 3). 

The short 5 and <o of the oblique cases have been taken to be the shortened 
forms of w and a (above letter c); if the reverse be accepted, no material 
difference will proceed from it. Let the radical vowels be y and ). 

Which of the two vowels has been leading in the formation of the pronoun 
of the first person? We may say the one or the other, because they are related 
and occasionally interchanged, e. g. Kannada w, =0,0! (see 140); tf, a, what? 
which? D , ao*, a pair of oxen yoked to the plough; s , ae 1 ' to be 
possible; *n>o*, 3?c 6 , to be or become near; Tami)., Telugu <*, &, o; Tamil 
Wes-i, TSlugu *X3J, a river. (Regarding the interchange of short & and i cf. 
e.g. , ), o! (see 140); ^c3 , <os*, to say; ^oi}*, ^ofc*, the hand; 3e3, 3d 
the head; w^r, oi^r, swallow-wort). 

If we take > (or W) as the leading vowel, the idea which underlies the 
t'ormation of the pronoun of the first person, is that of calling the attention of 
another or others to one's self or the 'I', the particle & (or ^) being commonly 
used in calling, or calling to, a person near or at a distance (see 140). aa 
(or wo) thus is the person that desires to be taken notice of, ' the-0-here ' ! 

But what about the initial consoriants ofc 5 , -sp* artd ?*? Do they in any 
way influence the meaning of So (wo) or in other words are they essential ? 


The answer must be in the negative already on account of their not appearing 
in Kannada wo, Telugu *>3o, a, and, as a rule, in the oblique cases. 

In order to explain this we add that the letter o&* (like the Samskrita Q& ) 
is a semi-vowel in Kannada, and especially Kannada and Telugu people very 
often use it euphonically as a help to pronouncing the initial vowels ^ ^, A *> 
( 41; cf. also the euphonic ok 5 , e.g. in 113. 130. 132); only exceptionally 
it has disappeared in the tadbhavas aaov* (=abdoo) and 2A)rt ( = oi>Jri); in the 
tadbhavas <o ( = oi)3), oi^ ( = ojj^), ^3 ( = oi>d) the initial <o, when not preceded 
by a consonant or a consonant with a euphonic SAJ, is pronounced o3o. Also 
before * the ok* is euphonically sounded, e.g. *, o&3, what? which?, ^^ 
ofaao*, who?, Tamij. wo*, oisao*, who?, v$# oi$3% an elephant, Telugu art, oiasJ 
wild, which is likewise done when an initial appears as o&3, e. g. *>^, 
o&au-^, cardamoms, &3, o&a^, a picotta, , oijs, what? which?, *>^, oisa^, why? 
(or when an initial short <^ appears as oi), e. g. ^^ ^^ 1 ^ ^^ ^^ a 
female buffalo, Telugu >3dJ, ofcdd), who?). Thus the initial ott* of the 
nominative singular of the pronoun of the first person must be declared to be 
unessential or simply euphonic, when at the same time one considers that 
occasionally it has no place there, that '3 1a * and 3 are used in its stead, and 
that it is not found in the oblique cases. 

'SO^ is never initial in a true Kannada and Telugu word; but is found as 
the initial of some Tamij., Malayala and Tulu terms. The form spas? 5 of the 
first pronoun is Malayala. '3^ is another form of c3*; thus Tamij. 

are Kannada 3z3, the sun; Tamil, ^a^o, c33O) are Kannada 
to be suspended; Tamij. ^oeD, 330 are Kannada 3ao*, Telugu Sa 
c33, a peacock. Besides, as apparently in the first person of the pronoun, it 
makes its appearance as a vowel (i or ) also in other words, as does likewise 
its co-ordinate and substitute 3*. For instance for Tamil. < sp3a, 3>wo and 
Kannada cfco*, to be suspended, there is the ancient Kannada owo* (Telugu 
s3wo) ; Telugu 3o, a peacock, appears also as <oao & ; Tamij. 'S? 3 ^ ^ ra i' ^ ra i> a 
crab, are *>S in Kannada and <oe| in Telugu (in Kannada there is also the 
primitive form <0?oS, a crab) ; Kannada sss?, Tamij. 33^, Malayala c33^, to-morrow, 
are <^^, in Telugu and <oeS, in Tulu. There is, therefore, no reason for consider- 
ing the < 3 X3 * to be an essential part of the nominative of the pronoun of the first 
person, as it bears the same character as the semi-vowel ofc*; it is used to 
facilitate pronunciation by a small section of the Dravida people. 

5< bears no character in the pronoun different from that of its substitutes 
< ST= e and oij*, the last occurring in Tamij. side by side with 3 s ; it too is simply 
euphonic (cf. the 53* of the second person), although it has been, and still is, 
often used in the nominative of the pronoun and its oblique cases by a large 
number of the Dravidas. By the bye, in a few tadbhavas 3 s appears as a direct 


substitute of ofc, e. g. in Kannada 3J3rt (=oJ:.>rt), a yoke, and in Tamil 
33o (=otafc), Yama. 

2, That of the second person. 

The vowels used in the formation of the second person are d?, 'S, and y\)- 

That the initial consonant ?3* is not essential, but euphonic, follows from 
its absence in Tulu ^, Telugu ^^) in the nominative, and Tamij. eru in the 
oblique cases (cf. the 3 of the tirst person). 

The leading vowel is 3s, this, the proximate demonstrative particle, 
expressing that a person (or any object) is situated in front of another; the 
original meaning of the pronoun is 'next (to me) one'! This 3* appears also 
as short e.g. in *S)do, r 33- 

In the oblique cases of the Tamij. pronoun the leading vowel presents itself 
as <JTO, a short form of AW, the intermediate demonstrative pronoun, denoting, in 
the present case, a person who is intermediate between the left and right and 
directly faces the speaker in being addressed, the primitive meaning being 
'right opposite (to me) one'! This A> is also short e.g. in e/udo, en>3. 

3, That of the pronoun of the third person or of the reflexive pronoun. 
The vowels employed for the formation of this pronoun are J and S5, 

the first appearing in the crude base 33, the second in , the base used for 
the oblique cases, w is shortened into ^ both demonstrative particles which 
mean 'that' ( 264), i. e. he, she, it, being used for all the three genders; W, 
as we have seen in 115, has got also the specific meaning of 'he'. 

y and ?3 are attached to the pronominal syllable ^ (3* + euphonic en), 
122), another form of & or &&, the demonstrative neuter pronoun, by means 
of sandhi (213 seq.), the w disappearing. The ^ in this case points back 
to the agent or subject, and 33 (3o + tf), 3 (3o + 53) originally mean 'that-that'. 
i. f., according to circumstances, 'that-he', ' that-she ', 'that-it'. (The same 
& + $ appears also in ^3, -^3, crus^, 'that-it-he', 'this-it-he', 'this-intermedi- 
ate-it-he'; see 265.) 


It seems proper here to refer to the connection that exists between tho 
pronouns of the first, second and third person and the personal terminations of 
the verb. Regarding the vowels ^, W, <o, a of the pronoun of the first person 
compare the 53, ^o, w of the first person plural of the imperative in 205 and 
the <o, <oo, and <o?fo O f the first person singular and its ^>o, <o^j in the plural in 
11)3 ; regarding the vowels ^ & of the pronoun of the second person compare 
the ^, > and 530& s of the second person singular in >> 193, the 'SO*, 'gSofthe 
second person plural in 193, and the 'S, 'So, ^ of the second person plural 
of the imperative in $ 205; and regarding the & and tf of the pronoun 
of the third person compare the , o, ?k of the third person singular in 


139. Peculiarities in the declension of some nominal bases are still to 
be adduced. In 122 there are some terms of direction with final 
euphonic ero, and in 123 some such terms with final y of which the 
genitive singular, etc. are formed by the help of the augment y^' 
(see 124). This augment is used likewise in the ancient declension of 
the following words when they express direction : do, ^d, A&. 
3o, a term of direction with radical ero ( 128); instrumental and 

ablative F^J^F^O, dative ^do^ri, genitive jS erodes. vd, a term of 

direction with final ,0 ( 130); instr. and abl. ^dodor^o, dat. , 

gen. ^doJora. orS, a term of direction with final ^ ( 130); gen. ^d 
O&rs. If the three words are not used as terms of direction, their 
declension follows that of 128. 130, e. g. ?idj:^, ^dol), ojdol>. 

The use of the same augment is seen also in the genitive singular 
of es 'S, ero> and cO, terms of direction with final ^ (8 130), 

CO 00 00 0"' 

chiefly in the ancient dialect, viz. S3 o5ors>. 'aSoSora. ero oi>ra. oi 

PO w co 

o3ofc) The common declension, however, of 3 ^ and j, is 

ro' ' ro' 

a) in the ancient dialect e. fir. dative ?3r{ f( ablative 55 o, 

w ' ' oo 

^o genitive 3o3o; 6) in the mediaeval dialect e. a. dat. 

oo o 

5o^, f a>rl, oi r^, abl. S3)F2, %5^, gen. esOok 

PO <r>'ro' MO'MQ' po 

c) in the modern dialect dat. esOtf, 'S.Ori v)?^ abl. 

ro co ' oo ' 

^) f^. gen. S5<>03o, ^o^o. ^OJo, 'a^. 


&JS and 3$2 ? terms of direction with final ^ are generally declined 
like terms ending in oj ( 130), e.g. genitive weloJo (in the mediaeval 
and modern dialect) ; but in the modern dialect we find also e. g. 

(for Sszlr',) and 92^ (for gj^ofc). 
Further, in the same manner as the nominal bases always ending 

in a euphonic efo in 127 which express time, ^DS?, $$ and 
terms with final ^ which relate to time, are declined, viz. a) in the 
ancient dialect e. g. nom. (the crude base) ^DS?, dat. ^s^ori, gen. 
^$$; >rl, >cX^, ?Xf3; ^JSfS., si>3,otf, wJaa,rf; b) in the mediaeval 

Q^_ G^_ Q^_ *X_ G\. Q\, 

dialect e.g. ^^, FSD^, c3)^^); c) in the modern dialect e.g. 

Besides, two terms with final 5 that relate to time, are declined like 
bases with final euphonic <yo ( 122), viz. yri and -Ssrt. In the 
mediaeval dialect we have e. </. t*ft?j, and in the modern one tJAfi, 

The mediaeval form djj3 mav 

l>e referred to s3oj|3 also a term endin in 


In the ancient dialect the genitive of the term Zji3 is s&l . 

140. The vocative (sambodhana, sambuddhi, amantrana) is not con- 
sidered as one of the cases by Kannada grammarians, who enumerate 
only seven ( 100). It is used in addressing, calling or calling to 
(amantrana, abhimukhik.-iranu) objects that are inanimate or destitute 
of reason (jadavastu, as posts, pots, flowers, trees, bees, etc.), idols 
(th'-vapratime), persons which are different from one's self (Idk&ntara), 
and one's own self (atmiyacitta). 

The forms of the vocative are as follows : 

(l) in the ancient dialect 

1, The first form of the vocative is the crude base, e. y. 

i rtrf 333d ! a 

This form is called short emphatical speech (hrasvakaku). 

2, In its second form the vowel of the base is lengthened, e. (). 

This form is called long emphatical speech (dirghakaku). A pluta form 
of this vocative is e.g. osstax ( 20. 215, 6, letter k). 

3, In its third form the vocative particle oj is suffixed either immediately 
to bases with a final consonant, or by the help of a euphonic letter to bases 
ending in a vowel, e.g. 3%$ (of ^v*)'. swaJ^d (of enxrfxo*) ! 33 ( O f 
3x>3 (of ^rasS) ! ^S^TJ^J (of ^tfri) ! ^J3^fS (of etf) ! ^^,?3 (of ^ 
(of ^oa^^oaj) ! c3?3?3 ( O f d?d) '. wdsJjS ( O f d^) ! a^doi-iA) (of 

(Of ^3^)! ^?5 (of ^J3?oO)! OZp^rfo^ (of W^JJ^rf^) ! Zi^^ (of 

(of 3orfO)! ga^SoSo (of 33d6) ! aewBrj^ofo (of Stw^orf,^) ! 

(Of 3oorioi33cS) ! 

The euphonic augments, as will be observed, are 3*, ^ ff , ^*, ;s - 
4 In its fourth form, instead of the ^ and in the same manner, the vocative 
particle & is attached, e. y. erjoJo^: \ ^J3^ r ^^y3? 3,>c}c3? ! 


1, The first form simply is the nominative plural, c. //. ewn^artv 5 s 

2, In its second form the vocative particle S3 is added to tho nominative, 

ajjftwd! rfrfrfort?d! tfra.Od! rfwad; uj^od; dt^Qi! dcaoijod! u^rcd; 

n ca to M 

fl'r^i d^iiaJj^F^d ; o3rt*d! d^rt^d! djsd^od! 3aod! 

u. - 

3, In its third form the vocative particle j is added to tho nominative, 



4, In its fourth form the vocative particle o} is added to the nominative, 


5, In its fifth form the vocative particle & is added to the nominative, 
e.g. derfd?! cS^rtfe! 

b) in the mediaeval dialect 

2, C5tS3! O3233! 



*^ 9 

CSP tj Jd 


c) in the modern dialect 



1, dtzido! o master! 



141. Here follows an enumeration of the terminations and augments 
of the seven cases. 

1. Singular. 

Norn. 1, the crude base ( 109, 6, c; 117, M; 120; 121; 122; 123; 
125; 126; 127; 128; 129; 130; 137, &, c- 139); 2, o or the sonne (^ 
109. 117); 3, a euphonic w added to the sonne, in which case it appears as 
3* or J3 ( 109, 6, C; 117, b, c) ; 4, a euphonic erx> added, by means of an 
enunciative ois* or &, to the vowels '3, 3t, en>, eao, (arfo, adua, L, S) and <o (^ 128, 
b, c; 129, 6, c; 130, 6, c). 

Ace. 1, the crude base with or without a vowel ($ 109, C; 120 ; 121, I, c : 
122, 6, C; 125; 126; 127; 128, C; 129, C; 130, C); 2, W(g120, A, r: 
121, 6, C; 122); 3, e preceded by a euphonic 3 6 ($$ 109, 6, C; 117, 6, e), 
or oi3 s (^ 130, 6, C), or n j (ij 109, &, C; 128, 6, C) ; 4, ($ 120, , /> : 

83 - 

121,6; 122, , 6); 5, Wo preceded by a euphonic 3 s i B, 6; 117, a,6; 

125, a, 6), or oft* ( 130, a, 6), or a* ($ 128, a, 6; 129, a, 6); 6, a euphonic 
em suffixed to wo, the sonne of wo becoming 3 s or 3^ (i. e. erfo, erf^, 5j 109, 
6, c; 117; 121, C; 122,6'; 125, C; 128, C; 129, C; 130, 6, C); 7, Wadded 
to Wo, its sonne becoming 3* or 3^ (i e. erf, wrf^, 109, 6; 117, C; 122, C; 
130, c; 135, C); 8, ( 109, C; 121, C; 122, c) ; 9, tfo ( 120, a; 
122, a); 10, the euphonic w of No. 6 added to wo and suffixed to the base 
by the insertion of the augment wo* (i. e. worf^, a quite vulgar form, $ 122, c). 

Instr. I, * ( 109, b, c); 2, > ( 109, a; 130, a); 3, *>( 109, 
rt, 6; 117, a, 6; 120, a, 6; 121,6; 122, a, 6; 127, a; 128, a, 6; 129, a; 
130, a, 6; 137, a); 4, *ao extended in length either by the final augments 
d, do, d^, d (i. e. 'arf, etc., 109; 117; 120, a, 6; 121, C; 122; 127,6; 
128, a, c; 129, a; 130; 137), or by ^ ^o, ^, by means of 'SJrf, the 
genitive of ^o O r ^3* (i. c. 'SSrf, etc., 121, b, C; 122; 127, 6, C; 128, a, C), 
or by -So through *arf, the genitive of ^o (i. e . 'afto, 122, a, 6; 127, 6; 128, 
a, 6; 129, a); 5, 'So, ^, ^tip, ^ preceded by the augment Wes 6 through 
its genitive wes (/. e . we^o, etc., 122 ; 125). 

The terminations and their augments presuppose the genitive. 

Dat. 1, * ( 109; 120; 121, a-, 123, C; 125); 2, rt ( 117 ; 120 ; 
128, a, 6; 129, a; 130); 3, ^ ( 109; 123, C); 4, rt preceded by a 
euphonic sonne (i.e. ort, 117, a, 6; c/. 137); 5, ft preceded by a euphonic 
rf which is to represent the sonne (i. e. rfrt, 117, c); 6, rt preceded by a 
euphonic 8 which is to represent the sonne (z. e. $r>, 117, C); 7, rt preceded 
by a euphonic a (i. e. ^, 121, 6, C; 122, 6, C; 127, 6, c; 128, 6, c; 129, 
c; 137, c); 8, rt preceded by a euphonic ^o (/. g . siort, 121, o, 6; 122, a; 
6; 127, a, 6; 128, a; 129, a); 9, 3 preceded by a .euphonic 'a (i.e. *a*, 
121,6,c; 122,6); 10, ^ preceded by a euphonic ^ (i. e. ^, 5j 121, C, 
122,6); 11, ^preceded by a euphonic 'So (i.e. ^o^, 122, 6); 12, 3 
preceded by the euphonic augment ww* (/. e . wc^, 122, a, 6; 125, a); 13, 
rt preceded by the euphonic augment was (i. e . we^, 122, a; 123, a), 
14, ^ or ^ preceded by the euphonic augment wra (/. e. wratf, wre?^, which is 
a vulgar form, 123, c) ; 15, e^, i. e . a mutilated form of ee^ ( 122, 6, C ; 
125, 6, c) ; 16, erf, i. e. a mutilated form of easj. ( 122, 6, C; 125). 


That the letter * is another form of a* becomes a fact when the Tulu 
dialect is compared (see Kannada Dictionary p. XVI, note 1, sub 7); further, 
& appears as & 6 in Tulu (see the same note, sub 5), and * as 3* in T&lugu 
(.//. Telugu 3^0, gs^ _ Kannada ^^, s'rao, ^re^, the eye; r/. also ^ _"_"J> 
Hence it may be concluded that the letters *, n*, R* and ?5* are closely related 
in Dravida and change places in the dialect. The augments n* and 3* of the 



genitive ( 109; 117), vb 6 of the genitive ( 130: s/. 243, B, remark), & 
and 53^ of the dative and genitive, and to some extent the sonne (55*) are, 
therefore, ultimately the same euphonic letters (cf. o 5 , 3*, and ^ in 176; see 
also the S3 in 265). The vowel w sounded before J and &* (i. e. &-<& ', ^-ra s ) 
apparently is a help to enunciation. 

Abl. 1, the terminations of the instrumental except <^>; 2, ^, f 9<^, ^^, 
^ preceded by the augment WES* through its genitive &&> (i. e. F$O, etc., 
122, a; 123); 3, ^3 preceded by the augment ^^ through its genitive wrad 
(i.e. eraOc^, 123, e); 4, ^o, nsirf, ^rfo, ^^, ^| preceded by e^ra, the 
genitive of e^ ( 123, i.e. e^rfo, etc., 109, a, 6; 117, a; 120, a; 123, 
a); 5, ^o preceded by ^, the genitive of the augment & s , and 3^.fs (<'. e. 
wo^eSo, etc., 122, a; 125, a); 6, ^o, ^ ^ preceded by ^rf, the 
genitive of 'SIcJ*, and e^ra (t. g . 'g^^do, etc., 122, a). 

The terminations and their augments presuppose the genitive. 

Gen. 1, ?3 ( 120, a, 6; 121,6, c; 122; 126, c; 137); 2, w preceded 
by the euphonic augment n c (?'. e. cJ, 109); 3, 9 preceded by the euphonic 
augment S* (?. e. ^, 109. 117); 4, ^preceded by the euphonic augment 
'955* (i.e. gtf, 121. 122. 127); 5, w preceded by the euphonic augment 
Ora 5 (e. e . era, 122. 123); 6, ^preceded by the euphonic augment w* 6 , 
this being another form of wes 5 (/. e. as^, 122, c; 123, 6) ; 7. preceded 
by the euphonic augment ^rac 6 (f. g. erad, which is a vulgar form, 123, C); 
8, 53 preceded by the euphonic augment <^o 6 (i.e. ^es, 122. 125); 9, 
preceded by the euphonic augment od3 ff (z. e. oi), 130); 10, ^ preceded by 
the euphonic augment & (i.e. 3, 128; 129, a); 11, ^ C33 + e, i. e. 
No. 4) preceded by the euphonic augment 3~ (i. e. rf, 128. 129); 12, 
preceded by the euphonic oij ff and forming with the final *9 and <o of the base 
a long syllable (z. e. ^ or >, 130, c); 13, w preceded by the euphonic 
augments n 6 , 5*, o33 f and a* (/. e . csa, ?ra, odjaand TO, 109, a, C; 117, a, c; 

128, a; 130, a, c); 14, w ( 120, a; 122, c). 

Loc. 1, enjv* ( 109, a; 120, a; 122, a; 130, a); 2, ^e* ( 109, a, 
6 ; 117,a,6; 120,0,6; 121,6; 122, a, 6; 125, a, 6; 127, a; 128, a, 6; 

129, a; 130, a, 6; 137, a, 6); 3, fctfo ( 109, a, 6; 117,6; 120,6; 122, 
rt, 6; 125,6; 128,6; 130, a, 6; 137, 6) ; 4, a*rt ( 109; H7,c; 120,6; 
121, C; 122, a, e; 125, 6, C; 128,6; 130; 137,6); 5, ^s 6 ( 109, a; 
120, a; 130, a); 6, ewo (^ 109, a, 6; 120, a, 6; 130, a, 6); 7, ($$ 
109; 117; 120; 121, 6, C; 122; 123, C; 125, 6, C; 126, C; 127, a, C; 128; 
130; 137, C); 8, v ( 109, 6, C; 117; C ; 120, 6; 121, C; 122,6; 125, 6; 
128,6; 130, 6, c; 137, C); 9, W ( 120,6; 121, C; 122, C); 10, ( 
121,C; 130,6'); 11, ^(109); 12, the crude base (^ 126. 127). 


The terminations are suffixed to the genitive with and without its augments. 
2. Plural. 

Norn. 1, o (So 5 , 137, a); 2*, a euphonic n> added to the sonne, in which 
case this is changed into & (i. e. $, 137 ; c/. 136); 3, 3 (i. <?. No. 2) 
lengthened by the addition of ritfo (/. e. s^rttfo, 136, C); 4, ***($$ 1 1 
131, a; 134, a); 5, ** with a euphonic en> (i. <?. tfVo, 119, 6, c); 6, **o 
lengthened by the addition of rt* (i. e. *tfort9 f , 119, 6); 7, ** with the 
augment ^do (i. e. *oo, 119, e) ; 8, ** (118,,6; 131, , 6) ; 9, 
ri* with a euphonic en) (/. c. rttfo, 118, , C; H9,6,c; 131); 10, rtv* 
with the augment 'SO* (/. e . ris?o*, 118, 6; 132, a, 6); 11, riv* preceded 
by a euphonic sonne (/. e. ori?*, 118, a, & ; 119, a, 6; 137, a); 

12, rttfo preceded by a euphonic sonne (i.e. orttfo, 118, a, 6; 119, 6); 

13, rt*o* preceded by a euphonic sonne (i. e. orftfo 5 , 118, a; 119, a, 6); 

14, wo* ( 119, a, 6; 132, a, 6; 134, a, 6); 15, a* with a euphonic 
en> (t. e. wci), 119; 132, 6, c; 134, 6, C); 16, ao* lengthened by 
the addition of *s* (,'. e . e^rv 5 , 119, a; 132, a); 17, o* lengthened 
by the addition of ^*o* (l - e e> etfr?o*, 119, a; 1B2, a); 18, o* 
lengthened by the addition of ri* (i. e. wrfr?*, 119, a); 19, edo lengthen- 
ed by the addition of rip* (/. c . edorts*, 119,6); 20, edo lengthened by 
the addition of ri<fc (i.e. edori^o, j> 119,6); 21, woo lengthened by the 
addition of r(?o* (/. e . woorto, 119, 6); 22, o* lengthened by 'SO* (i. e. 
aeo 5 , 119, a; 132, a); 23, *sio* ( 119, a; 132, a, 6) ,- 24, ^ (see 
NOB. 29. 30); 25, ^)O* preceded by a euphonic & (i. c. So*, 119, 6; 132, 
a; 134, a); 26, ^o* preceded by a euphonic oc (i. e . oQo 5 , 119, a); 27, 
oQo lengthened by the addition of ^o* (i.e. oQQo f , 119, a); 28, oOo* 
lengthened by tho addition of rtv 6 (i. e. oQriFV*, 119, a); 29, sioo preceded 
by a euphonic & (i. e. Q3o, 119, 6); 30, r d&* preceded by a euphonic on 5 
(/. e. oQdi, 119, 6, C; 132, C); 31, wdj (/. e. No. 15) preceded by a 
euphonic on 5 (i. e . oddj, 119, c); 32, Qo (i. e . No. 25) lengthened by the 
addition of *** (i. e. Q^rv, 132, a); 33, ^ preceded by the euphonic & 
(i.e. ^o 5 , 132, a); 34, so 5 lengthened by the addition of 'SO* (i.e. SOo*, 
132, a); 35, ao lengthened by the addition of *<* (i. . a^rv*. 132, a); 
36, ^^ lengthened by the addition of riv* (/. e . ^r(r^, 132, a); 37, wo 5 
preceded by a euphonic w* (t. . wo*, 119, a); 38, o* preceded by a 
euphonic w*~ (/. e. ozJD*, 119, a); 39, wo* preceded by a euphonic & (i. e. 
so*, 119, a); 40, cio (i. e . No. 15) preceded by a euphonic w* (/. e . uoo, 
i> 119, 1>, c); 41, 0o preceded by a euphonic o'af (i.e. oudo, 119, 6); 
42, wdo preceded by a euphonic 3* (/. e. =00, 119, c) ; 43, o* (^ 132, 6). 

Ace. 1, w(j{$ us, &, e; 119, 6, c; 131, 6, C; 135, C); 2, wo ($118, 
a, 6; 119, a, 6; 131,6, C; 135, c); 3, a euphonic e/\> attached to wo, the 
souno becoming 3* or 3*^ (/. . wrfo, e^o, ij 118,6, r: ll'J. <t, C; 131, 6, C; 


135, C); 4, e added to wo, the sonne becoming ?s 4 (i. e. We^, 119, c; 135, c) ; 

5, (119,<0. 

Regarding the augments see the nominative. 

Instr. 1, ^(131, 6); 2, qo ( us, a, 6; 119, a; 131, a, 6; 132, a; 
137, a); 3, 'So lengthened by the final augments d, do, d^>, <3 (/. e . ^, etc., 
118; 119; 131, 6, c; 137, 6, C); 4, ^o preceded by the augment es y 
(i. e. v&o, 136, a). 

Dat. 1, rt ( 118, a, 6; 119, a, 6; 131, a, 6; 132, a; 135, a); 2, rt 
( 119, a; 132, a); 3, r preceded by a euphonic sonne (z. e. otf, 137); 
4, rt preceded by a euphonic ^ ('. e. 'Slrt, 118; 119; 131, 6, C; 135, 6, c; 

136, C); 5, fl preceded by a euphonic 'Sjo (i.e. 'Sotf, 119,6; 135,6); 

6, tf preceded by a euphonic en> (i.e. wutf,, 131, a); 7, fl preceded by a 
euphonic e (i. e. ert, 119, c); 8, tf ( 119, a); 9, * preceded by the 
euphonic augment && (i. e. Otf^, 136, a); 10, w^, a mutilated form of 
e^ ( 136, 6, C); 11,' otf, a mutilated form of e^ (136, 6,'C). 

Abl. 1, ^o, ^^o, ^ preceded by the genitive of ^ (z. e. w^do, etc., 
118 a; 119, a); 2, the terminations of the instrumental. 

Gen. 1, e(g118; 119; 131; 132, o, 6; 135; 136, c); 2, preceded 
by the euphonic augment * (. e . wes, 136, a, 6); 3, c* (119, a,c; 
131, a). 

Loc. 1, i>V ( 118, a, 6; 119, a, 6; 131, a, 6; 137, a); 2, ^o 
(118, a, 6; 119,6; 132,6; 137,6); 3, z-tfrt ( 118, 6, C; 119, 6, C; 
131, 6, c; 136, C); 4, ( 118; 119; 131, 6, C ; 136, C); 5, 
(118, 6, c; 131,6, c; 137, c) ; 6 y 2-? 15 and &&, preceded by the augment 
oe>* (i. e. eJ3^ and <se3%, 135, a , 6). 

142. Looking back on the declension of bases (109. 117-137. 139) 
one observes twelve more or less distinct modes of declension. 

1- The first mode comprises neuter bases with final 55, e, g. Ari, 3od, <3w, 
2363^, &, Tfjstf, ;<u. Their singular appears in 109, their plural in 118. 

2, The second comprises masculine and feminine bases ending in w, e. g. 

; 533^, W3^, 5^. Their singular is given in 117, their plurals appear in 
119. 135. 

3, The third comprises neuter and feminine bases ending in consonants 
(and one that is used either as masculine or neuter in the ancient dialect, rtz. 

e.g. S'SS*, 3*0*, Z3e tf , d-X)^, eAJ30 s , 53O, ^?0*, ^?Je3 5 : 330J3 , 33^; W3V 6 , 

eo)^!^, 22or^, z-sSrv 5 , y^v 5 , sSev 6 ', ^QoJoy*. zS^oiov 5 ; wv 5 . Their 
singular is given in 120, their plurals appear in 131. 134. Regarding 
ri" gee 121. 

4, The fourth comprises two kinds of bases 


a) neuter and feminine bases (and one that is either masculine, feminine, 
or neuter in the modern dialect, viz. &&J) which, occasionally also in the 
ancient dialect, optionally in the mediaeval one, and always in the modern one 
are formed from bases with final consonants (see No. 3) by the addition of a 
euphonic w, e.g. iv'j, Srfsj , tfew, T<DJ, ywl>, ESUJ, tfjsdtfo, Sorftfj ; wstfo, 
stftfo, otoatfo, ^Ftfs), ^tfo; ^rttfo; wtfo. Their singular appears in 121; 
their plurals are given in 131. 134. 

6) neuter bases (and two masculine ones viz. rfc^Tio, rtre^, one feminine 
one viz. seort?Jj, and two masculine-feminine-neuter ones viz. wdrij, 5\o?i>) 
always (with option only in two numerals) ending in a euphonic -"u in the ancient, 
mediaeval and modern dialect, e. g. iC3^, ^^ ^pcs^ 

j, uad), s'Qdo, -S-ea'cij; ^rfj, <oddj, d^jaoi, 33 WA, yoj-w , woo, ocw, (or 
also ^J3*"), ^ra>y, ad^, NJSSJ (or also 3><a y, WR^O, ^s^J, ewsio, oos^o, y?i>, ^^o, 
aToo, oslo,, qio, ooslj,; z-s?rto, sSj^rio. aojsesrto, &rfo, Sorfo, doorfo , ^'s'rto, docrtj, 

tj ti' &3 a a' a' 

TOO^. Their singular is given in 122 (cf. 124), their plurals appear in 

131. 136. 

5, The fifth comprises 

a) masculine, feminine, and neuter bases ending in a radical en>, e. g. ^cto, 
eruriJ, tfew, 3->e, ^j^o, rtodj, 3&, 3is!j. Their singular appears in 128, their 
plural in $ 131. 

6) masculine, feminine, and neuter bases ending in vfl, oio, aCsjj, i, an d C, 
. ^. ^P, a^o, &^ d , 3J33^, sx^, rtJS?, rt^. Their singular appears in 129, their 
plural in 131. 

6, The sixth comprises masculine, feminine and neuter bases ending in ^ 

^, S. e. a. 3*3, 330^0. ^OA, 3*i, 'gO, ^50; A?: ^3, i. j3. ?^^, tfrf, *^, 
y > A - 3 

eara^, ^(5, W(3. Their singular is given in 130, their plurals appear in 
131. 132. 

7, The seventh comprises eight neuter bases of direction with final ^, e. g^ 
e5^, rsi^, ios*. Their declension is given in 123. 

8, The eighth comprises the bases of the seventh mode when the suffix 
wo* or w&w is attached, ?.. g. w^o*, w^ejj, slxade^, d-xeduo. See 126. 

9, The ninth comprises four bases expressing time that end in the *n> of 
No. 4, letter b, viz. Oc^, nsjrfo, ewrfo, ^rfj. See 127. 

10, The tenth is formed by the pronoun o (5), o*>. See 125. 

11, The eleventh is formed by tlio singular and plural of the personal 
pronouns and of the reflexive pronoun, riz. tfo, 330, s?o, 330, wrfo, jrarfo, s?^J, 
33rfo. See 137. 

12, The twelfth mode comprises a number of terms that express direction 
and time, viz. 3c&, 3rd, ^d, e<, -35 , eruO, wzS, ^t5, jratf, fj^, 3-8^, wr>, ^rt. 

See 139. 


V, On verbs (see 313-315) 

143. In chapter III (^ 45 seq.) verbal roots or themes (dhatu) have 
been already treated of. We have seen that Kesava calls the crude 
form (prakritisvarupa, dhfttusvarupa) of any verb its root, whether it be 
the primary element (primitive theme) or a secondary theme. 

He gives the rule (sutra 216) that the crude form or theme is found 
by dropping the pronominal termination (vibhakti) e*o of the negative 
(see 209, text and note 2). This rule, however, is (to say the least) 
insufficient, as it does not enable a student to make a distinction 
between themes ending in en) (which alone are contained in Kesava's 
instances, (as =5\f3do, ?3JS?ei), 3^o) and themes ending in consonants 
(as o^ ? rioto*, =JSO&*, gw*, waO', ^JSe^ 5 ), and as it does not take 
notice of the doubling of final consonants in the negative ( 215, 7,/), 
of the euphonic o& 6 of themes ending in ^ and <o ( 170. 209), and 
of themes that lengthen their vowel ( 209), thus presupposing the 
grammarian's list of dhatus ( 47). 

144. Ancient Kannada grammarians call a verb &o3a or tJsjSo^: 

*.) 10 

its action, or the general idea expressed by any verb, they term 
$,o3j too. 

They do not distinguish between mood (mode) and tense. Kannada 
has so to say only one mood, the indicative, for which, however, it uses 
no particular word. Cf. 314. 

Tense they call ^>w. 

A conjugated verb, i. e. one ending in a personal termination, is called >3, 
tf^ssdd or %oiJ5s5d ( 69. 189.192). 

145. The name of the present tense is d^F^Je)^ or $;3;, or 3 
3eKS<>, or sj^rdj^^^e)^, or dorsj 5-3^, or sJdo. 3 ; that of the past tense 

o" <rf 

is $J3^, or $JSa^e>o, or $J3^d3, or ^s^d u3^>; that of the future tense 
is $a3$gg, or (3^^, or gjtos^ga,^, or wsj^ ^e;^, or 953 a. The 
comprehensive term for the three times or tenses is S^^GJO. 


146. The action of the imperative, or the imperative, is called > 
^o3j, or p, or Ci^pqir. The negative form of the verb, or the negative, 
is termed sloss^qS. 

147. A person of the verb is called ^dossl. The name of the first 
person (i. e. the third person in European grammars) is sjqta'o or 

or also ^NO, eSdo^ that of the second is rfoz&siJ or 


^ do 351; and that of the third (i.e. the first in European grammars) is 
erc^sjo or vu^o^dos*. Of. 192. 

If occasionally the term ^o5o is added to **,$3o, 3Jt^;io and n>^3J, or to 
^^^o^jdosJ, doz^SJ^dj^ and yu^ao^doaS, it is to say that no other persons are 
meant than those who regulate the action of a verb in grammar. 

The comprehensive term for the three persons is s^Go^ ok. 

148. The grammarians Nagavarma and Kesava do not use a word 
to distinguish a transitive from an intransitive verb; they mentally saw 
such a distinction themselves, and expected others to do the same. The 
sutra about the so-called passive voice in the Sabdamanidarpana wherein 
the term ^rforsr, transitive, occurs, is an interpolation (y^j^^JS^). 

About 400 years afterwards Bhattukalanka in his Sabdanusasana 
(sutra 443) introduced by name transitive verbal themes, tf^;3.)F^qn>3o, 
and intransitive verbal themes, S3 3 dor 3 93^0. 

Voices, i. e. active and passive (see 315), are not mentioned by 
Nagavarma and Kesava, and the terms parasmaipada and atmanepada 
which have been introduced from Saihskrita into Kannada by modern 
writers, are not used by them. 

149. Causation is called 3o?3o. A verb that expresses causation or 
is causal (ao^j? 1 ), is formed from an intransitive or transitive one by 
adding the particle 's.sjo (or also, as we shall see in 151, ;fo, 2^0, -azoo, 
yo), e.g. tfft?oj, to cause (somebody) to laugh (from tfrto), esazdo, to 
cause (somebody) to cook (from e3c3o), c$o&oSo?jj, to cause (a person) to 
speak (from &>&), rfjoSoSOroO, to cause (a person) to put (something) into 
the hair (from ^jooS), ^o&Jnlo, to cause (a person) to churn (from ^d), 
3so5j^j, to cause (a person) to give (from 3s), JeoSozdo, to cause (a 
person) to grind (from If), FSJSeo^o, to cause (a person) to feel pain 
(from fJS>e), sSj^j^o, to cause (cattle) to eat grass (from s3o), ?5oS;0, 
to cause (a flower) to open (from wsjo*), ^ejr^^Jo, to cause (something) 
to appear (from ^3^*). 

The agent (cf. 344) that causes another to do something or causes 
something to be done or happen, is called SO^^^F, efir^^r, 3^3 r, 
or $j^F. 

" It may be remarked that a causative verb may also be formed by the verb 0J33J, to 
make, and an infinitive ending in a ( 187, 2), e.g. i*s^A '-->3 Sjs~o, make him read 



150. But if a verb is formed by means of ^?jo (etc., 149) that is 
used in the sense of doing that which the word expresses, the agent is 

termed a&JxS^xF, ZO^^F or ZoOJJo^xF Such verbs may be intransitive 

e) ,3 eJ 3 

or transitive, e.g. J}t3?fo, to look, to stare; ^j|3?oo, to decrease in power; 

SJ vJ 

C3&30, to become greater in bulk; Dos??io, to move about, to float; 
2^>o?oo, to roam or wander about ; sjrl sSo, to break, to crush; (or 
effecting a useful object,, oSA^torfsiJ 2&3?fo, to draw (sketches, 

figures, pictures) ; sJoo&ZoJ, to affix a seal to ( see 151, remark) ; 
to extend, to widen; ;&>& ?fo, to slacken (v. t.). Cf. 215, i, b. 


It is not allowed to form causative verbs from such verbs, e. g. to form 
a)f|&?oj from soe|7oj would be wrong. 

151. The suffix -s^o appears also as rfj, 2^0, a^o, and $5?fo; compare 
some of the finals mentioned in 65. It is more than probable that 
the -a in && and ^2^0, and the 53 in ej^j are euphonic (cf. the Q 
of 63. 168). 

It has been supposed that ^J and ^J are the same as ^zk, ^^J, to 
permit, etc. 5 but that is wrong, as ^^ &T*J are formed from ^, to give, etc., 
by means of ?i> which is another form of ^^; see letter 6, 3 in this paragraph 
and 316, H. 

We further state 

a) that *a?oo is suffixed 

1, to verbal themes which originally are monosyllabic, and end in 
consonants if they have not received a euphonic eru (see 54), e. g. 

See exceptions under letter b, i, letter c, i, and letter e. 
2, to verbal themes that originally are dissyllabic and end in 
consonants, but are made trisyllabic by the addition of a euphonic w\), 

To this class belong also the ancient 
[eirt^roj. See the > common ancient forms under letter c, s ; 
and exceptions under letter d. 

In ^?k, cte^o, s^rfo and OJ^rij ( 150) no verbal or nominal theme 
nowadays appears to which *%& is added. l>drfrfo, dfe^^J, 5j^e37oo, and similar 
terms are derived from nouns by means of 'Srio. 

3, to themes that appear as dissyllables and trisyllables in the 
ancient, mediaeval and modern dialect and end in y\j, e. g. wA*j, 

, , , , . See an 

v OT 

exception under letter e. 

4, to themes that are dissyllabic and end in a and ,0, to which, 
especially in the ancient and mediaeval dialect, -a^o is attached by 
means of a euphonic 033*, e.g. 

See exceptions under letter b, z and c, 3. 

Regarding the dropping of the final vowel of some themes cf. letter A, 2 ; 
60; 157; 165, letter a, 3. 4. s ; 165, A, 2; 172; 180, 5. 

5, to monosyllabic themes that are a vowel or end in one, to which 
it is attached by means of a euphonic o&*, e.g. -dsoSj^o, ifoSozio, ;!,? 
OSo?k, &J?>eo3o?l>, z3?o3o;&, 3jso3j?oo, sSo?o&o?oJ. The forms occur also 
in the modern dialect. See exceptions under letter b, 3. 

b) that TOO is suffixed 

1, to themes that end in the consonants 0&* and o* ? e.g. 'era?!), 
33e>?3o (in the three dialects), ^J3^o (only in the mediaeval one). Cf. 
letter a, i. 

2, to dissyllabic themes ending in ^ and <o, in the three dialects, 
e. . ssd?oo 

(also in a sasana of 1076 

A.I)., jizlsb, ?iaslo), ^oa^>, ^^sb, ^a^o, z3d?k (23o?jj), z3^^o (23^ 
sk), s3$^j), rfoa?i> (sio^?oj), ^o&3SK)(doe5 9 ?ij), s5osb, 3o?k. See letter 
a, 4 and c, 3. 

sj^ri>, adW^o are derived from nouns by means of ?i>. 
About the dropping of the final vowel of some themes see letter a, 4, 
about the change of <>j into a 109, b, 3 (cf. 66), and about that of 
a into vu 165, a, 5; 247, d, is. u. 

3, to monosyllabic themes that are a vowel or end in one, e. g. 
(or 'atfo, of Ss 316, u; cf. its past participle 'S^), 



, )Je>?*>, s5j?l). The forms are common to the three 
dialects. Cf. letter a, 5. 
c) that e& is suffixed 

1, to monosyllabic long themes ending in the consonant D*, e. g. 
. Cy. letter a, i. 

33ra^ is derived from a noun with a long vowel by means of *& Themes 
like Sj^Jf, #zl)F, ^^oo^o are derived from nouns with short vowels which they 

?,, to dissyllabic themes ending in the consonants o, o* 5 <$?* and #, 
in the ancient and mediaeval dialect, e. g. es 

tor Jo- Z to- tc- 

Wo. Cy. letter a, 2 and letter d. 

io- to to 

3, to dissyllabic themes ending in ^ and ,0, e. *;. 

^JSde^o, sJod^o. The forms appear more or less 
in the three dialects. Cf. letter a, 4 and b, 2. 

About the dropping of the final vowel of some themes see also letter a, 4 
and &, 2. 

d) that occasionally ^z^j is suffixed to the themes mentioned under 
letter a, 2, e.#. enidoS^o, bdbolo, &&>, !d$s&>, in the mediaeval dialect. 

e) that occasionally esisjj is suffixed to the themes mentioned under 
letter a, i and 3, e.g. <0j^?oo, 2od?oo, aoS'S'roj, in the modern dialect. 


Ae will be seen from 150 ^^ is also used to form verbs from Samskrita 
nouns, .e. g. sjrf TOO, a^Too, dooa^o, 5>'^?i), s^rrio, dtr rfo, ^jstnrio, ^a^^J, ^S^IJTOJ 
2jJoo^?io, wSrfj, fo^Orio, ^^OToO, d^o?3o, rto?oo, as&rfo, i>?JA?oo. Such verbs occur 
in the three dialects. Cf. 215, i, letter b. 

Sometimes, in the ancient and mediaeval dialect, also a euphonic oil 5 is used 
in suffixing the ^o, e. g. &>d oso?oO, 33doDo?io, araFcOoTk, s&dcooToO, dottf oSo?io, 
rf^joajToo, ^socOoxio, dsooaoToo, ri^ooDJTjj, &&oDi?l>, (L>2JoSo?jO). (y. 215, 2, 
letter c. 

Occasionally, chiefly in the ancient and mediaeval dialect, the *3 of ^^ is 
dropped, and we get such forms as ssdoio^, 3&ioin; in ksJAToo the n 5 is changed 
into o&*, and i>wojjo is produced. Also in Kannada words that dropping takes 
place, so that ^8Joaj?l) appears as ij3tcici>o ( O r ^J33jrfo), ^y oSo?3j as 
(or i^^0), ^cdoDo?io as JitfsJJO (or ^^^), d^oOJxlo as rfW ( crfjo, rfjs^oDo?^ as 

^, S53dc&>?l> as ssd^i)^, scjaooDJToo as 3oJ3^oi>o (aSja^^j, see 217). 


In the mediaeval dialect the euphonic sfc* in cdirij changes also into &, e. g. 
^Farfo, gads?!), 3pcto?io, d-xtfajk, jtotfaxb, ao>da;k. Cf. 215, 3, 
letter a. 

152. In 148 it has been stated that verbs are transitive and 
intransitive, and in 149 that there are causal verbs too. There are 
no frequentative verbs in Kannada; no verbal theme (dhatu) cau be 
turned into a frequentative one. But though frequentative or iterative 
action is never contained in a particular shape of a Karmada verbal 
theme, it is expressed either by simple repetition (yugaloccarana, 
dvihprayoga) or triple repetition (triprayoga); see 165, 211, and 339. 
Regarding a sort of reflexive verb see 341. 

153. In Kannada not only verbal themes (dhatu) are conjugated, 
but also declinable bases (linga, 68. 90), that is to say nouns (nama- 
liriga), e.g. sSrs 3. cf 3 ^, compound bases (samasaliriga), e.g. ^>^^3, 
53o>5e>fciOF<3?3o3, ^^eJSJr^^, pronouns (sarvanama), e.g. s3S5, attributive 
nouns or adjectives (gunavacana) whether Kannada or Samskrita, e. g. 

2oS?rf. ^J30c3, rSeOtf. Wrooi), &0o3o, yx>d3, sicS, and appellative nouns 


of number (sankhye), e.g. Sorir. See 197. 

When bases like the mentioned ones are conjugated they have been 
called, by Europeans, appellative verbs or conjugated appellatives. Kannada 
grammarians use no name for them. 

The author of the present grammar has not met with any instance of such a 
conjugated base in the mediaeval dialect; in the modern dialect no conjugation 
of nouns, etc. is in use. 

154. There are two different forms of the Kannada verb that have 
been called verbal participles or gerunds by Europeans. 

The first is the preterit or past verbal participle (bhutakiilakriye, 
purvakulakriye, piirvukriye, 155 171); the second is the present 
verbal participle (vartamanakalakriye, vartamanakriye, 172. 173). 
See 361. 

155. The first kind of the past participle is formed by suffixing the 
syllable d) to verbal themes (dhatu, prakriti) ending in consonants 
(vyai'ijananta), in the vowel ^ (ikuranta), and in the vowel o (ek.'irfinta) 
without altering the themes, e. g. ^jpcao (of j^prjp^), having admitted, 
djsreo (of s&sra^), having ceased, 55^0 (of yj5<, the later WfiV), having 
said, oo (of ^^3*, the later oj^o,), IKIVIII- said. ^j (of 3??, the later 
3^0,), having eaten, &fco3oj (of ^.oio*, the later ^J3a2oj c ), having cut. 


(of flois 1 , the later flo3oo, cf. 48), having tilled, S3j>o3oj (of 
, having jumped, ^c5oF (of &0*), having sucked, ^JS^dor (of 
, having dropped, rtoj, having gained, sSowo, having chewed, 

Q O 

, having swung, ^^j, having stolen, s^oo^o, having become angry, 


. having heard, nj^o, es3o, w>&3o, esrfockF, EwnJdoF, JJS^dor, 3ja 

Q' O CT 

esrtao, T#^WO, roaoJ, ^rio^o, ?$rfo3j: 'aacSo (of ^a). 

o' o o' o o 

^jo^rfo, 'se^rfo, zoOrfo, ^o^orfo, 3$do, 'ae^dj; ^sldo 
(of ^d), dc3o, ?S?Sdj, ^ddo, ^e3do, o?5c3o, ^$d>, oiCjSrfj. Regarding 
the etymological explanation and original meaning see 169. 

Themes ending in o s optionally double the n* of cfo, e. g. &d)r, 


z3js?c3jr, 53rforfo F, ^^rfoF, Iftrfciir, ^drfoF (see 371, 2; c/. 119, 

O O O O Q 

a, 4). 

The same formation of the past participle by means of cto takes 
place also when verbal themes consist of one consonant with a long 
vowel, e.g. =ffe>d> (of 53), ^do (of =$?), =js^j (of &&?), J^cSo, 


The grammarian Kesava states that the syllable ci> consists of the vowel w 
(ukara) added to the augment (agama) d. About & see 175. 189. 

156. In the formation of the second kind of the past participle the 
only difference is that in several themes go is substituted for c&, e. g. 

(Of Wt3*), ^>^, tfJ^OF, =5^, $Wi, W^, S? 

^^^; ees 9 ^ (of 

(of 5e3 3 ), ^ 
(of i,), &e3o (of -3-^, s^^o, we)^o, ?;>. 

A list of themes that form their past participle by means of gj is 
given in sutra 507 of the Sabdanusasana, viz. =3^2^ 

trs, -S-e, S^P, tie, t., ^J3^*, 33?j5, As?^, Wf^, ?Sjse^, -^fs*, to which it 
adds So&S 3 , S5C3 3 in sutra 508, o in sutra 509, and ^o* in sutra 510, 
remarking that one may use ^^ or ?S^o ; under sutra 553 it has also 
(of ^. 

In some instances the use of cfo and go is optional, e.g. ?S?^o 



The use of suffixing dj or & to themes with a final consonant has 
partly disappeared in the mediaeval dialect, and still more so in the 
modern one, on account of a euphonic y\> being added to the themes. 
See 166. 

157. The third kind of the past participle differs in so far from the first 
and second one, as in themes ending in a vowel this vowel (o or -a) may 
be altered or dropped before cto and &). In the ancient, mediaeval and 
modern dialect the vowel i may be converted into the vowel es, e.g. 

(in a sasana between 750 and 814 A. D.), ?3ddj (in a sasana of 929 
A. D.), sgpddo (in a sasana of 804 A. D.), zStfdj, 3J3tfdo, z3tf&, ^J303o; 
in the modern dialect the vowel ^ too may be changed into the vowel 
>, e. g. xs^dj (^ado), doddj, ?oddo, Aiddo, 3os;do, adoddo, 3ooiJ3j. 
(Cf. 60; 151, a, 4-, 151, 6, 2; 151, c, 3 ; 165, a, 3. 4. s ; 172; 180, 5.) 

158. The fourth kind of the past participle is formed by eliding the 
final vowel (^ or 'a) of the theme, producing a theme ending in a half 
consonant, and then suffixing cD or &3, e.g. y^or (=s5t 9 3o of 
of y\)0 


Cy. 165, letter a, 7. 

The mentioned past participles occur only in the modern dialect 
except ^dJ which is found likewise in the mediaeval one, and >j3^ 
which, according to the Sabdanusasana sutra 482, is met with in the 
ancient one. 

159. The fifth kind of the past participle is formed by eliding the final 
consonant of themes before the termination C3o or &>. This formation is 
nearly wholly restricted to the modern dialect. We have 

1, the elision of 53*, e.g. t3o (= wtf^), cJD^o or 

&^j (= Flo^oJ, ro?^o (=roe?^), for which there is the instance 
(of &*) in the ancient dialect (cf. the -ds^o of ^ in 156); 

2, the elision of odb*, e.g. wdJ (=wo3jj), 

=3oe)OioO) ; C/. ?Sedo (=??0300); 

3, the elision of &3*, e.g. 53^5 (of 

4, the elision of &, e. g. 

(= ^JS^oo,,, used also in the 
mediaeval dialect), aS^j (=2050^), 3J5^o (=38^?^); 

5, the elision of o* of the ancient theme ^o^o*, . e. ^oSJ^o (^o^dOF); 

6, the elision of a* together with the preceding vowel ^ of the ancient 
theme ^O^D S , *. e. ^os^ (^^o'gdoF), a form used in the mediaeval dialect; 

7, the elision of a* of ^JSQ*, a theme formed from the ancient 
i. e. 

160. The sixth kind of the past participle is formed by changing or 
converting the final consonant into another one before c3J and 3j. This 
changing takes place in the ancient, mediaeval, and modern dialect. 
We find 

1, the conversion of eo* into o* before do, e.g. }doF ( =0 i*3o), 
(=2X^0) in the ancient dialect, and ssdoF (=S2&3o), doF 

in the mediaeval one (cf. 236); 
the conversion of &3 into 3* before ^o e. <7. 5^0 (= es^j "), sa>^o n 

5 - / ,^0 \ Q/" _y 

-S-^ (s-S-C^) in the mediaeval and modern dialect; 

3, the conversion of C3* into 3* before ^o in sjjj^ (of sjoorfo) of the 
ancient* and mediaeval dialect; 

4, the conversion of 5* (or Cf* with the euphonic y\), >. e. 3o) 
into 9* before 3o, e-^. ero^ (= ero^or, of en>63* or ero5o), o>3 ^ (of 

or oiW&3o), WS%, 3^%, 334i> ^P^i ^^^ of the aucient 
and mediaeval dialect, and 

of the mediaeval and modern dialect; ^^ (of ^&5' 3 * = ^C3J) occurs in 
the Jaimini Bharata; exceptions to this rule in the ancient dialect are e.g. 

5, the conversion of y* into 3* before ^j in ^^ (= ^i^) of the 
modern dialect; 

6, the conversion of a 6 , the subsitute of 0* (see No. 1), into C3* 
before rfo, e.g. 5d> (=?5Jo, WtfoF), ^rfo (=^^o, oiO^F), ^)do C= 

O ^ Q' Q V - Q' V 

)Ci)F) in the mediaeval dialect, and oirfj (=<o0o, <adoF), ^c3o (= 
2^dJF) in the modern one; 

7, the conversion of an original u 6 into C3* before do in 
(s'adoF) in the mediaeval and modern dialect; 

8, the conversion of o* into C3* before do in tfdo (=^01 of the 

o v o> 

mediaaval and modern dialect, and in ^odo f^^ooo^ of the modern one; 


'>, the conversion of v* into C3* before c$o in tfcio (^BVo) of the 

Q V 0' 

mediaeval and modern dialect; 

10, the conversion of a* into j3* before d> in 3& (of 3 

and zjfl) (of wo^ zojjy) of the ancient, mediaeval and modern dialect; 

11, the conversion of o* into 53* before cb in ^J3fio (of 
3J3^J), >Fl> (of r>3*, &>j), and Srfo (of sjg* sJs>o) of the ancient, 

" Q V w'' ' 

media3val and modern dialect; 

12, the conversion of o* into <& before ^j in ^^ (= ^tj^) of the 
mediaeval and modern dialect; 

1;J, the conversion of the v* of ^js*, a mutilated form of the 
ancient 'g'otfo* (see 159, No. G), into 5^ before 3o in ^o?!^ (=^j^, 
i. e. ^j^rfjrj of the modern dialect. 

161. The seventh kind of the past participle is formed by changing not 
only the final consonant of the theme before the termination &>, but also 
its initial vowel. 

To this kind belong only the three themes C3 (*C3i), ft^< (fte3o), 
35* (3i3o) of the ancient and mediaeval dialect, which convert their 
initial vowel Q into oi and their 3 into 3*, so that their participles are 
*3^, rt%, 3% (see 66). 

i^jp occurs likewise in the modern dialect wherein its theme, 
however, appears as J&3o, which is found also in the mediaeval one. 

162. The eighth kind of the past participle is formed by changing, i. e. 
shortening, the vowel of the theme and inserting a euphonic $5* before the 
termination cfo. 

The themes which do so, are z3?, >53, ?!>?; their participles are 

zStfo, >JNJ, ?SJe)NJ in the ancient and mediaeval dialect, and also in the 

o' o' o 

modern oue, though their themes herein are &3?ol>o, ^ijsafco and ^jaeofoo 
(see 48). 

163. The ninth kind of the past participle is formed by changing, i. e. 
shortening, the vowel of the theme and inserting a euphonic g* before 
the termination 3j. 

The themes are -d? and ?ro (^e)0i3*), and their participles are Q&t 
and ?33o in the ancient and niedia'val dialect, and also in the .nudeni 


one, though the themes herein appear as -^oJoo and ^oJoo. 


The form of ^ is in sutras 477. 566 of the Sabd&nuifattfc; it is not 
iu the Karnutakiibhi'ishabhushana which adduces only the past participle * 



the Sabdamanidarpana under, sutra 48 clearly gives the form of xraois^; under 
sutra 240 it has ?rao3ra, which may be either saoi: 1 & or SD ^; it has neither 
?35od3 5 ' nor ^3 in its dhatupatha. The presont-future participle generally is 
sa^, instead of ssoS^, in the ancient and mediaeval dialect ( 180, 1, remark). 

164. From 155 up to 163 the syllables do and ^j underwent 
no changes when they were used as suffixes for the past participle; in 
the present paragraph instances of the tenth kind of the past participle 
will be adduced, that is to say instances of the participle in the formation 
of which the suffixes do and 3o are changed. Namely 

1, do is converted into do after the theme en^ (srorso), the past 

* J>9' 

participle of which is erorso in the ancient, mediaeval and modern dialect; 

2, do is converted into do after the theme v'dttf (ysrao), its vowel 
being shortened, so that its past participle is ^rao in the ancient, 
medieval and modern dialect; 

3, rfo is converted into do after the theme =&$* (&OS&,), the final 
& being changed into f^, and ^jsrso becomes the participle for the 


three dialects; 

4, ^o is converted into fedo after the themes esdo, ^^o, ero^o, 

>, s^odo, ?oodo and ^)?oodo, their final dj being changed into 

so that sjljo 'aeJo., eA)s3j., ^^o j5 3JeJo., ^^o., ^o^o, are the participles for 

' ' ' ' ' w' 

the three dialects, and ^ofcjo,, ^^oejj. those for the ancient one. 

6J' U 

In the ancient dialect Wrjofej^ is written also 23?ooSJ), a form that is common 
in the mediaeval one. 

The original forms of the past participles of the modern dialect #733&Jo (of 
and sojses&jv) (of ao-oo^j) must have been #?33&j^ (23?J3^o+^o) and 
5 c /. No. 6 ; 

5, the past participle 3oJSS3eJo, mentioned under No. 4, is, by 

contraction, vulgarly changed into SoJSraj ; 


6, the past participle sSdrso is identical in form with the theme, 
i. e. sSdrsj (Sabdamanidarpana sutra 241); the participle's original 


form must have been zSdrao,, i. e. zSdreo, with the termination ^j which 

eJ ej 

was converted into &0; 

7, 3o is converted into Wo after the ancient and mediaeval themes 
=5\ici> and ^ock, these changing their initial vowel CAJ into Zj and taking 
the forms &/s>fa* and ;iJ5)&5*, so that the past participles become ^jsejo 

and JjsUo.. 


The themes ^JJl> and &>& occasionally appear as tf-ecfc and i.o&) in the 
mediaeval dialect, and always so in the modern one ; the participles remain 

ai' ' eJ' 

8, 3j is converted into fed) after the ancient theme rfj, this 
changing its initial vowel 'a into <0 and taking the form #&J*, so that the 
past participle becomes =^eJo . 

In the mediaeval and modern dialect the theme is ^&; the participle 
remains ^^; 

9, ^j is converted into tfo, after the ancient theme ;3o which be- 
comes 5jZ3* so that the past participle is sjz^o 


10, 3o is converted into &j after the ancient (and mediaeval) themes 
QTti and >?!), these changing the initial vowel ^ into oi and taking the 
forms o^zs 6 and z3z3*, so that the participles become ^^o and z&^ . 

IT fcr 

In the mediaeval dialect the themes generally are *>^o, 23^; the participles 
remain *>&} , z3^ ; 

to to 

11, ^o is converted into ?fo after the themes ^rfo, >orto (and ancient 
^rb, Sabdamanidarpana under sutra 241) of the ancient, mediaeval and 
modern dialect, and rorto of the mediaeval and modern one, the themes 
taking the forms dtf, Ste : 5 6 , (^^j? ^* 5 so ^ na ^ ^ ne P as ^ participles 
becon;e c^^o,, 0^0,, (^s 1 ^), nj^o,; c/. 165, letter, a, 7; 

12, ^o is converted into ?fo after the themes vorio and ^rto of the 
ancient and mediaeval dialect, the themes changing their initial vowel eru 
into Zo and taking the forms us 6 and Sjf?e*, so that the past participles 

become- So^vX and ^jjs^o,. 
IT -d 

The themes erorto and ^^o appear also as krf- and s^prto in the mediaeval 
dialect, the participles remaining k?r^, ^p^. In the modern dialect ^Pf^ has 
taken the form of ^JSrto which occurs also in the mediaeval one ; the past participle 
is 2&33^; cf. 165, letter a, 7; 

13, ^ is converted into ^ after the ancient theme ^rf), this taking 
the form 35*, so that the past participle becomes ^^) ; see an instance 


in 165 under b, i. 

165. From 155 to 164 we have seen how the Kannada past participle 
is formed in various ways when the syllables tfj and & are suffixed to 
the theme; now its eleventh kind follows, a short form which appears with- 
out cto and 3j, is often identical as to shape with the verbal theme (which 
at the same time often is a verbal noun), and may be considered to be a 


verbal noun (see 100 compared with 60; 169). Compare the short 
past participle with final r& in 168. 

This short participle occurs only when a verb directly follows it which 
shows that the sense of the past participle is meant, as it does not bear 
the characteristic mark of a participle itself. See, however, 198, 6, 
where the third person neuter singular is directly formed from it. 

It is used in the ancient, mediaeval and modern dialect. 

It includes two classes, it being put either before a verb that differs 
from that from which it has been formed, or before a verb that is identical ; 
in the second case it is repetition ( 152. 211). 

a) The short participle used before verbs that are not the same as that 
from which it has been formed, chiefly before ^JS^ ^JS^o,, cf. 341) and 

1, Instances with regard to unaltered verbal themes with a final 
consonant, are e. g. ^^s 6 so* = 

2, Instances with regard to unaltered themes with a final vowel, are e.g. 

30 s ) 
), ^ 
, Iri 

3, Instances with regard to themes that have changed their final vowel 
into ?9 (which often are verbal nouns and occasionally appear in the 
mediaeval dialect and frequently in the modern one), are e. g. 

6y. 157. 

4, Instances with regard to themes that have changed their final vowel 
-a into PS (which often are verbal nouns and not (infrequently occur in 
the modern dialect), are e.g. 


G?. 157. 

5, Instances with regard to themes that have changed their final 'a 
into eaj (which partly are verbal nouns and occasionally occur in the 
modern dialect), are e. (j. -ado i?J3v* (= r 

^. 151, letter 6, 2. 

6, Instances with regard to themes that have dropped their final syllable, 
are S50&* (=S503o of esoJoo) ^D* (used in the ancient and mediseval 
dialect), z^^ (=^j8^h of ^^rij) ^o* (used in the ancient dialect), and 
irfoej (= 530>Aof jjoortoj ^JS^ (used in the modern dialect). Cf. letter b, 3. 

Here may be adduced the vulgar en>rio 3J3fi?J-> (=yua& ^Qrfo; see 166). 
Cf. ste sies-rfj under i, 4. 

7, Instances with regard to themes that have dropped the vowel of 
their final A, rtj or ft and converted the remaining consonant n 6 into =5* 
before the verbs ^J^o and ^JSv* (^JStfo,), are e. g. S3^ (=S5nrfo of 

(of zrt) =5^0, E^ (of Sort) ^J5^, 3< (of Jrt) ^JSv*, 

(Of Wfl) ^J3V S , ^5* (Of tSA) ^V*, SSJ3^ (Of 
20=5* (of rorto) ^JS<ff*. The instances occur only in the modern 
dialect. Cf. 158; 164, n. 12. 

b) ,The short participle used before verbs that are identical with that 
from which it has been formed, L e. in repetition ( 211): 

1, Instances with regard to themes that, in an unaltered form, precede 
an identical verb, are e.g. =&& 3&> (=^arfo ^S), ^O 3Z> (= ! S l C)dj 

=^6 ^6 (= 

3, sjo 3io, ^a oja, ^jsri ^prt, WA zoh, zoa wa, ao oo, sjoa 
rfora, ijoa a)a, siooes 9 riojSl 9 , sS^ri diart, 

It is to be observed that the instances always presuppose the second 
verb to be in the form of the past participle ending in do ( 155) or 


in the past tense, as && ^&d>, ^O ^Srfo, etc. (see 211, 4). They are 
found in the three dialects. In Abhinavapampa 13, 53 there is 3ti) ^^j 

2, Instances with regard to themes that have lost their final vowel 
before an identical verb (which are found in the mediaeval and modern 
dialect), are e. g. 3*3 (i. e. ^rfo of 3s?j *3, irt ( = Iric3j of Jrt) itf, 3rt 

6y. 151, letter a, * and b, 2. 


In such an instance the short participle may be doubled, e. g. Wd tod ud, 
also when another verb follows, e. g. uti 2Jd ^J3> s . gee 211,8. 

3, Instances with regard to themes that have dropped their last 
syllable before an identical verb, are e.g. 3d (of 3drfj) 3drfo, 30 (of 

Cf. letter a, 6. The instances belong to the three dialects. See 211, i. 


In such an instance the short participle may be doubled, e. g. $>& $>& &&$ 
rto, rfri 3d ti&fo (or ?^Jrio), <$ 3 23<s*r!o (used in the ancient dialect, see 
211, 10. See also 339, 8. 

Also in the repetition of nouns the last syllable has been dropped, as in 
Sort Sorttfo, ;3j3d stoste* (see 303, i, a. b. c. d). 

4, An instance in which the vowel of the penultima too has been lost 
before an identical verb, is 3JS3 3JS3 9 ;3o (=3iG0 9 ro ^fc^o, of the mediaeval 
dialect). Cf. AJ^O iJ3^?oo under a, 6. 

166. Hitherto the formation of the past participle of verbal themes 
ending in consonants and the vowels Q and ^ has been treated of; it 
still remains to be introduced the formation of the twelfth kind of the past 
participle. It concerns the themes which end in the vowel en) in the three 

Their past participle is formed by suffixing the vowel *a, in the ancient, 
mediaeval and modern dialect. The final eru is treated as a euphonic 
letter, disappearing before the ^ according to the rule of sandhi ( 213, 

Instances are &$ (of wtfo.,), having feared, th (of torto), having met 
together, $1% (of ?&&), having trusted, s3oa (of ^oe^J), having liked, 

?.T V 9r*f ?sr ^ r>.^-^ 


(of tfolk.), ^o^U, ta, &>el, ^ 
sira^, wa, srsa, s^es 9 , sraw 9 , fteea 9 , ^ts 9 , 333*0, 

, rtdes 9 , ricfcS 9 , <toA), rae&o, !>*>, ew&r, 

wrto, ^J8frto, 3oJ3?rfo form also the irregular past participles woi3*, 
J^o&*, used for the third person neuter singular of the past tense 
(see 199, and cf. 176). wo& s appears also as e30&<, regarding which 
see 176, and compare wrto (=e?rto) in the Dictionary !) . 

Themes with final C3o generally form their past participle by means 
of the vowel a; but if the G5o is changed into 3*, which occasionally 
and in some instances always is done ( 59. 61. 160, 4), they suffix cio 
or 3o ( 155. 156), e.g. "S^rfor (of 

and before the syllable ^o their final &3* is sometimes converted 
into 3* (^0%, etc., 160, 4). 


In the mediaeval dialect a theme that in the ancient one ends in a 
consonant, is not unfrequently made to end in g\3, in which case the 
vowel 'a is used to form its past participle, e.g. 

, yrlO, 
this, as a rule, is done in the modern dialect. Cf. 48. 181, i. 198, 4. 5. 

167. The thirteenth kind of the past participle which, as it would 
appear, occurs only in the mediaeval (tyU ec t, is formed by means of the 
syllable 'acfo. This is, instead of do ( 155), suffixed to themes that 
in the ancient dialect, without exception, end in consonants, but in later 
times have optionally received a euphonic eru (cf. the close of 166), 
e.g. ^<Sdo (of tf^j, =3^0), ^jstfrio (of 

*) Dr. I. F. Fleet draws the author's attention to some copper-plate grants in which 
find ask* have been used directly for esft and Wft in the forms 3JJ93odJ*, Sjjs^scxjj*, do* 
<xjj, 3yst3&, etc. (for sjjjsdh, sjjjsasf*, 3o*ft, io-8P>, etc., to the east, to the south, etc.). 
He writes: a With one exception, noted further on, I have found these forms in only some of 
the spurious copper-plate grants of the Western Oanga series, from Mysore. These grants 
claim to bo of various dates from A. D. 248 upwards. But there are strong reasons for 
fixing the eleventh century as the period when most of them were fabricated.'' The one 
exception occurs in a stone inscription at Bannur in the Tiruma-Kudlu-narasfpura taluka, 
Mysore district, which appears to include the word SSSOOTOiJ* (or SSajs^SOd.-* ?), and may 
belong to about A. D. 920. Cf. 281. We remark that en appears as W3&J in T.-lugu. 


(of ?je)do, = ?5e>doF), ^<s?do (f ^s?o, = o)?tfj) , T^otfoSdo (of 

(Of SoJ3erfj, = 3!iJ5?doF), SoJe^WCk (of 

f wWio, = 2o53^:>), rfodSdo (of rfjdtfj, 
In a sasana of A. D. 1123 we find tf^do (for ^s;j) in which a euphonic 
ero is used for ( a. 

Towards the end of the mediaeval period (e. g. in the Kannada 
Ramayana) here and there we meet with forms in which the stcl> has 
been used to form the past participle even of verbal themes that end 
in vu in the three dialects ( 166), e. g. &3i>2&do (of LS^O, = a 2^71^0), 
sSoUdo (of sSjfeJo., =a sSjfeJj), ?l>?&do (of ?l>?do, =a &?do). Also 

WWW ^ 

the curious past participle > do (=>?&, of wo) occurs in the 

The vowel ^ in / ac5o in this case is, of course, nothing else but a 
euphonic letter employed before the real termination ck. 

168. The question naturally arises how the vowel ^ of 166 came 
to represent the suffix for the past participle of verbal themes ending in 
eru in the three dialects. It appears to be certain that ^ originally was 
a euphonic or enunciative augment put before do ( 155 seq.) in order 
to avoid forms like 333^ (of ss^^J), having sung (actually used in the 
Jaimini Bharata 21, 57), ^jjs^j (of rfjs^o), having made (used in the 
Dharmaparikshe, edited by the Rev. G. Wurth in his ss^sX^^jsC)^ 

^* ' "o" *U 

vacana 1301), ^okjj. , <$&* , Sjo^j , etc. Such forms, certainly, are 

w so- ' la- 

clumsy and cacophonous, and led people to use the enunciative augment 
<a between the theme and cfo, as they actually did in the forms 

etc. and then in the forms ^-s^do, s3o!3do, ?l?8>d>, which, 
probably as a remnant of by-gone times, we find in 167. This is 
corroborated by the fact that in the so-called relative past participle 
( 175, e.g. 53>ad, ^oeiSd, ^olirf, dooiid, ^d, rfo^ci), in the ancient 
and rnediajval present tense ( 194, e.g. 53)^d33o, ^j 
^d^Jo), and in the imperfect tense ( 198, e.g. sraScS, 
the do, in the form of d (178), is always used. (In the contingent 
present-future tense the participle with a is generally added directly to 
fctfo, etc.). 

We are, therefore, compelled to think. that the past participle with 
final 'St is another particular kind of the short participles treated of in 
165. About its representing verbal nouns see 169. 

105 - 

In passing it may bo observed that in the future tense ( 200) the trisyllabic 
forms 3j3^;3o, fi&tti&o, when they are to become dissyllabic, do not appear as 
djadjjO, cto^o, bat as 3Jaco, &eo, the & in combination with X being used 
to avoid a hardness of the pronunciation, which is avoided in the past participles 
533ri, 3J3d^ by the insertion of an enunciativo ^ before 3o and finally dropping 
the ci). 


Nagavarma and Kesava call the *3 an augment (a gam a), and Kesava states 
that this 'S and the s/u in 3o are vowels which are substitutes for the personal 
terminations (kriyavibhaktyadeaasvara). See the personal terminations in 

169. Is it possible to find out the original meaning of the past participle 
in Kannada? 

In 165 it has been stated that the short past participles, namely 
those without dj and ^j, are often identical as to shape with their verbal 
themes which at the same time are verbal nouns, so that the participles 
themselves appear as verbal nouns and finally must be such, e. g. 
a rising, srsofc*, a running, Aj^V*, a splitting, 3J3oi3*, a striking; 
ito, 3o?c, 3;3, 30, oS3 9 , 33, 

SoO SoS 

If we thus consider the short participles to be verbal nouns, their meaning 
before ^JSv* and && is as follows: 3oJ3o&* T?J3<^, to take (/. e. to apply) 
a blow (or blows, to one's self); <>}O~ ^D*, to bring a standing up (to a 
certain' .place, i. e. to come); 33e>o&* ^o*, to give a running (/. e. to run); 
33 =^J3<9*, to take (i. e. to apply) a stabbing (to one's self) ; $d ^c*, to 
bring a walking (i.e. to come); etc. 

We believe that analogously the past participles ending in d) and 3j are 
nouns, namely verbal nouns augmented by the pronominal suffixes 3j and c3o 
( 122; cf. 178 and 298, 3). Thus, for instance, aW, a descending, 
has become 'aCO'cSo, a descending-it; j&S, a walking, fftScSo, a walking-it: 
OO, a selling, S)^j, a selling-it; sSjss?, a germinating, s3jss?&, a germi- 
nating-it (cf. our explanation of wcS in 171, of ro^oo, etc. in 173, of 
Wc3 in 178. 179, of ^, 4 and 3^ in ^ 185. 186, of the infinitive in 
188, of rto and ^o in 204, and of the second and third person of the 
imperative in $ 205). The suffixes cjj and 3o are so to say redundant. 
The special idea of the past ca having descended-it ', 'a having walkod-it '. 
or having descended, having walked, etc.) has, only by usage, been attached 



to the forms with Kb and 3o (cf. t>d in 273). A similar indefinite 
character as to time has been actually preserved in the verbal forms 
produced by suffixing the syllables ^oo and rtao (see 203), in the negative 
participle and conjugated negative (see 170. 171. 209. 210), and in 
the verbal forms (participles) produced by the syllables sj, 10, , and 
3o (see 180-185). Further the use of the past participle ^o in 


combination with aod or 536 (o^&Alii, <0f36), e.g. in 322-329 and that 
of the infinitive with final soo (S323*) in combination with QV ( 316, -2) 
will assist to elucidate such an original indefiniteness as to time. Cf. also 
313, 4 about the combination of the past participle and verbal nouns 
in the past. 

In 168 the short past participles with a final enunciative Q which 
remained after the dropping of do, have been introduced. With their 
do they are obvious verbal nouns, and they are therefore to be considered 
as verbal nouns also without do. This is established by the fact that they 
in combination with QV are used identically with other verbal nouns 
in combination with -ao in 316, 2 (e.g. sira&o, tJfto =: 


170. The fourteenth kind of the past participle is the so-called negative 
one (pratishedhakriye, vilomakriye, abhavakriye). It is formed by putting 
escS to the short form of the so-called infinitive (kriyfirtha, see 187), /. e. 
to the form of the verb that is conventionally used to denote object, 
design, purpose, or future of intention of action (before another verb), 
expressing the idea of the English infinitive preceded by 'to', 'for to', 
'about to', 'ready to', 'yet to' (see 188). This short form of the infinitive 
ends in the vowel t>, e. g. <3id (of ^o*, ^J), to be or stay, about to be 
or stay, going to be or stay, yet to be or stay. When ssd is put to ^d, 
the form of the participle becomes either ^d 55:3, or, with the application 
of sandhi ( 214), <adc3, 'not actually being or staying' or 'not having 
actually been or stayed'. The idea of the past is secondary, depending 
on circumstances (see 209, and cf. 169). Both forms, 'ad escS and 
*adc5, were used in the ancient dialect; in the mediaeval and modern 
one only 'adcS is in use. Other instances are 5t)d (of yo s ), not being 
fit or not having been fit, 'S^d (of ^o*), not being present or not 

CO ^ 

having been present ( 338), esofcid (of 5ofc;j), not fearing or not having 
feared, ^fcjd (of ^iio), not tying or not having tied, srudd (of jx>3o), 
(of &do), arid, 3edc3, z3?ric5, slre^d, Oo^&ficS, aJ3?rtz3, 


Cf. 208. 209. 210. (212, 7). 

If verbal themes end in *a, oi, 5, 3r , or Jo, the infinitive inserts a 
euphonic oij* between the theme and when csd is attached, e. g. 
ae^crfjd (of racJ 9 ), yx,eo 9 c&>d (of er^eo 9 ), ^oaoijcS (of =>&), - 
(of 3*), rfdojod (of jftS), 3j&rfjd (of sJzS), wrioSjd (of art 
(of ^e>), 3*o3od (of 3$), ?o3od (of &e), T??odjcS (of ?), 
(of ?$js^. The theme to exceptionally inserts a euphonic ,, and the 
negative participle becomes t,sjd. 

Monosyllabic themes ending in ?*, ?*, octo 6 , o*, and v*, and having a 
short initial vowel or consonant, form the negative participle by doubling 
their final consonant before the ss of the infinitive and suffixing cS, e. y. 
(of <JTUD), ^zS ( of ^>r3 s ), ^^tS (of E^), ^J3^cS (of &$*), 
(of 20033 s ). As an exception there is ^cS (of =5V) in the 
ancient dialect. In the mediaeval one we find exceptionally -Tored) ( of 
ero^), ftvd (of fio*); as the modern one uses to double the finals of 
monosyllabic themes already before a euphonic tro (48), its forms of 

the negative participle are e. a. rur?cS (of erorao). <o^.d fof (OJ^o,), ri^cS 

r*3 v ee/' . v < y 

(of ri^oj. qy. 215, ?,/. 


The themes 3u* and zoa* generally appear as go>a and zroo* in 
forming their negative participle, which is 3e>dc3 and wsdd; only in the 
mediaeval and modern dialect also ^rfc3 and todd occasionally occur. 
(Cy. 184. 210.) 

In repetition (see 165, letter b, and cf. 209. nil) the first verb 
drops the suffix escS, e.g. &d add. (Cf. 211, 4. 339.) 

171. It becomes evident fi-om the formation of the so-called negative 
participle given in 170 that its primitive meaning was not that of direct 
negation, but that of futurity, /. e. the state of being yet to come or of 
once having been yet to come, or, in other words, the state of not being 
or of not having been. escS is e3t3o, the remote demonstrative pronoun 
(cf. the do and 3o of 169, and the yx^, etc. of $ 173), in combination 
with oj, the particle of emphasis (cf. 215,6, remark 1). The form 
under consideration, therefore, is so to say a pronominal noun, and 
the first meaning of the above-mentioned a 3 ssd; or 'aod is 'yet to be 
or stay-even-it', 'not yet being or staying-even-it', or 'the state or condi- 
tion of not actually being or staying', 'not actually hfint. 01 



or, according to circumstances, 'not having actually been or stayed'. 
Thus also e.g. sJjs^cS, 'yet to make-even-it', 'having been yet to make- 
even-it': 'not actually making', 'not actually having made'. 

172. In 154 it has been stated that the second form of the Kannada 
verb that has been called a verbal participle or gerund by Europeans, 
is the present verbal participle (vartamanakriye, vartamanakalakriye; see 

It is formed by adding to the verbal theme one of the following ten 
suffixes: e/U^Jo (in the ancient and mediaeval dialect), eri)3 (in the 
ancient and mediaeval one), eroabgO (in the ancient one), en)^ (in the 
ancient one), e/u3o (in the mediaeval one), eru3 (in the mediaeval and 
modern one)., en;3 o (in the mediaeval and, occasionally, ancient one), 
eruaEj, (in the mediaeval and modern one), en)3>, eA)3^ (in the modern 

The final eru of a theme disappears (according to the rule of sandhi, 
213 seq .) when any of the terminations is annexed; if a theme ends in 
'a, oi, e5, 3t, , or $0, a euphonic Odb*, or occasionally (in the mediaeval 
dialect) 53 6 , is put between the vowel and termination ; after to, to love, 
the insertion of 53* is always required. 

Instances are S50o3oo (of e5!^), weeping, riojoo 
(of fio&';c/.215, ?,e), doing, o^o^o (of o^), saying, 
laughing, ^jsezi^oo (of ^J3^), seeing, ^^ 9 o3jj&o(of ^,C3 9 ), descending, 
^dc&u&o (of 3d), calling, Se)OJoj^oc (of ^), guarding, 3soSoo^oo (of *), 
giving, zSeoJoo^oo (of :3e), burning; ca^jj (of arfo), throwing, 


(of <0c3*), saying, 
(of tfejcio), fighting, 
WS^j), o^f^O^ (of 
(Of ^0^); 




o (of 
), = 



(of tfzi), 


becoming weary; 
threatening; =5^^, (of 
(of =^J3^); w^o^ (of 
^J3^J^ (of Sirack), 
(Of 200*), 5s)r30^0 (Of 

(of y^), 



(of z3e), 






(Of to); 



(Of W5?); ^OO^JJ^ (of 



(of ^d), tos?4^ (of zos?). (The Basavapurana has once, 22, 29, 

, treating the final vo as radical). 
Before the euphonic zf the vowel o of the theme may be dropped, 
e. ff. ^4^0 (of 3d), wd^^o (offcd); 3ti$3 (of 3d), ^4^ (of Sri), 
do^3 (of os3), 3J3^^)^ (ofaojatf). C/. 151, letters a, 4 and b, 2; 
etc. Instances regarding the present verbal participle see in 362. 

From 'g'js^j exceptionally T?J3^, a contraction of ^jav^, is formed 
in the modern dialect. 

Further, in the modern dialect there are the puzzling forms es^ and 
0^ used, like the past participles *$& and <o?l> ( 155), to introduce 
words and sentences (see 332). They are likely to be forms corrupted 
from the present participles y?k3 or 55^^, <Orl>3 or ^rfo^, saying (cf. 
the rustic form of the present tense in 196, remark 3, and also the 
explanation of 55^, ibid., remark 4). y^ and tO^ which may take 
the place of 533 and o^ , would be equal to es^ose) or yjdj^ and 
<0^03s> or ,oj;&3* . Another explanation will be offered in 198, 7, 
remark 1. 

In repetition the ero^e) of the first verb may be dropped (see 339, 6). 

173. Considering the origin of the suffixes 'of the present participle 
adduced in 172 we take CAJ^J to be their primitive form. CAJ^J is known 
to be another form of sn)d>, the intermediate demonstrative pronoun neuter 
(Sabdmanidarpana sutra 148; 122; 272, 2), from which yurfo, analo- 
gously to the formation of ea^ from e5do and f a^J B from 'acl), ea)^ 
may be formed. 

These pronominal suffixes eru&> and ea)^ we believe to be attached to 
verbal nouns to form the present participle correspondingly to the forma- 
tion of the past one which suffixes the pronouns c3o and 3j to verbal 
nouns ( 169) and to the present-past negative one which suffixes the 
pronoun ycS (i.e. 3d)+the emphatic ^) to the short infinitive ( 171) 
which will finally prove to be also a verbal noun ( 188). Let us take. 
for instance, the verbal noun kftj, reading; when to this eru^o or eru^ 
is added, it would have the form of fcodo^j or t^do^Op and mean -a 
reading-this '. (Cf. the bhfivavacanas or verbal nouns of ;j< IDs. \!i)0). 

The final eruo in vo^oo, en)^> o is still to be explained, It is the 
conjunction eruo, further, denoting progression or continuity, which 
conveys the specific idea of the present participle, a .3 or ^03^0, 

standing before a conjugated verb, e.g. before "he was' (acjro, literally 


'a reading-this-further' he. was), expresses that the reading was a 
progressing or continuing action. The final conjunction eso has the 
same meaning. 

The final oi in vuJ, erol (put to yo^o and ero^o like the ^ of yd 

B v * 

in 171) is emphatical, the idea of the en)o or tto disappearing (cf. 
196. remarks)^. In the final es> of ro^, sro|^ the sonne has been dropped, 
or perhaps 3 stands for ^ (cf. e. g. the past participles before the 
rfo or 3j of which the >j of the verbal themes becomes y, 157), and 
in enj^e), eros^ the 5 has then been changed into 55 for the sake of 

The use of the intermediate pronouns (sni^j, erosbj may denote that 
the action is neither past nor future. 

174. There are two forms of the Kannada verb that have been called 
relative participles. This name has been given to them by Europeans' 
because they regarded them as including the relative pronouns within 
themselves. But the Kannada language has no relative pronouns 
whatever; its pronouns ad (oararf), w^jrfj (ofc^sSrij), w^o (o3K>rf?i>), 
wd<s* (o3Je>s3^o), >* (>?k) are not relative, but interrogative ( 102, 8, 
letter b, remark), and the relative pronouns' place is somehow supplied 
by the so-called relative participles. (Cf. 267 regarding the interro- 

The first is the preterite or past relative participle (bhutavatikrit, 
175-179), the second comprises the present and future relative participles 
(bhavishyantikrit, 180-186) which have the same form. 

175. The past relative participle (bhutavatikrit) is formed 

1, by removing the final yu of the past participle ( 155-164) or 
changing it into es, e.g. ^ra (of sgjscsj), OJN (of <o^), wrfodr or esrforfr 
(of es^orior, ess^odor), ttitir or ao?3c3r (of fcridor, &*?ocl>r), ?3J3?c5r or 

(of a^cio), ^^ (of^^oj, ^QJ^ 
(of 3J3fe), w^ (of w?^), FSe^ (of 3^), <o5 3 d (of 
(of ^rfdo\ od rof &od>). ^4, t3^, ?j^ . eA^ra, tfra, ^oSra, 

ca v o" -' o' -' ca' ca' <a 

., ^dr or -arf, rfi# ^s^,; e/. 189; 

u J O W O 

'2. by adding c3 to the short past participle ending in 'st ( 166-168), 
e.g. s<i?,d (of <$<$ } aoftd (of r ^r\}. Fo^d, doeo-d, 'tfoiici. 

2 V TJ 1 ' A v A-"ur la- M ' 

^od; c/. 189; 

"^ The oi might, howe\er, in this oast j , be merely formative like the > in r53^, ^)25J, tf<3 5 , 
=3ofS and other nouns. 

3, by changing the final 5 of the negative participle (cj 170. 171) 
into es, e.g. 'acid (of -3,3:3), ^%3 (of 'a^cS), c J r ^Cj (of 

Regarding the moaning see 17S and regarding the use 363. 

176. The formation of the past relative participle of 

?rlo is irregular, for, instead of sftcS, ^e^ftd, 3oJS?ftd, they have 
, 3oJ3?c5. formed from the irregular past participles 

( 166) by means of syncope, the original forms being 
3oJS?oJo. wc$ occasionally takes also the forms w^ ( 292) ? 


or t?rs or yrs ( 293, Tamil = {3, Telugu S3o5j?i, the consonants ^<, c=5* 
being used for c>; c/. the remark concerning ^, ^* and n* in 141 under 
dative singular) and probably also that of a?3 too (see 278, 2, the 
explanation of 5?S; c/. 212, remark 2). The original form of wc3, w'z. 
wcdj, appears still as yctfj, and, by syncope, as c5, in the old rustic 

O O 

forms yoi3^)?3 etc. and S5c3a)^ etc.. used for the third person present 
o ' 

still in the modern dialect ( 196, cf. &((&, 195). In the same 
dialect there is also the old rustic form ssoS^, used for the third person 
neuter singular of the present tense (as to form originally of the past or 
preterite tense) which is you* (the irregular past participle, 166) and 
3o ( 193) in combination with the ^ of emphasis. Regarding the form 
esrto (=t>rfo) see also the ytf in 212, remark 2, the sssj , y, 3o in 
183, 7, remark; 184, the y^o.o in 203, and the 55 v, in 205. 


177. The grammarian Kesava calls the past relative participle in 
combination with any one of the terminations e$o (es), he, s<>^^ she, erotfo. 
it, and their plurals wo*, they (rnon or women), TJ^, they (children, 
things, etc., see e.g. 254) a ^ja^dStfxS* or i^Oorl ( 68, i), also 

( 102, s, e), e. .7. 533860 (of sra 

, the genitive singular, for instance, becoming 

, 33e>adtf, s^acj:riS, and the genitive plural ssDadC, sraacSj^eS. 
Further instances are e3sjo fof wocS), ^^rfo sror? c3o. ((Y. e. (/. SS 180. 

f > "O ' ' (> r 

185. 193. 198 under 3. 254.) [Observe that bhutavatiki it may mean 
either the past relative participle or the noun formed from it.] 

The terminations o and wv*" appear also as ZJQ and Zo"^; wo find 
c.//. ^J3o (in a sasana of 707 A. D.), 5i^ 9 dj3o (in a iteana of 8G6 A. 1>. 
and in one of 887 A. D.), and u^Ja V* ^JS^JSv* (i" ^ ^asana of about 


778 A. D.). For sroci) there occurs also &c3o, as there is e. g. twice 
r a,iJ> s rfj (in a sasana between 597 and 608 A. D.); for the plural 30* 
we have also &,o* according to 185, q. v. 

Instead of the above-mentioned terminations which, except the pronouns 
erod) and ero^), are pronominal forms, also demonstrative pronouns 
themselves are very frequently used in the mediaeval dialect; in the 
modern one only pronouns are in use. Two additional pronominal forms 
of the mediaeval dialect are <&& and ss (for tso). 

The demonstrative pronouns used for krillingas in the mediaeval 
dialect are sssjo, 53rfc&, esrf, W^o, W^rfj, wg, esrfs?*, ?Jdtfo, , j\)<3o, 

, esdo*, 3s3il>, yx.5^), S353), and those in the modern one yd^o, S53, 
w3, erftfo, 3, S3d>, ezSdo, e$3) (see 117. 119. 121. 122. 134. 
136). ss^o and e?^ are met with as suffixes for krilliugas also in the 
ancient dialect. See 254. 

But not only pronominal forms and pronouns are suffixed to the 
past relative participles, but nearly every declinable base (see 67 seq.) 
is used after them, e. g. 

WC3 ? , WC >3i3 , SJJS^CJ 03i^, S5^ d 
o ro f> 

=5e)0dor. See 282 regarding declinable and other adverbs 
used after them, and 363 the translation of the above instances. 
Further instances see in 254. 

Kesava terms the instances in which a relative past participle is followed 
by a declinable base (noun), consecutive compounds (gamakasamasa see 253, 
2, d and cf. 185). 

178. The author of the present grammar considers the past relative 
participle to be the genitive singular of the so-called past participle 
formed by means of the pronominal suffixes d> and ^o ( 169), in which 
case e>, the primitive termination of the genitive ( 141), would have 
been employed without the usual augment yS ( 124). 

With regard to escS ( 171) it is to be remarked that <o, the particle 
of emphasis, was removed in order to form the genitive ending in es, <'<:. 

Compare the explanation of the relative present-future participle in 185. 
179. Now turning back to 175 seq. we translate e. g. 

$5) 'of the having promised', ^ 'of tlie having said', 
'of the having closely united', $S?J3 'of the having feared', 



'of the having gone'; add 'of the not being' or 'of the not having 
been', wowrf 'of the not fearing' or 'of the not having feared'. 

33e)Qrfo (o3e>&c34-e3o) means 4 a man of the having sung', i. e. a man 
who has sung or sang; 53e>ac3<p* (ssej&d+ssv*), 'a woman of the having 
sung', i. e. a woman who has sung or sang; 33>a:i>ck (33e>ac5+tf\>ck), 
v :i child of the having sung', i. e. a child which has sung or sang; 
esSui ^ja^c, 'a place of the having played', i. e. a place where (somebody) 
has played or played; s^rod ^.ODrlo, 'a colour of ashes of the having 
smeared with', i. e. a colour of ashes with which (somebody) has smeared 
or smeared (e. a. the body); s$t>Cjo (e5^)rf+S5o), 'a man of the not 

CO * CO * 

being proper', i. e. a man who is not proper; 'aocSo ('3^c5+s5oj, 'a 
man of the (something) not being', i. e. a man who lacks (something) ; 

5A)rs rfo fsAiC-3 c3+ ^o} 'a man of the not eating' or 'of the not having 

re v ra '' 

eaten ', i. e, a man who does not eat or has not eaten ; s^jsc^cj =503^*, 

'a field of the not cultivating', i. e. a field which (anybody) does not 
cultivate, or has not cultivated, or did not cultivate, i. e. a field which 
nobody cultivates, etc.; yrtrf ^OJOFO 'an affair of the not being possible 1 , 
i. e. an affair which is impossible. 

Regarding the use of the present time in translating the so-called 
relative past participle see 169. 170. 


In the modern dialect a change of ^ into & is occasionally met with (cf. 
181, note a), e. g. w&a^tfo stands for aSJ^tfo (e6^ + e;tt0), - a woman of the 
having cooked ', i. e. a woman who has cooked ; ^ftAfl^Ort (f. e. ^Qf^aQrt) ^jaB-e^ 
Ofl (/. e. ^jaSJ^Ort) ^ja?&3 OD^tSdJ^ they say "there (is) much more gain for 
them who give than for them who take". 

180. The present and future relative participles (bhavishyantikrit, 174) 
that are identical as to shape and receive their respective meaning only 
from the context, are formed by means of the suffixes 5j , w , s3 and ao . 
Regarding their meaning see 185. 186. See 364. 

Instances of the present-future relative participle formed by means 
of 53 

1, such as regard verbal themes ending in consonants in which the 
suffix is added directly to the theme, in the ancient and mediaeval dialect, 
are wtf (of w~), sruiJ (of ewW"), enjatf (of y\jav*), J3tf W5&3, ?0, 

(Of UO*), ^^i>, 


, (of wo*), ?ras3F, i)?dr. QA 183, 2.4. io ; about themes 

with final *> see 183, 3. 

Themes ending in o* optionally double the d by a*, e.g. , 

^r. See 371, 3. 


About ?ra3 for zraoijj see 163, remark. 

2, such as regard monosyllabic verbal themes that end in a vowel or 
are a vowel, in which the suffix is added directly to the theme, in the 
ancient and mediaeval dialect, are =5-5^ (of ^e>V >3SSj, z3?s3, 

fc3 occurs only in the mediaeval dialect, the ancient form being ^ (see 
183, 6); instead of 3^3 the mediaeval dialect has also 3^- 

3, such as regard verbal themes that also in the ancient dialect end in 
eru, in which the suffix is added directly to the theme, in the three dialects, 
are enackrf (of srodo), tfocfcrf (of ^ozi>), ^do3, i%3, s^rio^, 

See No. 6 and 183, 2. 4. 7. 8. 

4, such as regard verbal themes ending in 'a or <0 in which the suffix 
is added directly to the theme, in the ancient and mediaeval dialect, are 
(of y^ 9 ), 'aS^d, 'aetfsi, =5^, 3s?d, ^a^, ^)0d; o&3^ (of 

5, such as regard verbal themes with final <0 which drop this vowel 
before the suffix, in the mediaeval dialect and occasionally also in the 
ancient one, are wdd (of e<3), wdd (of yd), y^ (of e3$), ^dd, <^S5d, 
^drf, =5^3, ^r&3rf, iJS^d, 23^^, 2oJ3^d, SoJS^d; ^^^ (of f^d, in a 
sasana of 1019 A. D.). Cf. 157. 

6, such as regard verbal themes that may change their final &3o into 
&5< before the suffix, in the mediaeval dialect, are rtssdr (of r\&3* = r{fc,3j), 

. C/". No. 3 and 183, 2. 


The present participle of the verb wv s is anomalously formed, it being not 
, but SA>< in the three dialects. Cf. 243, #, 20 ; 194, remark 1. 


181. In 180 we have found only one form of the present-future 
participle with 53 in the modern dialect, viz. that of No. 3, in which the 
suffix is added directly to themes that end in tf\i also in the ancient 
dialect; let us now give the other forms: 

1, That of No. i in 180 it forms by attaching a euphonic e/u to the 
themes with final consonants (cf. 48. 166) and then suffixing the ;j, a 
formation which occasionally occurs also in the mediaeval dialect. 

Instances belonging to both dialects are tftfosi (of w^j = *>*), 


Instances belonging to the mediaeval one alone are 

Instances belonging to the modern one alone are 'adosj, erorsorf, 


Or oJffo.d, =ge)K)Od, ^JSOJJOrf Or ^JSOJOJoSl =grJ3ex> SJ, ^J3^J,3, ^rJJ^J, 
t O n V 

or Arfo^, udl)rf, OfWod, Traokod, ggjaoko^rf. (C/- 182.) 

2, That of No. 2 in 180 it forms from originally monosyllabic 
themes to which a euphonic ero (by means of o&* as a help to enunciation) 
has been added, suffixing the 53 to the erv, e.g. -dsoijorf (of -^oJoo, to bring 
forth), 5>o3oj> (of <ge)OJoj) , ri?c&>o3 (offl?o3oo), ?SeoJjo 

(of ?SjseoJoo), z3^ojoo^ (of 23?o3ou), Ojsoio}^ (of 
(of ^o^oijo). 

3, That of No. 4 in 180 it forms by adding a euphonic e/v (by means 
of o53* as a help to enunciation) and then suffixing the 3, e. g. 

(of estt 9 ), 3s?o3oo3 (ofae), ^oaoJoorf, ^jQoJood; ^do^oorf (of 3d), 


a) In the mediaeval and modern dialect the final SA> of the verbal theme 
and the suffix 3 are pretty often changed into to or L>, e.g. 

(= eruditfjS), ^ri&o, ^d^, ^Prto'js (ao^rio'JS) ; wrtjs? 
J8o^ 5 ?, 5jCJ8?, 23?co'J3, uSo5J3, tfdoSjs?. (Cf. 179, note; 202. 205, 3, 
first pers. plural.) 

b) In the mediaeval and occasionally in the modern dialect the final w of 
the verbal theme and the suffix 3 may be changed into y\0, e. g. 'S^a (= t)tfo3), 
oortja (=<oerto3), 33363^ (=333ewi), TOO^ (=?io^).S). (C/. tjij 202. 205,3, first 
pers. plural.) ^do s&strtoa ssarf ^cio (that is found in the modern dialect) may be 

c) Some vulgar forms in which the participle ends in y, that are found 
in a South-Mahratta school-book, e.. g. $& (in H?^^rfo), OJ3Ci (in 



and 3oos^ (in ^o^d^o), are. to be explained by the change of the &> of No. a 
into , so that ^tf, a.rad and 3oo^ stand for ^&&, siraci/a and 3oo^ (^tfjsd&i, 
etc.). (Of. the remark in 187, under 2). Cf. 211, 5. 

182. The second suffix for the present-future participle is &, which 
is added to four of the monosyllabic themes that end in pg* (nanta) and 
to four of them that end in ^ (nanta), viz. erur? (of tfuco*) 

tO * 

(Of 5e>c^), ^pr^ (Of S^fvg*), 33e>ra (Of 5J3tt>f^); oir^ (Of <0^), 3^ 
/". 183, 5. 

becomes also rodo in the mediaeval dialect, and always so in 


the modern one; ^rs. becomes =5=5)^0 in the modern one; ^^ N and 3^ 

w tJ to .w 

appear also as cOdo. and rfo in the ancient dialect, and always so in 

w to 

the mediaeval and modern one ; the ancient WI>^ N gets also the form 


Of W) do 

The present-future participle of the themes ^03^ and s5^ the 
author of the present grammar has not yet met with. Regarding the 
other modern form of the participle of srops*, ^ejfo 5 , <o^ and 3^ 
see 181, i. 

The present-future participle of ^J3<? s (=$JS<^o, ^osta) which in the 
ancient dialect is ^J5^ (180, i) appears therein also as ^J3^o is 


frequently =$j?do in the mediaeval dialect, and occurs in this form also 


in the modern one. Its other modern form is "tfjatf^sj (181, i)- 

183. The third suffix for the present-future participle is sJ. It 
is used : 

1, In some themes ending in a* (repha), viz. 'asJr (of ^o<), ^SJF 
(of ^D^), WF (of wo*), ^JSSJF (of ^J2o*), ^J3^r (of rijg^o*), and ?3^r 
(of ??D*) of the ancient dialect (cf. No. 10 of this paragraph). The sj 

may be doubled by a tf after the o*, e. g. ^^ r, ^si r. Cy. No. 10, 
and see 371, 3. 

In the mediaeval dialect 'asjr, ^3Jr, W3JF and ^jssjr generally 
appear as <as^ } ^3j , 2ori and ^jasj (for ^J3sj). C/. 184. Regarding the 
modern dialect see 181, i. 

2, In some themes ending in &3 (rakara) with a preceding long 
vowel, viz. S33JF (of wC3*), ^JS^rlF (of ^J3?S3*), c3e>sJr (of ^S5 S ), and 
F (of rfj3^3<) of the ancient dialect. WSJF and JJS^SJF are found 

also in the mediaeval one. The sj may be doubled, e. g. ygj r, ^ja^si F 
(see 371, 3). 


W3JF is tfsj in the modern dialect, and not unfrequently also in the 
mediaeval one. 

slreCS*, cSe>9*, etc. occasionally form their participle by means of 3 
in the mediaeval dialect, e. g. <3e>rfr, sfosjjr (see 180, 6). When 
3>eC3*, ?55>t5*, 3je3*, etc. are used with the final y\/ y their participles 
are ^J3e3osj, cJe)S5od, slsst^J^, etc. in the three dialects (see 180, 3). 

3, In themes ending in 3* (lakara, according to Kesava), viz. 
S5ri0., d-fW of the ancient dialect. The present-future participle of 

OJ ^J -v 

&?&> appears twice as -S-^CO, in the Sabdanusasana. The use of si in 


themes with final &3* was perhaps to some extent optional. See 180, i. 

4, In themes ending in &3* (lakara) when it is a substitute (adesa) of 
cs* (dakara), viz. ?5Jg?&^(of ?3J3erfo), ftSoC^ (of a^odo), tfrf^ (of z3rt&>), 
t3^ (of z3^o), sJJe)!*^ (of si55<>), ?oJ3W (of ?dj3^j) of the ancient 
dialect. &pJ) z3e0 and rfjsCO occur also in the mediaeval one. 

J' J oJ 

Cy. 234. 

, etc. form their participle also by means of d, W2. 
, etc. in the three dialects. Cf. 180, 3. 

5, In four themes ending in $* (nakara, cf. 18^), viz. tJtf (of w^*j, 
5. (of &*?). ?ja?fi , A)?^ of the ancient dialect. 

oJ ^ ' M OJ 

6, In the themes i, and jgp, v^. t,3J (cf. 180, 2), ;^3i. 

7, In themes with final rtj (ganta), in which case the rtj suffers elision 
(lopa, cf. 165, 6, 3; 211,7. 10), vte. 335j (of s^rlo), ^J33i (of 3J5rto), 

(of ^e^o), Jjs^sj (of Jjsv'rlo), e3^3J (of zS^rlo), >o^o (of 
OoC3J3J (of o&3orfo), ^)o?d03J (of Donjorlo) of the ancient dialect. These 
participial forms are occasionally found likewise in the mediaeval one, 
once 3oJ3?3J for ^j?i^3J. The of the themes with a short initial may be 
doubled, e.g. IvO^sj, z3^3j (see 37 1,3). Cf. tJsra o* in the remark. 

All themes ending in rt> form their participle also by means of ;j, e.g. 
wrtasj, 3e>rt>s5, 3ja^rtas3, etc. in the three dialects (cf. 180, s). 


The present-future participle of ^rto (/. e. wrios) often appears as esj , WSJ 
or W3o ( 176. 184) in the ancient and mediaeval dialect. The Sabdanusasana 
(sutras 496. 502) teaches that its participle becomes also 5J (or O5J); we 
can substantiate its statement only by one instance which belongs to the ancient 
dialect, viz. by wzs^o* (f or arfo 5 , in a sasana between 680 and 696 A. D/), tbe 
third person plural of the future of wrto (see 201, 1). The occasionally used 


in 184 might be adduced also in support of the Sabdanusasana's 
W3j (of t5es<) appears in the paragraph under No. 1. 

8, In themes that have been formed by means of the suffixes 
or ^Jj (santa) whether they be causative, transitive or intransitive ( 148. 
151), in which case the final T$J suffers elision. Kanuada instances are 

WrIoaFSJ (of S3rtjF?oO), S3rt! (Of S5rt)?oO), ^ (of 

(of ao?i)), yuftsj (of erofi?i>), <o, >i5 9 ;d, ^5}, ^si (of 

instances of themes formed from Samskrita are e5oft?^03J (of 

, , , , , 

>-A tp ^J 

^p^SJ, 23?o3J (Of 233?oJ), d^3J, ^03J, ^^3J. The 

instances are found in the ancient and mediaeval dialect. The 3j may be 
doubled, e. g. ^asJ , ^B?J , wOsJ , rfj)a3J ; ?Ai^o3o35 , ti (see 371, 3). 

<SJ Osj ^J oj ^j oo 

All themes with final <a?oj and sSo form their participle also by means 
of rf ( 180, 3), e. g. yw?oorf, ^SO 9 ^)^, &>3, eSnj^od, dD?jod, in the 
three dialects. 

9, In the themes ess^ and 3^, these changing their final en; into 'a 
before gj, ^2. esSsi, ^^si (Sabdanusasana sutras 473. 480. 513). This 
rule is not in the Sabdamanidarpana, in which the verb 3^ does not 
occur at all. ?$), ^<Dsc! would, according to No. 8, be regular forms of 

10, Optionally in eleven of the themes ending in o* (cf. No. i of this 
paragraph), viz. sjdsjr (of erfo*), ^asJr (of ySo*), e.'ua^F, eroAosJr, 
^JJSJF, JJ^!F, 3J?d3JF, ^^3JF, ^>a3JF, t3^3JF, oS?3JF (Sabdanusasana 
sutra 511) in the ancient dialect. lodsJF appears in the Jaimiui bharata. 
The sj may be doubled after the o*, e.g. y^sj F, eroasi.F ( 371, 3). 

Os) oJ 

Their usual forms with sj are s3<idF or w^^$ F, ?5asJF or 
or wa^F, etc. ( 180, i; 371,3). 

184. The fourth suffix of the present- future participle is ao. 
Originally it may have had the form of so too, as it first appears as a 


substitute of ^ in yjj (of wrb), ^33! (of ao*), ^^ (of ^o 9 '), W3^ (of 
zoo*, see 183, i. 7, remark). s3 (or yjj, see 189) optionally appears 
as esao in the ancient and mediaeval dialect (cf. 223). ^So (for "asi), 
^3o (for 33J ), wao (for wsjj occur only in the mediaeval one, in which 
there are likewise z3eao (for z3?Ss3 ) and ajs^ao (for ^ja^s 
The mediaeval dialect occasionally shows the forms esao ("for 


- 119 

cf. the remark about 3J in 183, 7) and zsaso (for zjjj or a ZJSSJF; 
about theme wso* see 52. 170. 210). 

185. The simplest and, as it would appear, true explanation of the 
so-called present-future participle is to take it to be the genitive of verbal 
nouns, an explanation which is analogous to that given in 178 regarding 
the so-called past participle (see also 169) and well suits to its use. 
There aie numerous verbal nouns in Kannada formed by suffixing 3^ ^ 
and 3oj to verbal themes (see 243) ; such nouns allow the formation of 
the genitive singular by means of its primitive termination 5 ( 141, i). 
This circumstance that many of the verbal nouns used to form the present- 
future participle do not exist nowadays apart from that use, constitutes 
no valid objection to the offered explanation. 

A number of verbal nouns ending in ^ of which the genitive with 
final es would exactly form the present-future participle, are wSS 9 ^ 
(knowing, genitive s^S^d), w^o 9 ^ (perishing, genitive y!^ 9 ^), ^55*3) 
(stabbing), ^e^ 9 ^) (remaining), ^0^) (begging), toy;^ (being pleased), 

would be such as end in 5y>. See 243, A, is a. 24. 

What the grammarian Kesava states regarding the past relative 
participle that in combination with suffixes it forms a krit or krillinga 
and vficyalinga or viseshyadhiualinga, in other words a declinable verbal 
base (see 177. 200), he does state likewise regarding the present-future 
participle in combination with suffixes, it forming the bhavishyantikrit or 
krillinga (cf. 174 and see 177). 

The pronominal forms and pronouns mentioned in 177 (cf. 193. 200) 
are the suffixes also for this participle, and besides nearly every declinable 
base is used after it. If it is followed by a noun, a consecutive compound 
is formed (cf. 177 and see 253, 2, d). About its combination with 
adverbs see 282. See further 254. 282. 298, 5. 316, i. (330). 364. 

The suffixes eso and es^* appear, as in 177, also as &, and &v*; 
thus we find s3W 9 s3po, =sfol o, ni^JS o (in a sasana between 680 and 696 

o3 o3 

A. D.), &&33o (in a sasana of 707 A. D.), and OoS&V* (in one of about 


778 A. D.). The plural sso* has also the form of ZuO* in yrta o* ero&e.D* 

' <o V 

(in a sasana between 750 and 814 A. I).). 

186. The primitive meaning- of the so-called present-future participle 
(cf. 179), if derived from the genitive singular of verbal nouns, will 


appear from the following instances, viz. yS^rfo (S5^3 9 d+ S3o), he or a 
man of knowing (either now or in future), i. e. he who knows or will 
know; w&^v* (S55 3 s3+ a^j, she or a woman of knowing, i.e. she who 
knows or will know; esC^^cSo (eC3 9 rf + ero<3o), it or a child, etc. of 
knowing, i.e. it which knows or will know; y&f^sJo* (S55 9 3+ wo*), they 
or people (male or female) of knowing, i. e. they who know or will know; 
S55 9 5j^j (<sC3 9 d + SAiS^j), they or children, etc. of knowing, i. e. they which 
know or will know; ^d^pS* S555 9 do, he of knowing Kannada, i.e. he 
(or one) who knows Kannada; sSo^d 5)O*, grass of eating, i. e. grass 
which (an animal) eats or will eat; 3s?^ ?o*, water of clearing, i.e. 
water that becomes clear or will become clear; Jjs^gj ^fS^do, an ear- 
ornament of shining, i.e. an ear-ornament which shines or will shine; 
JJS^SJF 5^,do, a letter of appearing, i. e. a letter which appears or will 

In the above instances actually existing nouns appear the genitive 
of which presents the participle; in the now following instances nouns 
are to be assumed to exist : ero^ o (of an ero^,^) , he of being (or having) ; 
, she of being (or having); srutfOjdo, it of being (or having); qS^sl?" 
, riches of being he, i. e. he who has riches; oOS?c5o S53J, (of an $33^ 
Ci^o, an animal of being young, i. e. an animal which is young; && 
(of a S3ido^)) 3.>>o , a black bee of humming, i. e. a black bee which 
hums or will hum; zosiF (of a zod)F) ^>s;o, time of coming, i. e. time 
which comes; sjjsciorf (of a sjjsd)^) s-soioFo, a business of making, i. e. 
a business which (somebody) makes or will make; ^fsbsj (of a ft^os^)) 
tSFD^orfo, a chowrie of waving, i. e. a chowrie which (somebody) waves or 
will wave; sfosO o* (of a sjjs^o ) } they of making, i. e. they who make or 
will make; SoJS^rtjd^^o (of a 3oJ3^rlorf)), he of going, i. e. he who goes or 
will go; 3J3?r1orfsJ^o, she of going, i. e. she who goes or will go; 2oJ3?rbs3 
do, it of going, i. e. it which goes or will go. 

187. What Europeans call the infinitive of a verb Kannada gram- 
marians call o&e>$r, i. e. the meaning of a verb, and then the object, 

purpose or scope of (a verb's) action, -o&e) o3J3f^^. Regarding the 

^ o 

explanation of the infinitive see 188. 

There are four kinds of the infinitive, viz. 

1, The first infinitive is formed by suffixing ?3e3* to the verbal theme, 
in which case, by euphonic junction ( 213 seq.), a theme's final eru 
disappears, e.y. -^ds* (of ^o), VOC323* (of ni^, 3$& (of 3V), 


(of s3je>:3:>), sjoo^o* (of rfoo^), ft^ozto* (of 

When the theme ends in ^ or <>j, wo* may be suffixed immediately, 
as in =3*6 wa* (a form that was occasionally used in the ancient dialect, 
215, 5, letter a), but generally an enunciative o& is used between, in 
in the three dialects, e. //. sse^ofco* (of es^S 9 ), 3^ ; :^3, rioaoko*, ^CS 3 
OJotf (of oi^J, ^ooio^, do^oJo^. Qf. 215, 2, letters/, i. 

Infinitives with e3G* of monosyllabic themes that are a vowel or end 
in a vowel, are gsojoo* (of 9), Ssxtfoo*' (of ^s), ieoij3 s (of ie), ^eoJoe? 
(of Jj^), ^ja^cxJoo* (of &e), eSeoke^ (of z3e), Ojsoioy* (of DJS). 
C/. 215, 2, letters d. ^. k. m. 

Some monosyllabic themes ending in oii s optionally double (dvitvavi- 
kalpa) the ocb* before e$o', e. .(/. ^jacrfjo* or ^oJJoO* (of ^o& 6 ), ^J50JJ 
a* or ^JSoJOc-s* (of ^J3o3o), rioioe/ or flokoe? (of floss*); the o3J* of the 
four themes eroolJ*, ?3o&% zoodJ* and ?ojcxi:* is always doubled (nityadvitva) 

before it, viz. yuoJJc-^, ^oiooSJ*, woJo c S3 6 and JoooJJo^*. The dissyllabic 


theme wbodo* optionally doubles its ofc*, ^'2. 0cdoo* or 
Cy. 215, 7, e. 

Nagavarma (sutra 234) suffixes ?5e; s to the lengthened theme of ^o* 
and 200*, viz. sscte*, w^de^ (c/. 3-56 under No. 4 of this paragraph). 
Of. 210. 

In the modern dialect w^ is used only in the so-called passive 
(see 315); in all other cases it uses ?se>J, i. e. ?5o* with a euphonic 
erv, a form that is not unfrequently found in the medieval one too, e. g. 
5oortsx), 'adfyo, ^^uo, ^dex> 5 c3>^ri5jp, 2^-S-?j^j, and occasionally also 


in the later ancient one, e. ^/. S5S?aJos;j, d^-^^o, ep-s>?oe;j, wrt^o, 'aD^o 
(in a sasana of 1123 A. D.), 0^&?j^>j, cO&3r(^)0 (in a sfisana of 1182 
A. D.). Cf. 96, remark; see $ 121, a. 

In the ancient and mediaeval dialect a dative is formed from the 
infinitive with esu* by means of ?? (see 120, letters a. //), e.g. artsi, 
oitfd, sS^Wd, fioaojjd, rioSiSojo^ ^sri^d, ^^0?od. The dative of 

tr * CT XT -O" XT 

the infinitive with tsex) is formed by means of ^ or <&$ in the modern 
dialect (see 121, letter c), e. g. &$4 or 3^,^, wdoJo^ or wdoiJ^. 

t v 1^ 

In the later ancient dialect we meet with the curious forms tjpritfejjtf 
(=Sjprt&3d), tortwo^ (=wrteL in a sasana of 112:; A. D.: see jj 1'Jl. 0, 



About 53 e* 208 is to be compared. 

2, The second infinitive ends in the vowel 59. The grammarian 
Kesava states that this PJ has originated by the elision (lopa) of the 
final o of 3G*. This statement is only in so far of value, as it makes 
any rule about the way of suffixing the es unnecessary, because it is 
identical with that of eso*. 

This infinitive is used in the three dialects. Instances are ^JSo3o or 
or riooJo 3d zod 

In the infinitive formed by 53 from themes with final <3 and <o a 
sort of lengthening is allowed in the modern dialect, in which the & 
disappears (cf. the accusative and genitive under letter c in 130), e.g. 
^CO 9 ? may be used for f seo 9 aJo, ^d? for ^doio. 

An abnormal infinitive of =$J3s? s (&/3VL) is =ffjs^, joften used in the 
modern dialect. Of. $&?& in 172; =j^ in 206. 


The author once entertained the opinion (see Dictionary under & 4) that the 
infinitive (or verbal noun, see 188) ending in <$ had a dative in the South- 
Mahratta country, e. g. Srad^ or ^rac^, sod^ or W$^ and with the lengthening 
of 55, &o?c53^ (for ?6J3?C53^), Srijs^ (for 33J3^, Nudigattu, page 36). Such 
dative forms are in common use there ; but, instead from the infinitive (or verbal 
noun) with final 55, we now derive them from a verbal noun formed by means 
of the suffix 3 (for a, see 243, 4, 20. 27), i. e. in the present instances from 
3J3C&S (= sjadoad), ajdod, cSjse^o^, 3;l>oi3, the w3 being changed into ?*> and i>, 
viz. ^>raciJ3, 2J6j3, F3j3?dJ2t, ^^J|^?, and then again into and w, viz. sirarf, 2J^, 
j3J3?Z33, ^^^ (c/. 181, note c, and see i^ in Dictionary; concerning the change 
of w into i> see 117, a, Norn, and Ace.; 177. 185. 193). An instance 
with ii is: ^ra^:> OcS^?^ ^raQ 5j3, s3J3rf eo)^?^ jiraQ ecS, a word (or words) 
is (or are) made for saying, boiled rice is made for eating. 

3, The third infinitive is represented by the verbal theme itself, and 
is occasionally found in the three dialects. It always immediately 

precedes a verb, ^e^ 9 Ozl> (=^^3 9 oio z&), <a3 9 53>a3oo, ( = 

, 333 


4, The fourth infinitive consists of the theme with the suffix .a. 
The way of annexing the ,0 to verbal themes is identical with that of 
S3j* and 55. This infinitive of which the meaning and use is nearly 
the same as that of No. i, belongs to the ancient and mediaeval 
dialect; occasionally it is found also in modern poetry ( 365. 366, 
remark a). 

Instances are ^ =&J3s3, =&<$, vuf^ 3?3 206 be3 *3 3 3<>o3o or 
or sc&o t>3o3j or 

215, 7, e. 

The Basavapurana suffixes the ^ once to the long base of Sc*, as it 
has gsjci (12, 43; cf. Nagavarma's g^do* under No. i; see 210). 

The grammarian Kesava calls the infinitive with o, from a meaning 
it not unfrequently has, the locative state or condition (satisaptami or 
sati, see 188, remark; 286. 365). 

188. The force of the so-called infinitive in Kannada may be expressed 
by the following particles: to, in its prepositional meaning, as ready to go, 
fit to eat; to, denoting purpose, end, and futurity; so as to, so that; 
at the time that, when, while, e.g. 3Q&, 33, to bring; dj^^e^, Zjjdti, to 
make; ^cSoJoo*, ^^oi), to walk; ^c^. ^d, so as to perish, so that 
(somebody or something) perishes or perished; ^dofoej*, ^doSo, ^zS, 
=arj3ol), so as to fall down, so that (somebody or something) falls or fell 
down; ss-sjl, 335)^53*, when (somebody or something) sings or sang; 206, 
zode;*, while (something or somebody) comes or came. Cf. the use of the 
short infinitive with 53 in 170. 171. 210. 

But these special significations are not primitive; they are derived 
somehow from the verbal noun which the infinitive originally was and 
very often still is. Cf. the verbal noun in 100, and its use in 165. 
169. 173. 205, and also in the so-called passive ( 315). 

That the infinitive ending in ese^ (Ws;o, expressing 'being ', 'condition') 
is a verbal noun, is an indisputable fact, because e. g. e5023* means 
'grieving' and 'to grieve, etc.', voCuO*, 'ploughing' and 'to plough, etc.', 
SAJ9CSo*, 'swelling' and 'to swell, etc.', 2o^,^, 'thrashing' and 'to 


thrash, etc.', ^JScSo*, 'joining' and 'to join, etc.', sidsp, 'lying down' 
and 'to lie down, etc.', and because this infinitive is declinable, as it has 
a dative (see 187, i). 


The character of being originally a verbal noun can also be attributed 
to the second infinitive, viz. that with final 5, as e.g. <&& means 'cooking' 
and 'to cook, etc.', ssc^, 'compressing' and 'to compress, etc.', <o^, 
'lifting up' and 'to lift up, etc.', f{^>, 'gaining' and 'to gain, etc. 1 , 3?ti, 
'ending' and 'to end, etc.', Jjs^, 'putting on' and 'to put on, etc.', 
&jd, 'coming' and 'to come, etc.', ?3J)o, 'losing' and 'to lose, etc.'. 
Cf. 205, i, b, singular. Verbal nouns, however, corresponding to the 
infinitive formed by 3 and the insertion of o&* between it and themes 
ending in <, and o (as to form e. g. s^odo, Nfiooo), are nowadays 
scarcely met with in Kannada, although a few nouns end in Q& , e. 9- 
^JSrf o3o, ##ok, 2Je3ojj, 3ps3ojj, eo53 9 o3o, sJ3?3o&. We think that ojo 


has been superseded by so or ^ in verbal nouns. There are numerous 
verbal nouns that end in so (see 243, A, 27) and some that end in rf 
(see 243, A, 20), and, besides, of the above nouns, zJ3s3o& appears 


also as sJ3d 2o, and 3J5e3o3o as SuJ5s32o. Remember that in the 


present verbal participle ( 172) ^ is not unfrequently used instead of 
033 s . At the same time we may conjecture that for verbal nouns, 
instead of themes with the formative crfo, the simple theme ending in 
^ and ,0 was preferred (cf. 100. 187, 3). 

The third infinitive, being nothing else but the verbal theme itself 
which is very often used as a noun, requires no special remark. 

Some verbal nouns which are equal in form to the fourth infinitive i. e. 

that with final eO, are ?n:&33, 'loving' and 'to love, etc.', =5^ 'a 

r> w 

structure' and 'to construct, etc.', ^d 5 'throwing down' and 'to throw 

down, etc.', 3^ 'a chip' and 'to chip, etc.', ^J3s3, 'killing' and 'to kill, 
etc.', ^ri, 'laughing' and 'to laugh, etc.', s^s6, 'joining' and 'to join, 
etc.', ^S3 (or 3oJSG5 3 ), 'a load for the head' and 'to carry on the head, 
etc.', wsCO 3 , '-cultivating' and 'to cultivate, etc.'. Verbal nouns which 
correspond to the infinitive with <o suffixed by means of the euphonic 
oj^ (e. g. ^do3o, ^o^o3o, fddo3o), we have not found in Kannada; it 
may be that in such nouns o&* was, for the sake of euphony, changed 
into rf (cf. $&ft, S3 9 rt, rfooQtf, dooS^tf) or tf (cf. SCdsS, rfcWsS). 

That the infinitive with <o was considered to be a verbal noun in 
ancient times seems to be corroborated by the following two sentences 
quoted by Kesava (under sutra 134, from Sujanottaihsa Hampa raja?): 
>2^oo3oo fySjtf ?W 3 , and z&s^jjr^sod ?5J3o^, literally ' an ordering of 
the king without fear' and 'a touching of the pudendum muliebre', i. e. 


' when the king ordered fearlessly', and ' when the p. m. touched', in which 
the genitive stands before that infinitive as before a noun. Cf. 352, ia. 
Let us show by some further instances how the meaning of the 
infinitive was attached to the verbal noun by Kannada people in their 
own peculiar way: Jjs^ rto^do rto3Jo<s* SSfticsdo, literally 'a female 
servant's work a doing he became ready', i. e. he became ready to do a 
female servant's work; do ^tfsS^eOo, lit. 'he ordered a bringing water', 
i. e. he ordered to bring water; 3^0* T?-^ o, lit. l an eating he killed', 
i.e. he killed to eat; o$ aSeWo, lit. 'an understanding tell!', i. e. tell 
(it) so that (I) understand!; s&ssi aoJ^cSrfo, lit. 'a making he went', 
i. e. he went to make; $& N-o&c3o, lit. 'a falling down he pushed 1 , i. e. 

he pushed so that (it) fell down; ;j ^jsrfW 3 , lit. 'the bard a praising', 

i. e. when the bard praises or praised; t??S w6, lit. 'the elephant a 

coming', i. e. when the elephant comes or came; jS^SS* ta>^23*, lit. 
'the sun a rising', i. e. when the sun rises or rose. 

Regarding instances etc. see 365. 


The specific meaning of 'at the time that', 'when', 'while' of the suffix 
wo* or wo, which, like the suffix <o ( 187, 4), it often has in the infinitive, 
can so to say be accounted for by the meaning of w 6 , w^ in 109, letters a 
and 6, locative. The suffix o, expressing ri^Ti^ao, reminds one of the ^ of the 
locative in 109, letters a, 6, c, as a final ^ is occasionally used for <0; compare 
e. g. that the ancient form <o of the instrumental is *si in 109, letters b and c. 

189. The grammarian Kesava observes "the verbal action (kriye) 
changes according to the three times or tenses (kalatrayaparinami), and 
" the three (forms of) the conjugated verb (kriyapada) tell the three times 
or tenses". 

The three tenses ( 144. 145) are formed by suffixes (agama) which 
are called " the indicators of the three tenses (kalatrayasucaka) ". 

The names of the suffixes are c3, 3; C3SJ, K$SJ , 355, 35) , c33o; 53, 20, 5j, 

OJ Ov 

^, 3o. Of these c3, 3 are used for the past tense, c3sJ, c3s> , 3>, 33^, c53o 
for the present tense, and 53, , 55, *> , do for the future one. 

It will be observed that and ^ are the forms of the past relative 
participle (see 175, i. 2; 176), and s3 5 to, , 3l and ao those of the 
(present-) future one ( 180-184). 

cisc!, rfri , ^3j. 3 and ci3o, the tense-suffixes of the present, are the 

oj J 

past relative participle with final d and ^ to which e, S5SJ and 


are annexed. &g and. 330 we have met with as substitutes of 


the present-future relative participle of wrt) (see 183, 7, remark; 184); 
yri is another form of 53^ and $336. 


dao is found only in the mediaeval dialect wherein 36 very frequently 
takes the place of sj. 

190. Of the tense-suffixes mentioned in 189 the modern dialect uses 
c3 and 3 for the past tense, and sj (exceptionally also 20 and 36, see 
182 and 195 seq.) for the present-future one. Its suffixes for indicating 
the present tense are, as a rule, peculiar, being eru3 and eru^,, I. e. two of 
the terminations of the present verbal participle (see 172). 

191. It is necessary to remark that rf and ^ are but two represen- 
tatives of the finals of the variously formed past relative participle; they 
are to indicate that all the forms of the past relative participle as 
based on the past participle (see 155-164; 175, i. 2, and 176) 
are meant. 

The rules given regarding the formation of the (present-) future 
relative participle ( 180 seq.) hold good also when it is used as the 
theme of the future tense. 

192. In conjugation (akhyatamarga) personal terminations (vibhakti, 
pratyaya, akhyatavibhakti, kriyavibhakti) are used. They are suffixed 
to the participial forms that indicate the tenses ( 189-191). When 
a verb ends in such a termination, it is a conjugated verb (pada, akhyata- 
pada, kriyapada; see 69. 144). 

By means of the personal terminations the three persons (purusha, 
147) in the singular and plural are formed. 

It is the custom of Kannada grammarians to speak of only six (yS5o) 
personal terminations (though there are actually ten), adducing those 
for the first person (prathamapurusha) feminine singular (and plural) 
and those for the third person (uttamapurusha) neuter singular and 
plural separately; we shall exhibit them all at one view in the next 

193. In presenting the personal terminations let us use the European 
way of placing and naming the persons, viz. first person (uttamapurusha), 
second person (madhyamapurusha), and third person (prathamapurusha). 

1, The following are the personal terminations of the present, past 
and future tense in the ancient dialect: 


Singular. Plural. 

1st pers. oo, (before vowels) oi^*. ^o (if not followed by a vowel); 

(cf. 137, a, nominative plural). 
2nd pers. WC&3*. 'ac*. 

3rd pers. 

masc. tfo, (before vowels) 5<tf; t5D; kO< ( 198, 3, remark; 200, i); 

too. 0*( 198^ 3 > remark; 201, i); 

Wtfj (198, 3, remark), 
fern. <ss*; M?; OV* ( 198, 3, <so; (fcO*;. 


neut. erodj; f a^0, ^Oj,; 55%; AiS^; exceptionally es^ ( 194, 

^0. remark i; 198, i). 

About S5C30 and 55 ^) of the negative see 209. 210. 

The personal terminations S3o, &>o, S5<^, ^S?*, vurfj, S5D*, and ero;^ 
are also the suffixes for the krillingas in 177. 179. 185. 186. 198, 
remark 1. 253. 

2, The following are the corresponding personal terminations of the 
mediaeval dialect: 

Singular. Plural. 

1st pers. <oo, (before vowels) <o$*; 0^o; (0. <0^). 

2nd pers. j. (^0*); 'aO. 
3rd pers. 

masc. Wo, (before vowels) y^; ssjdo; 5. (30*); 

fern; (?5V); 
neut. eroc3o; 

An occasional ^ for ^^ in MSS. for the third person singular neuter is 
perhaps a mistake of the copyist. 

3, The following arc the corresponding personal terminations of the 
modern dialect: 

Singular. Plural. 

1st pers. <O?jO; o 
2nd pers. <0; *a. 
3rd pers. 

masc. SS^j; S 





From a comparison of the forms of the terminations in the three dialects it 
follows that the sonne in <oo, the sonne in 53o, and the & (i. e. the sonne and a 
euphonic SAJ) in WNO and <o^o are not radical. 

The sonne or its substitute *& in the first person plural reminds one of the 
plural of the neuter pronouns ( 136) and of the sonne and its substitutes 33 
and 3) of that of the personal ones ( 137). 

wdo, en>rio, ^o (for 'Sicto), w^ (for wdo), & (for wrfj or 'Sck or srocfo, 
c/. 116. 122. 138, e?, 3. 173. 265), are the demonstrative neuter pronouns 
singular wdo, web, ^rfo ( 90. 102, 8, letter b) and the corresponding pro- 
nominal forms; 3>, en>4 are the plural of wdo, e^do ( 136). 

wo, wfc and (the crude form) w mean 'he' (see 115; 138, 'd, 3 and 
remark; 177), wv ff and wsfr (f. e . tss? ff with a euphonic en>), 'she' (cf. 177. 
185. 186). In 2-0 and z-v*, w has taken the form of a. (c/. 117, a). The * 
in ^^ is either simply euphonically lengthened, or w s stands for the pronoun 

wo* and wd) (,-. e . e>o* w ith a euphonic en>) are the plural of wo, e>NO, w, 
o* and ws^j ( c /. 119, a; 134. 177). In ^ e has taken the form of & 
The w in wo 5 is either euphonically lengthened or stands for the pronoun ^o*. 

3, <^ and wois 5 are connected with the 'S, -^ of the pronoun of the second 
person ( 138); their plural 'W? has taken the plural sign V s (for wts*, etc.; 
cf. 119); ^0 is "SO* and an honorific ^, ^9 often being an honorific plural 
(rf. 205, 2. 3, plural). The <o in <o, <oo, <orfj, and <od) is connected with the <o of 
the pronoun of the first person ( 138). 

By the way it may be stated that from wo, e^o, w, wv*, etfj the remote, 
intermediate and proximate demonstrative pronouns are formed by prefixing w, 
ou and ^ by means of a euphonic 3 s , viz. w^o (w+o ff + wo), lit. 'that-he', 

o, wd; wa ff , lit. 'that-she', wjjtfo; audo, lit. 'this intermediate-he'; eA>3V* ; 
Ht. 'this-he', ^3^, ^3; VXv*, -gasfc, 55, en) and 'SI being other forms of 
w, uvs and * (see 265). Of. 122 about s e , a^, n*. 

194. The personal terminations of the preceding paragraph are, as 
remarked ( 192), suffixed to the participial forms that indicate the 
tenses which in the case of the present tense are d + s33J, rf+wsi, ^-f 

S5SJ, ^+33i in the ancient dialect, and generally cj+ysd in the 

mediaeval one. 

Let us take as an illustration the verb ^V*, to hear, the relative past 
participle of which is =^tf (^? < S*+c3), meaning 'of the having beard' 
(see 179); to this e.g. e5SJ, meaning 'of the being' ( 186. 201), is 
added, and then e. g. the personal termination of the first person singular 


io> meaning I'. So the literal translation would be 'of the having heard- 
of the being-I', i. e. I who is one who has heard, or I hear. The present 
tense is therefore a sort of compound tense (see 313). To comprehend 
that its meaning can be expressed by Kannada people in the above 
manner, it is necessary to know that they, in order to show their ready 
attention or obedience, not unfrequently use the past tense for the present 
or future one. For instance, if you say to some one, Come ! , the 
reply is, I came, i. e. my coming is an accomplished fact. See 366, 
remark b. 

The present tense in the ancient dialect of the verb ^^ accordingly 
is as follows: 

Singular. Plural. 

1st pers. =$P^33o C^ttf + w + <oo) or ^P^ s3o (^tf +W3tf-f<oo) or "^tfsSo 

Q O Q ) 

I hear. 

, we hear. 

2nd pers. 

3rd pers. 




, thou nearest. 

you hear. 


they hear. 

he hears. 
fern. "gptfjJv* (*<? +033+ 




, she hears. 

they hear. 



it hears. 

(tf ctf +wrf 


)> the y hear - 

Other instances in the first person singular are 
) or ^oSd^ o C^ad+ J3i +>io. of tfoa to drink), 

y oJ v oJ 

3J+ ^o) or ;3e)f3d33o (c3e)r^ ui+ W3J + <oo, of ^sr^o, to become abashed), 




o f^^ +e53j + ^o, of ^^, to learn), 

> * oO 

+ oio, of ^D\ to bring), ^jafcj^o 


) or 

o, of ^oc^o, to give), 'a^^ 
o, of &, to give). See 366. 



The present tense of .^^ or 3^o (see 166), in the mediaeval dialect, 
in which 5530, 'of the being', is nearly constantly used instead of &, or 
53J , is as follows : 


Singular. Plural. 

1st pers. ^^3oo (occasionally ^?^o), 


=5^30, or ^s?tjooo (occasionally 

2nd pers. ^So (or 

O * 

3rd pers. 

masc. ^^3oo, 3etf 2o&> (or 3^?Co3oo, etc.). 
fern, (^tfate*), ^etfritfo (or 

neut. ^3dodo (or ^Sd^odo 

Other instances in the first person singular are 'adrSoo (of r ao s , to 
be), o}^3oo (of ,0c3*, to say), =5^^200 (of ^O, to rush upon), tfzSriaoo or 

(of ^d, to fall down), =aJ3eJ 380 (of ^od) or ^J3do, to give), 

aSo (of &)<?*, to take), ^^soo (of ?roo33 s , to die), ytfsSo (of wrto, to become), 
5jJ3?d2oo (of cojs^rto, to go), 3?<^c5o (or aS^ 9 d2oo, of ao?2Jo, to tell). 
Regarding wsSo, etc. see 201, 2. 


1 , There is one irregularly formed present in the ancient language, namely 
that of eros?*, to be, which changes its vowel vu into 2o in that tense (except in 
the 3rd person singular neuter, cf. also 180, remark after 6) and receives no 
participial form to indicate the tense. As ^v* is also a verbal noun, the personal 
terminations ( 193) appear to have been attached to the genitive of this 2-^, 
i. e. i&, 2*s?o (2-tf + cOo), e , g, meaning 'of the being-!', i. e. I am. A peculiarity 
is that it uses the suffix s& (for sro^) in the 3rd person plural neuter. Its 
paradigm is: 

Singular. Plural. 

1st pers. 

2nd pers. 
3rd pers. 



neut. . 


en)C3J,, originally ew^ (/. e. en)V* + ^o, 122), is a verbal noun (bhavavacana) 
meaning literally 'a being-it', and as such is used for the 3rd person masculine, 


feminine and neuter, singular and plural in the mediaeval and modern dialect. 
About bhavavaSanas see the paragraphs quoted in 243. 

2, The author of the Sabdanulasana, against Kesava's sutra 73, makes 
the 3rd person singular of the present tenso a knit or krillinga and declines it, 
e.g. rfoxQdrfrfo, ;tt3id3ort, in his sutras 447. 448; Kesava calls only the past 
relative participle and the present -future relative participle a declinable krit; 
see 177. 185. 

195. In 190 it lias been stated that modern Kannada has a peculiar 
present tense. It has, however, not abandoned the use of the grammati- 
cal structure of the present tense as it appears in 194, but has 
changed the form of the tense-suffix 5530, 'of the being', combined with 
the personal terminations (see 201, 2), and given a different meaning 
to the tense. 

Its forms of esao combined with the personal terminations are as follows: 

Singular. Plural. 

1st pers. ag^fii (arfo for vfo 3^ (4 for 

2nd pers. 3o? (&) for oSo (ea$+si). fo^o (3sO) for 

3rd pers. 

masc. goSf^o c& for watoo ea$ sodtfo wrfj for 


fcm. soj)^o ws^o for wa3tfj055 aoe>do ado for 

neut. So 5^0 (-^^o) for an esSo^o ooD^ (tJ^)) for 

(ead + 'g^o, which must 
have been another form 

The initial 3o* of the forms of 3e^, 3o, 35e)^, SoS^o, 2o?^o, etc., 
which have been formed by metathesis and lengthening the vowels (see 
the frequently used cS^cJo for yadodo in 201, 2, and compare the noun 
;&X> for erurfooo, and the adverbs 3o?fl, Sosrt for 'aaotf, S3a6rt in 212, 4), 
is commonly left out, so that the forms in parenthesis >j3o, -ds, wjl>, tj*o, 
^9^0, etc. are in general use, whereas those with 35" are at present only 
occasionally still employed for the verb ^do (^0*), to be, especially when 
the <^ of emphasis is added (see 196). 



Let us give a paradigm of the present tense of 'sttfj ('SO*), the 
past relative participle of which is ^rf (='3 1 cjr, see 160, 7; 175, i), 
'of the having been'. 

Singular. Plural. 

Istpers. ^(3^0 C9> +26^0), or 'sde^o C9&4- f a^?3), or 

ask), literally 'of the having been-of 
the being-I' (see 194). 

2nd pets. aa e, or aae. 'aaeo, r 

3rd pers. 

masc. 'an-s^o or 'acTSok. ane) do, or 

90 9 

fern. r 5vC33^o, or -acratfo. 'S.cra do, or 

90 9 

neut. &{&. or Si.a?^J. 'azra^, or 

Q Q c 

Other instances of the first person singular are ajjjfti) (originally 
), of zodo, to come), ^o^de^o (orig. ^oSq^o, of ?!)&, to speak), 
(orig. azj^ci), of tJrfo, to become, to be). For acS^o the rustic 
dialect occasionally uses sscS^o in the sense of ^cS ^o (ssd being used 
for ad, see 176. 196). 

A peculiarity is that in the formation of the present tense under 
consideration the suffix d is not added to the <a of the past participle of 
themes ending in er\) in the three dialects (see 166. 168), &<&, -Ss, 
ao, etc. being annexed directly to 's, in which case *a occasionally 
disappears before them (see 215). Thus sjjs^o, to make, forms this 
tense in the following manner: 

Singular. Plural. 

Istpers. o^jsdo^o (s&sQ-f (Oj& for rfjasio^s^), or 

2nd pers. siraSe (draS + ^ for 

3rd pers. 

masc. siraaso^ijOrsiraaodJSfSi. ^^SeJodo, or 

fera. sjjsz3^<;^j,or sira^oi3e)^o. sjja>cs)Qdv), or 


neut. rfjaaO. ^J3C5e)o Or 

There can be no doubt whatever that we have here the ancient presen 
tense in a somewhat altered form, although the meaning has undergone 
an essential change; for this form of the present tense is nowadays used 
to convey the idea of uncertainty or possibility, and may be called the 


contingent present-future tense, as e. y. Q&tfb or a^^o means l l may 
be' or 'I shall perhaps bo'; w^?^o, '1 may come' or 'I shall perhaps 

come'-, sjjsdp^j, 'I may make' or 'I shall perhaps make'. 

In the mediaeval dialect the author has met with only one clear in- 
stance of this present, viz. rfoSc3e)r& (see under W^N^ZO, in the Dictionary. 


which however stands for fidcSBoffo without the meaning of contingency. 
2o>^o (in Basavapurana 1C, 28) may be a mistake for ^ 3j . 

The idea of uncertainty or possibility was, as it would appear, not 
attached to the present tense of this paragraph before the introduction 
of the present tense of 196 into the modern Kannada dialect. 

About instances see 366, remark a. 

196. The modern dialect having given a different meaning to the 
present tense of the ancient and mediaeval one, formed a present tense of 
its own. 

1, For this purpose, in the first instance, it suffixed the letter ,0 of 
emphasis to the personal terminations ending in ero combined with 5330 
( 195) in order to express the idea of certainty or to distinctly denote 
the present, leaving however the second person singular and plural 
as it was, but allowing to shorten the 3o or & of the second person 

For the third person singular neuter it introduced the forms 
(i.e. e5od3^+ o, see 199), escS (i.e. e?d>+<) and ^c3 (i.e. 
and for the third person plural neuter it introduced, as optional forms, 
s3 (i.-e. 534+ ^) an d 'asS (i.e. ^^)+ j). 

wc3, 'acS, S5sS, ^sS probably are the demonstrative pronouns of that 
shape ( 102, s, b; 122. 136) + o, 'even that', 'even this', 'even those', 
'even these'. 

The verbs concerned here are two, viz. wrb, to be (to become), of which 
the relative past participles arc e$o3o, S5rf (see 166. 176. 199; c/. 
ezSetfo in 195), and 'adj ('a.c*), to be. 

The personal terminations combined with W3o to which the ^ of 
emphasis is suffixed, and the additional forms are the following: 

Singular. Plural. 

Istpers. 3??$, 3 (for 3^&, o& gg^ 3 (for 

of 195). 
2nd pers. &e, -6?, or 3o, *a. 

134 - 

3rd pers. Singular. Plural. 

masc. goe>?S, W?2 (for satfo, wsto ao5>6, t?8 (for oosdo, 

of 195). 

fem. 3ae>$, WS? (for saifc, wtfj 3536, w6 (for 23sdJ, 

of 195). 

neut. SSOi^, S5Co, ^CS. 35e)SS, WS3 (for 2593, 

Compare the forms of the Perfect )foe>f3, =3^53-56 in 313, 4. 


The verb esrto, to be, is conjugated in this present tense as follows: 

Singular. Plural. 

1st pers. go3otf3 ( ea3 i + &3) or *&?$ ( wrf + 


^c3) ? literally 'of the having been-of 
the being-I-indeed ', i. e. I am indeed, 
I am. 
2nd pers. S503o , 3$, or 


3rd pers. 

Q ' O 

fem. 530&)<$, WCraS?. 650^15 
a ' a 

neut. e5o3o or yjS ^rS. S5oi3)5S S53e>d> or 

The verb 'ado (*ao*), to be, a paradigm of the contingent present 
tense of which has been given in 195, is conjugated in this present 
tense as follows: 

Singular. Plural 

1st pers. atSo^ (^ + a<3), literally 'of the 


having been-of the being-I-indeed', 
i. e. I am indeed, I am. 

2nd pers. ^8?, or aa . 
9 9 

3rd pers. 

raasc. ^c3e)?S. ^C3*> 6. 

9 9 

fem. . 

9 9 

neut. wofbg, or ycS; ^cS. ^C3)s3, or y^; 

In the Southern Mahratta country there exist also the forms 
, etc., the initial 35* of So^, 2of, etc. being omitted. 

135 - 

2, But this way of conjugation is restricted to the present of 
and ado; for, as stated in $ 190, e/u3 and e/u;^, two pronominal forms 
(see 173), are the tense-suffixes to which, in all other cases, the modern 
dialect attaches ^3, -g or 'a, e3j3, etc. 

The present tense of 'ado, to be, formed according to this method, 
is as follows: 

Singular. Plural. 

1st pers. 'BdJjtfS CadJ+eroi + aS) or 'ado^ ) e?S r adoJ?s3 or 

Cado+sn)* + ai3), literally 'a being- 
this-I am indeed', i. e. being I am 
indeed, I am. 

2nd pers. -ado^e or ^do^?, r ado3 or ^do^. 'adoo^O or 

3rd pers. 

masc. 'adogsfS or ^doge^rS. 'ado3e>6 or 

fern. s,dj3i) ( $ or ado^s?. 'adoSeid or 

neut. ^do^oS^, ^do^d, or 'ado^oS^, r ado3e)^, 'Svd)^^, or 

Other instances in the first person singular are c^djJ^N or 
(of zodo, to come, literally l a comiiig-this-I am indeed', I come), 3o 
e?3 or aja?rto^?f3 (of 2oJ3?rto, to go), T??^oJ?rS or ^tfj^ (of ^?^o, to 
hear), 'aj 9 oJooi^ or aCO'cxJjoJ^ (^ ^^ to descend), ?jdajjo5??2 
or ^doioo^e^ (of ^ } to walk). 


1, yd, (?5^), qc5, 'as? are employed also in the mediaeval dialect, either 
by themselves or in union with sru^, sro^) to form the third person singular and 
plural of the present tense, e.g. 3>33z>tf yd cSyoJorf rtGr\oi>; ^rf(o) 

2, In the rustic modern dialect the present tense of the verb 
i)i to say, is as follows: 

Singular. Plurnl. 

1st pers. w^?fS (for arfj^j 
2nd pers. eg^ or ^. 
3rd pers. 

masc. ^css,^. 
to m. ess, A 
neut. ^oi^ or ^N d. 


3, In the modern dialect there is a form used for the third person singular 
neuter of the present tense which in reality is nothing but the present participle 
(with the emphatical or perhaps formative i) bearing its original meaning, viz. 
that of a verbal noun (see 173), e.g. wrta^, it becomes, that literally means 
'a becoming-this-indeed ', if the <o be emphatical. Other instances are ^o^, it 
is, SjCsO^, it experiences, 2J3->3_, it comes. Gf. No. 4. 

4, Again in the modern dialect the form e5^ of the verb W* (&, a ^), 
to say, expresses 'it (rumour) says', 'they say', l on dit" 1 (see 336). It is 
possible that this ^ is corrupted from wrfoJ or ^30^, the present participle of 
t??^, used in its primitive sense of 'a saying-this-indeed', if the <o be emphati- 
cal. Another possibility see in 198, 7, remark 2. 

197. In 153 appellative verbs or conjugated appellatives have been 
mentioned. They have a present tense for words of the masculine and 
feminine gender singular and plural, but, as it would appear, without 
a third person singular feminine. The personal terminations are those 
of the ancient dialect ( 193). 

When they are suffixed to form the first person singular of Kahnada 
nouns, Samskrita compound bases and Samskrita adjectives ending in 
S3, the sonne (o, the sign of the nominative singular, 117, cf. 114) is 
put between, e. q. dorW sJorffSo, I (am) the sou of the daughter, 


this seems to be the rule also, if a Kannada 

attributive noun ends in ofo (i. e. euphonic aJj*+e3+S3, 115), as the 
only instances given by the grammarian Kesava are Wroc&rSo, I (am) 
a weak person, &Oo3oNO, (although he adduces for the plural both 
iiOoSj^and )0oi>6;3)). Other Kannada attributive nouns aud Kannada 
appellative nouns of number ( 90) ending in y may insert the sonne or 
may not, e. g. ^<do or ao^d^o, I (am) a good person, ^dro or ^r 
?So. The adverb zfo^ forms roo^o, I (am) a bewildered person. 

Kannada nouns and Samskrita compound bases ending in r a add 
o^o preceded by a euphonic .3$? for the first person singular, e. //. 
sSrs 3oi>o, I (am) a or the wife, ^rofc}*too3oo. 


For the formation of the first and second person plural Samskrita 
words suffix ye* (the sign of the nominative plural, 119. 132) before 

the personal terminations, e. g. erorf^6^), 3ol>)i36d); erocS^So 5 ', rfxtiOo*, 

o o w Q 

W^Oo*, ^zo^Oo*; with regard to all Kannada words the insertion of 
is optional, e.g. &0o3o;3) or ^0oiod4, 2-^23^) or 


or 3e3 ZoF" or 2-SJF k$,ao' or t*,* dOo*, ^JSOao* or 

or orioo* ssyo* or ssotf ^src* or 

In the second person singular and the third person singular and 
plural the personal terminations are attached immediately to the 
declinable bases, e.g. 

9 99 

Paradigms given in Kesava's grammar are: 

Singular. Plural. 

] , of STOrf ^. 

1st pers. srod^cSo, I (am) an elate person. 

2nd pers. wud ^ofc*. 

3rd pers. 5A)d ^o. yu 

2(\f n e9 rJ. 
, Ul ijV CJ. 

1st pers. z^oo or ^^dcSo, I (am) a good person. Zo^o^j or 

2nd pers. k^rfok*. ^^Oo* or 

3rd pers. 

3, of 

1st pers. Sjtt'o or SjStSo, j ( am ) a stranger. 3363*4 or 

2nd pers. sSesofc*. sSei'O* or 

3rd pers. sSeso. 

4, of 

1st pers. &>3Fo or 2o^F?3o, I (am) a single person. 2*>dr^ or 

2nd pers. k^rato*. ^SFO* or 

3rd pers. 

An exceptional form is sp^j^o (for 

198. The past or preterite tense (imperfect, perfect, aorist) is generally 
formed by suffixing the personal terminations ( 193) to any form of the relative 
past participle ( 175. 176). 

The exceptions relate only to the third person neuter singular, and 
are chiefly the following: in the ancient and mediaeval dialect it is 
optional to suffix the two terminations 'a^o and 'a^ directly to the 
short past participle ending in ^ ( 166. 168); and in the modern 
dialect it is necessary to suffix the termination 'a^j not only directly to 
that participle, but also by means of a euphonic o&* to the short participle 
ending in r& and <o ( 165, a, -; 10."), /;. i) which is identical with the 
theme, and then to all the relative forms of the past participle formed 



by the removal of its final eru ( 175, i) which are treated of in 1 58-164 
(as far as they concern the modern dialect). 

], A paradigm of the past tense of- t?^, to hear, in the ancient 
dialect, is : 

Singular. Plural. 

Istpers. 3e$ (i-e- ^^H-^ ), literally 'of the ^<$ o or 

having heard-I' (see 169. 179. 
194), I have heard, I heard. 
2nd pers. 
3rd pers. 


o or =?& o. 


If the relative past participle is formed by 3, the termination 
would seem, is avoided; thus we find sjoortjsk do, but not 


but not ^^^r^O ?orfj but not ^ 


are allowable forms. In 

( 164, 6), the third person neuter plural 

of ^3dc > ^o to scratch, we have exceptionally S35J) instead of 


2, A paradigm of the past tense of pjoQ, to speak, in the ancient 
dialect, is: 

Singular. Plural. 


Istpers. ^j&do (i. e. rfoSrf+iOO), literally 'of 
the having spoken-I ', I have spoken, 
I spoke. 

2nd pers. 

3rd pers. 


or Fl>&(3,)o. 


3, A paradigm of the past tense of gjo>do, to sing, in the ancient dialect, 



IS : 

2nd pers. 
3rd pers. 

fem. S3e 

neut. 33e>ad>c3o, or 

(i. e. 3333 -t- ^1^), Or 338)8^, 



or s 


Other instances of the third person neuter in its four forms are 


dodo, kad^, ka^o, ka&k (of t>do, to read); 
tfft^ (of dtfrto, to shine); si^dodo, 
(of ?oO?l), to spread). That of s,c* (or ^do, to be) is 

in the ancient dialect, and f a;& in the modern one (see 
under No. 7). See instances in 366. 

The third person singular and plural, excepting its forms with 553^, 
<&^o and ( a^o, is used also as a declinable krillinga ( 102, 8, e\ 177). 
The third person neuter singular ending in en;do is a bhavavacana 
expressing the action or state of the verb in the past (cf. 200, i ; see 
254, remark 2). ^dordo means either 'that which has been' and 'that 
which is ', or ' a having been ', ' the having been ' and ' a being ', ' the being ' 
(see e. g. 313, under 4). 


tf&^o i s f oun a in a sasana of 866 A. D., tf&AdGo in one of 916 A. D., zo<3dao 
in one of 929 A. D.; ^09,0* in one of about 750 A. D., *eB*jO* in one of 929 
A. D.; the termination 2o occurs also in the Sabdamanidarpana ; 2^ is found 
in sutras 179 and 183 of the Sabdanusasana. 

Further, tfjaSaSjV 5 occurs in a sasana of about 778 A. D. ; tfofc^o* is found 
in one between 680 and 696 A. D., ^Ja&j^o 5 is in one of 707 A. D. and in one 


of 887 A. D., tf&^o* in one of 807 A. D., and 3cra>o in one of about 750 A. D. 

In the later ancient dialect we meet with tf^d) in a sasana of 1123 A. D., 
in one of 1182 A. D., and s&aSdtfo i n O ne of 1187 A. D. 

4, A paradigm of the past tense of t?$*, to hear, in the mediaeval 
dialect in which it optionally takes the final sro, ?'. e. becomes ^tfj (see 
166), is: 

Singular. Plural. 

Istpors. 3{$o (*<*[,+ 5). or tf{$ 0{$ OF 




2nd pers. $$$ or 


3rd pers. 

t$ or 




^D or) ^^ do, or 




Snujitlar. . Plural. 

3rd pers. 

fern. (^tfv* or) tf^tf tfo, or 3? (^^D* or) =g^ do, or 

neut. 3^o CJO or ^e<c3jdo, ^e 3^5$ or 

. or 

(i.e. i+ l 9>), or ? 
(i.e. 3<* + *!&). 

5, A paradigm of the past tense of ??tfj, to hear, iu the modern dialect 
in which it always has the final yu (see 166), is: 

Singular. Plural. 

Istpers. ${*zSj&<*d+5!fc)(W${ ^z3^) or 

2nd pers. ^5r3 or 
3rd pers. 

masc. ^^d^o or 



Other verbal themes with final ro are e. . 

6, A paradigm of the past tense of the theme &>Q, to seize, (the 
short past participle of which is identical with the theme), in the modern 
dialect, is : 

Singular. Plural. 

1st pers. 3o^cS^J or 3ocS. 2a&6$ or 

2nd pers. 3o&d or &&>. 
3rd pers. 

masc. oo&rffi) or 2o&c3. 
fera. So^rf^o. 

neut. So^o5o^0 (?'. e. &>, the short past 
participle that is identical with the 

Other verbal themes with final ^ are e.g. eroCJ 9 
and s6C3 9 . Themes with final o, e. g. 3d, $d and sUiS?, form the past 
tense in the same way, the third person neuter singular being 


In the third person neuter singular of themes with final ^ a 
contraction of vowels often takes place in the modern dialect, when, e.g. 

ofto^o and 3o5 9 (&>3o appear as 

and aSCS 9 ^ (</ 205 > 3 > second 
pers. plural; 130, c). 

7, A paradigm of the past tense of espk (*3r&), to 8 &y> the relative 
past participle of which is 55^, in the modern dialect, is: 

Singular. Plural. 

1st pers. y?S & or S3? . e?S S3) or 3S C). 

Q o o^ % 

2nd pers. e3f3 or 55X1 . e5 0. 

<3 V 

3rd pers. 

masc. &$& or S3^. W?3 do. 

o o o 


neut. g & (i. 

s u 

In the same manner the past tense of the relative past participles 
wUj, ewra, vo^, ^, ^ra, ^^, ^, 1^, ?j^, zorf, ^, *rf, S^, zgjs^, 
etc. is formed in the modern dialect. Also in the mediaeval dialect there 
are, as occasional forms of the third person neuter singular, e. g. 

^O), and $3^ 

From the full forms 5^^j, oi^^o, 3^o, 3?>^ w?i ^o and $ ^ 

o a o o o o 

of the third person neuter singular, by means of syncope, esji^, ^^ 

33^, ^r^j,, ^c^ and ^^ are often formed and used in the modern 

The third person neuter singular of 'adrfo (of 'a'tfo), I was, is always 
in the modern dialect, and that of ftd^o (of i?COo), I fell, 
always 3^. 

Instead of z3^^o (of z3e, to burn) the form 
and instead of sSo^a^o (of ^oe, to graze) the form 
^^o) may be used in the modern dialect. In the mediaeval one we 
find, as an occasional form, zS^oSo^ (=3?o5o^o). 


1, In 172 it has been said that an explanation of S3^ and i^ different 
from that given there, would be offered here. For this purpose it is required 
to consider the third person neuter singular of the past tense to be a krillinga 
or declinable base ( 102, 8, letter e-, 177), as it in reality is; for like the 


krillingas oirf^d) (<o^+yyrfo, of the ancient and mediaeval dialect) and *i^^o or 
o^di (<0c^+ erio or ^ + odo, O f the modern one) ^^> and <o & are krillingas 
composed of the relative past participle ^ or <^^ and ^^ (another form of 'S^. 
193, remarks), literally meaning 'of the having said-this', 'a having said-this', 
from which ^^ and ^^ are formed by syncope. The final & in &. and oirf, 
would be the sign of the accusative of bases with final en> (see 121, letters b 
and c; 122, letters b and c) governed by a following <> or c& ( a ^), <o<& 
(<o3oj; see 331. 332, and some instances in 286. 33 and ojra, would be 
lengthened forms of the accusative (see 121, letter c; 122, letter c). 

2, In remark 4 of 196 the opinion has been expressed that it is not 
impossible that 53^, 'on dit\ is a form of the present participle. Another 
explanation is that it is the krillinga 53 J&, (i. e . a^o, by syncope) with the <o of 
emphasis, originally meaning 'of the having said-this-indeed '. 'a having said- 
this-indeed '. (In Telugu ^^ appears as ^ or &, probably other forms of 
, 'a saying', the verbal noun of &, to say). 

199. In 166 there are adduced the irregular past participles 
^eok*, aSjseocb* of aria, ^js^rvo, 3J3erio, which stand instead of 
the regular wft, ^J3?h, 3JS^A, and in 176 appear the irregular relative 
past participles c5, ^js^rf, 5J^c5, which stand for tJAd, peftz3, 3o^)^c3, 
or woio, o^^oJo, SoJ^ok. From these irregular past and relative past 

Q Q d 

participles the third person neuter singular is formed, via. in the ancient 
dialect either tJdorfo and wrf^, ^perfodo and s^d^, or WOix 
OJjo^; in the mediaeval one either ejdocSo and wd )dodo and 

^ or woijjg, woio^o, woao^, 
^j and in the modern one only 

In 166 it will be seen that there exists also the irregular past 
participle esafc* (for wo53*j, used in the formation of the third person 
neuter singular s$o3^ ( 196, regarding the past meaning of which used 
for the present see 194), and in 176 that the irregular relative past 
participles are also esofc and 5323, used in ssofo^rS, etc. and esdpfS, etc. 
(196; c/. tfd^oin 195). 

200. The future tense is formed by suffixing the personal terminations 
(193) to the variously formed relative (present-) future participles 
( 180-184. 191). (Remember the contingent present-future tense of 

1, A paradigm of the future tense of tfjc&), to give, in the ancient 
dialect, is as follows: 


Singular. Plural. 

Istpers. =g\>c3os3o (i>e> ^^3+<ooj, ^oC&Sjo or ^orfosSs^), we shall give. 

literally ' of giving-I ' 
(see 185. 18 6), I shall 
give (see 316, 3). 
2nd pers. ^jd^c&J*, thou wilt give ^od))0*, you will give. 

(see 316, 12). 
3rd pers. 

masc. ^odJSJo or ^odo^po, he ^jdoSJO* or ^JZ^od^D*, they will 

will give (see 316, 12). give. 

fern. =5^03^ or ^o^osSjas?*. ^o^os^D 4 (or 


The whole third person (singular and plural) is a declinable krilliriga 
( 185. 186). Its neuter singular, in the present case ^odjs^d), lit. 
'of giving-it', is also used to express the notion (bhava) of the verb 
(here its action) in the present, and is therefore a bhavavacana (cf. 
100; the quoted in 243; 254, remark 1) meaning 'giving'. Other 
instances are -gs^dj, giving, tfjas^FCS.), loving, a^rdo, being, ^o x d>, 
saying, dJSiOo rfj, making. Such bhavavacanas are used in the three 


dialects. Their use in the imperative appears in 205. 

Other instances of the first person singular of the future tense in 
the ancient dialect are: tj$o (of ws*), s^C^o (of ^W), ^JS^o (of 
3jao), ^jsrs^o (of 4^4), 5&3 9 s3o (Of S5&5 9 ), $do (of ^d), wf|o 
(of 5AJD*), 3^.o (of ^^3*), ^35ro or 3 ro (of ^o*), ^JS^ro or Jjs^ ro 
(of |J3^&3*), rSJ3^SjS o or ?3JS^o^o (of &edo), djs)^ 5 o or dj5)Co^o 
(of rfjsdj), sss^o, S5s3o or tjrbsSo (of wrlo). ^?35o or ^a^rtjdo (of 
^s^rlj), <aOs5o or ^QsS o (of 'aD^), <o^)33o or <o^^o (of cO^SjO). See 
instances in 366. 

For the third person masculine singular aca'^po is found in a sasana between 
597 and 608 A. I)., and for the third person masculine plural -3-3 i^o 5 " (of *3zk), 
(of 7o^j) occur in a sasana of about 750 A. D. 

2, A paradigm of the future tense of &c& (or occasionally also 
, to give, in the mediaeval dialect, is: 

1st pers. 

2nd pers. 

3rd pers. 


Singular. Plural. 

Another instance of the first person singular in the mediaeval dialect 

s 3&3 o sej sSJ, or 3&3jso 3Jj;> 53j or 

(of tiy, s3^o, sg&a>, to say). 
3, A paradigm of the future tense of &/9c&>, to give, in the modern 

dialect, is: 

Singular. Plural. 

1st pers. 

2nd pers. 

3rd pers. 



Other instances of the first person singular in the modern dialect 
are sg^odrfo, aS^SJosS (of aS^ajj, to say), ^aojOosS^o, ^jacrfjo^ (of 
, to speak), jtfzSofoo;3t&, ^slcrfoo^ (of ^, to walk). The forms ^j? 
o^osjdo, jdo^aJJo^cSo, ^dojjoddo are bhavavacanas; see under 
No. i; 209, 3. 

201. In 184 there appears go as a substitute of sJ in the relative 
present-future participle, viz. in 0530 of the ancient and medieval dialect, 
and in aa6, ^36, W3o, W3c, zraao, z3?3o, 3oJ3?3o of the mediaeval one. 
In 183, 7, remark, we have y^j ; and in 189. 194 we find e33J 5 S3, 
and S53o as constituents of the present tense. In 195 we have the 
conjugated form of 330, viz. yaSrio, etc. changed, by metathesis and 
lengthening of the vowels, into a^o, etc. Here follow the paradigms 
of the conjugation of 553^ or S3 si, (essj), e53o, 'aso, and some other 
conjugated forms. 

1, A paradigm of the conjugation of essJ or essJ , (eS3j ) in the 
grammatical ancient dialect, is: 

1 4f> 

Singular. Plural. 

1st pers. 553^0 (see 194) or S53j o, t9o2o or 053^ o e532s3) or $53^ r(j. 

oj J ' oj^^" 

literally 'of the becoming 
or being-I' (see 186), 
I shall become, I shall 
be, (I am). 
2nd pers. S53J033* or 5?j oil*. S5&0* or e5& o* 

oj oj 

3rd pers. 

masc. 553Jo or yjj o, 65c^Je)o or ysJo 6 or 53J o* S5^J)D* or $5^3 o*, 


~. 535315 D^. 

fern. 553J^ S or 53J ^, 

01* (J5S^e) S?*. 

neot. 53o)Cjj or $33o) do. y5)d) or 


2, A paradigm of the conjugation of esao, in the mediaeval dialect, is: 

Singular. I'/ural. 

1st pers. ?53uo, S53o^0, ?52o, literally 'of the 

becoming or being-I', I shall become, 

I shall be. 
2nd pers. S53o. 
3rd pers. 

masc. S5odo, S53o?oJ, (e55oV (S53oD s ), 

\ / V / 


Of the above forms we have met with 55360, S53ds^ and W3ood) also 
in the ancient dialect. 

in the form of cB^cfo has remained in the modern dialect 
(<:/'. 195); 3^, etc. and ii^o, etc., other forms of ysSfk, etc. in this 
dialect, appear, as has been stated, in its conjugation of the contingent 
present-future tense ( 195); compare the modern present in 196. 

3, A paradigm of the conjugation of 'stao, in the mediaeval dialect, is: 

Singular. I'lunil. 

1st pers. <33oo, ^30(^0, ^36, literally 'of tlie 

being-I', I shall be, (I am). 
2nd pers. 


Singular. Plural. 

3rd pers. 

masc. ^200, 'aso^j, (-ago). ('ssdo*), r a>3odo. 

fern, (-a ao v 5 ), 'aaotfj. (<33oD s ), 


Other instances of the first person singular of the future tense formed 
from relative participles with final ao in the mediaeval dialect are 3ao, 
'of the bringing-!', I shall bring, eoaSo, 'of the coming-1', I shall come, 
83o>3o, 'of the coming-I', I shall come. 

The only form of these left in the modern dialect is the third person 
neuter singular of j3o, viz. eoaoJCfo, it will come, it comes. 

202. According to note a of 181 the third person singular and the 
third person masculine and feminine plural of the future tense occur also 
with 80 and i, in the mediaeval and modern dialect, e. g. ,Bd^.>?i> (for 

(for adrtodtfo), 3drU)d> (for ^crfj^do or 
(for aSjs^rfos^cfo or sojsertorfcfo), 3oJ3?rU>?do (for 
; and according to note b of the same paragraph the third 
person neuter singular of the future tense occurs also with en/3 in those 
two dialects, e.g. siraelacSo (for siracks^cfc or sJjs^odcSo). 

203. A particular third person is formed by the terminations rtJo, 

s\xo, and sb, tfj. It is used for the present, future and past tense (cf. 


169) without regard to number and gender. 

rtoo is suffixed to most verbal themes ending in consonants and 

vowels, e.g. es^oo, rtaoo, &o^oo, 

o, vuOrloo, ^o^rioo, ^drioo, sjdrtoo, ?2J3?djrioo, 53>dortoo, ^jljo rtoo, 

. According to the Sabdanusasana also t?rlortjo, ^ertarioo, ( see 
remark), Jjs^rioro (for iJe^eaortoo, and IJS^JFO, see ^j ), ^J30oo (for 
^JSdortooJ, fSJS^&Jjo (for ?3JS^or(jo), sJoJS^Jo (for rfoJSdortoo) are in 

tfjo, according to instances from the Sabdamanidarpana, is suffixed 
to 23?CO (of zS^ci)), djs5J (of djsrfo), ^JS^% 'ao*, 3o*, ^o" and uo s , 
and the forms are eS^CO^o, ^5s3e)e*5j,o, Jjse^oro, -s^oFo, ^^JFO, ^^J,o 

u" v o" o" 

and SJ^JFO; according to the Sabdiinusiisana it is optional to use 


or JjsertoFo, ^0,0 or >ejj o, ?SJSe^o or f2J3^o, zreMjjp or 

v A ff A XT 

, 5&e>rao,o or siraraoo, rfJSCJ-xo or sJ33C3oo, zSdtf-JFo or 

' & A ' tf A ' 

or &aerloFo. 

From s^rio Sj/a^oo is formed, and from wrto 5^oo (this form in a 
sasana between 597 and 608 A. D.), generally ss^xo (cf. 176). 


Verbs formed by means of the suffix 'ssJo (see 149 seq.) may use 
3\>o, in which case they drop their final tfj, e.g. ,0^00 (of 
a^oo (of a^ 
(of ^e*^, to 

The forms with rioo and ^oo are used in the ancient and mediaeval 

^j,o, in the ancient dialect, is an optional termination for ^foo, the 

doubling of the consonant being euphonic, e. g. s^doS^o,, ^prtG&tf&o: 

o" o 

53-3^^0,0, ^jSu^o, d&^o, doe3^o,o. It is beautiful (manohara) especi- 

Tj TS *M o o 

ally in verbs that come from Samskrita. 

If a form is produced that is disagreeable to the ear (asravya), =5*0,0 
is not used in Kanuada verbs, so that it is improper to use e. g. 
^^^0,0; (and ^-^^jo, ^^^oo, ?oJ3^ ^oo or 

oJ & ^ ^> 

rtoo would be right). 


=^j ('. e. ^oo without the sonne) of the ancient dialect is formed in 
(in a sasana of 1084 A. D.) and jSjartototfj, (in a sasana of 1123 

O" O 1 

A. D.);~in the mediaeval dialect it is in common use, and we meet therein 
e. g. with es^o,, JJS^OF, 23^(!*3x. In the modern dialect two forms with 
^o, found also in the mediaeval one, have remained, viz. zS^J (for 
316, 4) and ?oa^j (for sawo,). 

rtj (i. e. rioo without the sonne) is a mediaeval suffix which we see e. g. 



Instances see in 366. 

, ?3e)rtoF, r 
A' 9 


According to sutra 46-1 of the Sabdanusasana (cf. 472. 498) some savants 
(afcaryas) have employed an additional rtoo after the regular terminations rtJo 
and 5\>o, dropping theit final sonne, e. g. wriortorfoo (for wriortjo), ld>flortoo, s^orf 
rtortoo, soorioo, ^jaESrtortoo. ^js^rfortoc, srarforiortoo, dp'^orfortoo, z^cwrtoo, z3drtjrrt:cs 

A A A 

rtor(oo, ^jarwnoo, osATooriortoo, ^jj^rtornoo; w^rtoo, ^(stg'orti 



etc. It will be observed that these savants knew the forms rto and 
sk without the sonne, to which they suffixed their rioo. 

204. With regard to the terminations of 203 the question arises, 
which of them are radical, rtao, ^oo or rto =5*0? 

From etymological reasons we are inclined to consider rto and ^j 
to be original, as they appear to be nominal suffixes rta (=ri) occurring 
e.g. in yxidorio (of eroO) and ?3ef>rio (of &e3< = a aJfcy, see &e3 ft ~ and =g&3 3 
in Dictionary), and =3^ (=3) e. #. in y\j&3o^o (of 5AJ&30), &>ri^o (of &,$), 
ad&3 9 ^J (of 56C3 9 ). According to this our opinion that the verbal forms 
with rto and tfo are nouns (bhavavacanas), e. g. oi?3rto would originally 
mean 'a shining', ^cirta, 'an uttering', 33^30, ' a sa yi n g' 5 w^i,, 'a 

/"\ 7J 

becoming', JJSS^OF, 'an appearing', ft^e&x, 'a requiring'. 


This explanation at once makes it clear, why the forms by themselves 
have no reference whatever to tense, number and gender. Compare in 
this respect the verbal nouns (bhavavacanas) ewrao in 194, remark 1, 
and ^o^os^)rfo in 200, i, those ending in SAJJJO and ydo in 205, and 
those ending in ft and $ in the same paragraph. 

But why have ancient grammarians added the sonne? If we take the 
forms with rt> and ^o to be nouns, we most probably have to regard the 
sonne as a conventional sign of the nominative singular (cf. 114). 

Thus 52^0,0, etc. would be the nominative with the suffix o- 


205. The forms of the imperative (vidhi, etc., 146) are based partly 
on the relative present-future participle, partly on verbal nouns, as will be 
seen from the paradigms. 

1, Paradigm of the forms of the imperative in the ancient dialect: 

Singular. Plural. 

Istpers. (The first person singular of the eso (a short form of tJo, we; 

future tense ending in <oo, see see 137. 138) suffixed to 

200, i, according to the Sabda- the relative present-future 

nuiasana's sutra 491, i.e. te>eo participle, e.g.. 33rtJ^o (33it)3 

or ^Jac^o^o, I shall do, i. e. let me + y ) or s^tio (33334- Wo), 

do! 3&33?oo;3o, Jet me worship ! literally 'of attacking-we! ', 

This rule is not in the Sabda- let us attack! 

manidarpana.) ^jado^o or 

2nd pers. 

a) the verbal theme, which in this ) 'So (another form of ?o or 
case is a verbal noun (bhava- 3, J ou 5 see 137. 138), 



vaana, see 100) used with 
emphasis or the sense of a sign 
of exclamation, e.g. *rto, (thy) 
becoming (is required or request- 
ed) ! z. e. become (thou) ! &t&, 
(thy) blowing (is required or re- 
quested) ! blow (thou)! 

rfOfi ! tfd 

or ^o! 

6) the theme with final es 

^^o), most probably a verbal 
noun (see 188), e.g. ^ori, (thy) 
giving (is required or requested) ! 
i. e. give (thou) ! ^ ! ^ ! rtoi> 
or rtoJo,! cSjstri! 3J3Z3; wdoi> or 
tfdoi^; wad! (for 2Jd, see 206. 


suffixed to the verbal theme 
considered as a verbal noun, 
e.g. wdcCDo or wdcoo.o (Wdofc* 
+ ^o), literally ' searching-ye ! ' 
search ye! 'SlOAo! rtosoo or 

rt 000^0! ^0*0! ^no! 35tC3*o! &ti 

c) the third person neuter singular b) the third person neuter singu- 
of the present-future tense with lar of the present-future tense 

of the present-future tense with 
e/ucfo, it being a verbal noun 
(krillinga and bhavavaeana, see 
200, 1), e.g. *3cfc, (thy) giving 
(is required or requested) ! z. e. 
give (thou) ! mayest (thou) give ! 

3ta>Cl>^)Ck or 

d-3- s^rfo! 

lar of the present-future tense 
with ea;c3o, e.g. ^s^d), (your) 
giving (is required or request- 
ed) ! z. e. give (ye) ! may (you) 
give ! 

3rd pers. 

a) , 

^, T or optionally suffixed in 


the very same manner as the 
terminations rioo, s'oo, ^o, etc. 
(see 203. 204. The forms 
thus produced are in reality 
verbal nouns like eroz&rt, ac, 
etc.-, *3s|, id<^, rioQ 
etc.; see 243, A, 10. 12), 
c. g. roo^rtofc* -frt), (his, her, its) 
doing (is required or requested)! 


^, ?? or rf , the forms being 
the same as those of the 
singular, e.g. ^^' (their) do- 
ing (is required or request- 
ed) ! /. e. (they) shall do ! let 
(them) do! may (they) do! 



i.e. (he, she, it) shall do! let 
(him, her, it) do! may (he, she, 
it) do! rt3s tree* (or 
irto 3 : 


; Lariotf; 

( O r 






the third person neuter singular 
of the present-future tense with 
enjd), e. g. ^s3)<3o, (his, her or 
its) giving (is required or request- 
ed) ! i. e. (he, she or it) shall give ! 
let (him, her or it) give! may 
(he, she, it) give ! 

b) the third person neuter singu- 
lar of the present-future tense 
with erucfo, e. g. 3^&>, (their) 
giving (is required or request- 
ed) ! i. e. (they) shall give ! 
let (them) give! may (they) 
give ! 

Further instances see in 367. 

2, Paradigm of the forms of the imperative in the mediaeval dialect: 


Istpers. (The first person singular of the 
future tense ending in <oo, <o^o 
and <^, see 200, 2, e.g. 


eso), 9 (i. e. o without the 
euphonic sonne, see 137. 
138), e. g. w?oodoji, let us 
utter ! 

2nd pers. 

a) the verbal theme, e. g. aw 5 O r a) 
3COO, rise (thou) ! && ^P'S ! ( c)O* 
or 'SdO! wrto! d-3-rjJ!, in which 

case also themes like ^ao5o, guard 
(thou)! (for ^>) appear (see 3, 
2nd person in this paragraph). 

Colo), 'SI (i. e. *go without the 
euphonic sonne, see 137. 
138), 'ae (i. e. 'SO 5 + the 
honorific ^, see 193, re- 
marks), e.g. *S|0, be ye! <o^! 

! 3oJ3?AO! 

the theme with final es, e.g. aSw, 
speak (thou)! 


Singular. Plural. 

c) the third person neuter singular b) the third person neuter singu- 
of the present-future tense with lar of the present-future tense 

erucdo e.g. rSjatcio^jdo, see(thou)! with e/ucto, e. g. sStco^dj, 

solicit (ye)! 

3rd pers. 

a) ft, #, e.g. ^rt, let (him, her or it) a) ft, (as in the singular), e. g. 
give! sruciOriort! sojaes^! (In medi- ssOTiort, let (them) guard! 

83val-raodern works, e. g. in the 
the Ramayana, we find also forms 
like Stwrt, Ram. 1, 6, for ad.) 

6) the third person neuter singular b) the third person neuter singu- 

of the present-future tense with lar of the present-future tense 

eA)C&>, e.g., let (him, her with erocS.) e. g. rfcl^jdo, let 

or it) eat ! (them) walk ! 

c) y0, for which see 207, 2, a. c) S3 ( 207, 2, a). 

3, Paradigm of the forms of the imperative in the modern dialect: 

Singular. Plural. 

1st pers. 

a) (The first person singular of the a) e>, e$, (i. e. wo without the 
future tense ending in <o and euphonic sonne, see 137. 

<o&, e.g. 3J3C&3, 3J3C&;3?$0; c&Q 138), ?9jjfo (i.e. 9owitha eu- 

phonic W), 3^ (/. e. 43^-i+W), 
C9C3 (a form in which the 
dental & has been changed 
into the cerebral *)> e. Q. 
i, let us hear! 

^o! (see 202) 

; (see 181, 
note a; 202). (The forms 
^e?rt*?ra, etc. are used also 
as verbal nouns; see $ 315, 
->,/; 3 16, 10.) 


&) ef>c9, for which see 207, 2, i. &) 

(207, 2, b}. 

2nd pers. 

a) the verbal theme, e. g. <3jado, see a) a, rs.Q, es8 (vulgarly for 
(thou)! Tfttid ! W3C5J j rfoSi! c^Co!, in e. 0. '|9 be ye! 

which case also the lengthened 
themes ^>ofo! (for =53), a-cOo^i (for 
2-033*), ^J3o3o; (for ^Jsofr 
(for ?J3oi3 & ), sSjsoDJ. ! (for 
appear (cf. 48. 54. 92. 93). 

6) the theme with final 9 (see 
Nudigattu page 78 seq.), e. g. 
see (thou) ! 

or cco Jsco or 
! or, by contraction, 

c /. 198,6) 

c) the third person neuter singular 6) the third person neuter singu- 

of the present-future tense with lar of the present-future tense 

> e. g. roJ3$co;3ci), see (thou)! with 6f>c5o 0. g. fS-?^3rfj, 

2rdako3ck! see (ye) ! 

3rd pers. 

a) the third person neuter singular a) the third person neuter singu- 

of the present-future tense with lar of the present-future tense 

?9dO, e. g. sL?rtad!l), let (him, with 9d3, e. g. 

her or it) go ! let (them) walk ! 

, for which see 207, 2, 6. b) e>>, ( 207, 2, b). 

206. An alphabetical list of irregular forms of the imperative is as 
follows : 

'S.D (for ^Q of r s&, the doubling of the V s being euphonic), be ye!, in the 
modern dialect. 

(for $>v* or ^JstfJ), take (thou)!, in the mediaeval and modern dialect 
(cf. the ^J3 in 187 under 2). 

(for &/3?eJo), swing (thou)!, in the modern dialect (Nudigattu, page 86). 
^ (i. e. ^3 ff +'a, =^^o, q. u.), bring ye !, in the mediaeval and modern dialect. 
$ ua (i. e. 3? <r + r 9o, for ^Oo O f ^o 5 , the 3 s having arisen of the past participle 
^^ and being euphonically doubled), bring ye! (not in the text of the 
Sabdamanidarpana, but) according to the Sabdanusasana (sutras 492. 
520 and Candraprabhapurana 3, 46) in the ancient dialect. 
Q (i. e. ^^+^0), bring ye!, in the (mediaeval and) modern dialect (cf. JJ^O). 


O (for ^0 of 3ti), the doubling of the o ? being euphonic), bring ye!, in 

the modern dialect. 
> (for 3d of 3o* or 3d)), bring (thou) !, in the mediaeval and modern 

dialect, and, according to the Sabdanusasana (sutras 519. 520), also 

in the ancient one. 

6 , 3e)tfo (for 3o* O r 3d)), bring (thou)!, in the mediaeval and modern 

dialect. (It is, however, probable that the instances require ss3 for 

33O 6 ' or 33d); c f. W3C*.) 

(for 33 of 3o* or 3d)), bring (thou)!, in the mediaeval and modern 

0^ (i.e. ZJF^ + 'S, = eo^o, q. y.), come ye!, in the mediaeval and modern 

> o (i.e. 2Jc3*-f3o, the 3 s having arisen of the past participle ZJ^ and 

being euphonically doubled), come ye!, in the ancient dialect according 

to the Sabdanusasana (sutras 470. 492). 

0^ (i. e. U53* + ( 9), come ye !, in the mediaeval and modern dialect. 
jQ (for WO of sod), the doubling of the & being euphonic), come ye!, in 

the modern dialect. 
J3 (for sod of 200* or ud)), conie (thou)!, in the mediaeval and modern 

dialect, and, according to an instance in Nagavarma's Karnataka- 

bhashabhushana (under sutra 27) and according to the Sabdanusasana 

(sutras 41. 385. 400. 519. 520), also in the ancient one. 

wsdo (for 200* or 2Jd)), come (thou)!, in the mediaeval and modern 

dialect. (It is, however, probable that the instances require ^3 for 

wao* and wad); cf. sso*.) 
(for zod of 200*), come (thou) !, in the ancient, mediaeval (and modern) 


207. There are three forms connected with the imperative still to be 
adduced. They are produced by means of the suffixes ef>>o, e>> and 

1 , According to one translation of a rule in Kesava's oabdamanidarpana 
(sutra 234, prayoga) which has been adopted by the author of the 
Sabdanusasana (see further on under No. i), es&o is used "when (the 
action of) the second person of the negative (see 209) gets the sense of 
the imperative" (madhyamapurushapratisbAlliada vidhiyol or madhyaina- 
purushapratishedhada kriye vidhyartham adalli). The <3o in S5Qo 
(3^+ -30) indicates that the second person plural is to be understood 
(see 205, i, plural, a). Let us take e. y. the verbal theme TTOD*, to 
approach. Of this the second person plural of the negative is 



you do not approach, and ?je>d)o would mean 'you shall not or must not 
approach!' (Cf. the use of && under No. 3 of this paragraph.) 

But when considering the meaning of e3> under No. 2, a and b, the 
mediaeval and modern form of ssSo, it might appear as if Kesava's rule 
required another translation, viz. S30o is used " when a prohibition (prati- 
shedha, given) concerning (the action of) the second person (plural, e.g. 
>?o ?3e>u s3?d, you must not approach !) becomes an order or permission 
(vidhi)" in an indirect form, so that ^^dSo means 'they may approach!' 
'let them approach!', the ^o of the second person plural in ?je)d5* (the 
meaning of which see in 208, 2) being retained in an honorific sense 
(cf. the honorific German l Sie\ they, used for English 'you') in order to 
show that now kind feelings prevail where previously more or less 
aversion had obtained; compare with regard to ^o the free use made of 
the honorific ^0 of the modern dialect (see the Dictionary). In order 
to make Kesava's rule in this form fully correspond to No. 2, a and &, we 
must, by implication, take for granted that not only the second person 
of the plural is to be understood, but also that of the singular, and that 
<ao in this case too is honorific, so tha^t ?je)do signifies also 'he, she or 
it may approach'. 

Kesava's instances, as they are taken and adduced by him out of the 
context, mostly allow the meaning of both translations; they are (sutra 
234 of the Sabdamanidarpana) 

o! fcJa ^G5?2o5< oijfc, zorlcrfoSd^ ^rt**! (page 258); but his instance 


L>3oJ3e, 'SkdOo oS53^C3 sisaao^^jo** 5 ' 30 ' 1 (page 68, which occurs in the 

, <^x) 

Sabdanusasana under its sutra 44 that treats of nipatas, as e3oJ3, 
atfQo 35S5w&3 ^JSoo'S^^ ') seems ^ show clearly the meaning of the 
second translation, i.e. "oho, may also the greatness of other things 
remain! " 

The Sabdanusasana (sutra 529), however, plainly and exclusively 
teaches the meaning of the first translation; it says sSrSdo ^do.Oo! 
means "you must not trust women!" "do not you (in any way) trust 
women (sarvatrapi striyo ma sraddhata) ! ", and ej^sojorsjoo sJJS^Oo! 
"you must not commit an improper act!" "do not commit an improper 
act (akaryam ma kurudhvarii) ! " 

2, a) In the mediaeval (and mediaeval-modern) dialect the form of 
?2>o is es>> (i.e. 53^+ 'S, see 205, 2 and 3, 2nd pers. plural, a), or 


occasionally e>&d, and is used only in the meaning of the second translation of 
Kesava's rule (or in the imperative, 205, 2. 3), expressing request, permission, 
allowance, concession, and wish regarding a third person or thing, singular 
and plural, e.g. ^sioojQd, ^rfo^rte* <0r^p dc3 ^3o>! sir, may your 
feet continually preserve me! (Basavapurana 27, 72); sjqJsJo^ wsirio; 
ad! he is a vile person; (but what is that to us?) let him be! 
(39, 47); ^ fcOoJo^orV wrttfo $&&>* 'ad?! rfskrtsS^tf? let 
your excellencies always be among you! why should they concern us? 
(46, 15); otao^&i d &3c33J<3* t5rt>! let Yudhishthira become king 
(Bharata J, 8, 5); zSslj OtfJJ33W#rfjac&Fttf ejtfrfrfco rfrfoJVoJo! may 

Oj IA\ " y O 

the sun of Painpa's Viriipaksha give us joy! (Cannabasavapurana 1,2); 
3JOEoe;rf^o Jort slrarf ! j?k, dU>^do ^o^^orf ^o3o^Q^, a war-cry 
used by elephant-drivers with the object 'may it discomfit the hostile 
army!' (Nacirajiya) ; ;3oaJo 3oJ3?3>! >}<&, siraacS rfos?ri, (a pill or) an 

7j CJ 

ointment made with the object '(people) may smear the body (with it)!' 

b) In the modern dialect 300 has the same forms and meaning as 
in the mediaeval one, with the only difference that 9$, es>e are used 
also interrogatively for the first person, e. g. essjfi) 2o8o3o! let him 
write! (or he may write). 3d^o 2odoi)) ! let her write! yo zj^oio ! 
let it (the child) write! ^s^do wdojo! let them (the men or women) 
write! es^j w6cdo) ! let them (the children) write! 
! let the calf suck (its) mother's breast! 
! let those who want (them) take these ripe fruits! 

ra djs^ ! may God grant welfare to your children! 
'ad ! let (him, her, it or them) hold this word in mind! 
^dO! let only (thy, your or their) courage remain! k^j??, 
^F^, Sofiod? o, how shall I (or we) tell how great the beauty is? 


sjj3?3, iA^, 3^CO)? how shall I (or we) tell how great his 
annoyance is? ^uo, aei dJS^e), <O^ ^dd? whence shall I (or we) 

TT O" m G> 

bring four annas? OJailo&^o, ^j^o, ^^^ri aoD^C)?? shall I (or we) bring 

SO *V- Q 

the bread and give (it) to the cow? ^^o aoJS^rioDo (i- e. 3cJS^ri+ wj ? 
shall I go? 'adfSJ^ ora^o djsz^O? shall (or may) I do this? 

tJrt! means 'let (him, her, it or them) become!', and then also 'let 
it be, be it!', and when repeated it gets the meaning ot the English 
'either or' (see 317). 

See 316, u. 




The Sabdanusasana (sutras 524. 525. 526. 527. 529) teaches another use 
of the ancient e3)o, saying that it may stand for the wo* and & of the infinitive 
(see 187) before $& or skc^o, it j s not requested, it must not, etc. (see 209, 
note i). Its instances (under sutra 529) show that it wants to express the 
second person plural by the 'So in aOo, for it translates Sjf|c3o N^SO 3? or 
35c|do rf^Co z3do, "you must not (in any way) trust women" (sarvatrapi 
striyo ma sraddhata). 

3, Instead of the ssOo of No. i of this paragraph Kesava's sutra 
and vritti (234) have the form of ese3*, that of es>o appearing only and 
alone in the prayoga, i. e. in his first instances, quoted under No. 1 . 
He, no doubt, accepted <&& to be the leading form to which ^o was to 
be suffixed. But as to the second instances in the prayoga under his 
vritti he introduces 5553* again, saying "when there does not occur the 
sense of permission (vidliyartha) in the action of the negative (prati- 
shedhakriye) ", i. e. when a prohibition is not changed into a permission 
or when there is a direct prohibition or interdiction, " y^ is used '' 
(vidhyartham allada pratishedhakriyeyol al akkum). His two instances 
with &9* are:- sSed&fifj^c yr?o urtofoo*! rtd, $3f( &3j3> z3?63=3o 
iS^CS 3 , do not (thou) consider any other thing! verily, thy good disposition 
is different, (and so) am I different, (but the good disposition of both 
of us is beyond doubt). zo^cJQ o^rto* ^rte! <osl\ ricso rU>efte3, the male 

f^ tO c& 

cuckoo which said (or says) 'do not enter, do not enter the wood!'. A 
similar instance is in the Candraprabhapurana (2, after 93), viz. 

the sounds of 

the male cuckoo which was in the branches with young leaves, said 'if 
he as before enters to-day, it will be improper', and cried out to 
Kandarpa as it were 'do not enter, do not enter (the wood)!' (cf. the 
use made of ydo according to the first translation of Kesava's rule 
under No. i). 

The Sabdanusasana (sutra 528) has the following instances: 
^fdj* -^ SJ^rfoo o^ria* ! do not enter this wood! (yuyam etad vanaih 
ma pravisata). $^& -d* rfo?3oJoo ?SJ3^e3* ! do not look at this house! 
(yuyam etad griham ma pasyata). oJo^rlv*", ^erfj 1 " S5ort^N weJ 5 ^ ?ooo* ! 
devotees, do not you engage in Aiigaja's sport! (bho yatayo bhavanto 
madanakriyayaih ma pravartadhvam). 


208. How arc wo to explain the possibility of the use made in 

207 of esOo, S3 and sse>? 

It rests on the meaning of the infinitive (see 170. 171. 187. 188. 
210) which in the present case ends in $30*. 

1, In the instance ^)do (?je>do*+ "So), you shall not or must not 
approach!, proder means 'to approach, yet to approach', i. e. approaching 
has not yet taken place (and shall not do so), and ^o means 'you'. 
The primitive sense of Se>d>o, therefore, is 'you are yet to approach', 
i. c. you have not approached yet (and shall not do so). 

2, When TrodOo (?je>d^+'So) or ?je>3> (?33Ste+'a) means 'they 
may approach ! ' 'let him, her or it approach ! ' the meaning of the 
infinitive jsjsdo* is that of a verbal noun, viz. approaching, combined 
with the sense of a sign of exclamation and with the honorific QQ or 'a : 
'approaching!' '(his, her, its, or their) approach may take place!' 

3, When the infinitive with e5J s ? without the honorific ao and a, 
is used prohibitively, as in o^rio*, do not enter!, the primitive meaning 
is (analogously to that of ?jsde3*+ r ao under No. i) 'yet to enter', i.e. 
entering has not yet happened (and shall not do so). 

209. The conjugated negative (pratishedha, 146) of the verb is formed 
by suffixing the personal terminations of 193 to the infinitive ending in es 
(see 170. 187, 2, and note 2 of this paragraph), with the exception of 
the terminations 

A difference, however, regarding those terminations in the conjugated 
negative is that, instead of ercrio and erosj) of the neuter singular and 
plural of the ancient dialect, &c& and 5>^) are used; enicSo, the neuter 
singular in the mediaeval dialect, becomes es>c&; (in the modern dialect 
both es>cfo and e>5g) remain). 

What has been stated in 170 about the doubling of final consonants 
in the formation of the negative participle remains in effect also in the 
present case. Cf. 215, 7, /. 

In the three dialects the themes 3o*, to bring, and >a<, to come, always 
lengthen their y, changing it into w, in the conjugated negative. 

The conjugated negative is used for the present, past, and future tense. 
according to circumstances (/;/. 170). 

Concerning its original meaning ^<je ij 210. 


, to remain. 

one of ^o*, to bring. 


for 3d + 3o), I do not bring, I did 
not bring, (I have not brought). I shall not 

1, Paradigms of the negative in the ancient dialect: 
one of jJe)do, to see. 

Singular. Plural. 

1st pers. ?SjSzio (z*. e. (5J3^ + <Oo), I do not see, I did 

not see, I have not seen), I shall not see. 
2nd pers. 

3rd pers. 

one of 

Singular. Plural. 

1st pers. eni0 9 o3oo (i. e. eajcpoij + ^o), I do not remain, 
I did not remain, (I have not remained), I 
shall not remain. 
2nd pers. 
3rd pers. 

one of ^eJ*, to stand. 

1st pers. $&o(i.e. S>< for aw +.00), I do not stand, 
I did not stand, (I have not stood), I shall 
not stand. 
2nd pers. }<y 033*. 


3rd pers. 

masc. )Oo. 



1st pers. 

2nd pers. 
3rd pers. 







2, A paradigm of the negative of 

1st pers. ^J3?do, &?ei?k, f3JS?cS, I do not see, 

etc., etc. 
2nd pers. jS 
3rd pers. 

, to see, in the mediaeval 

(i- e. 

Other instances in the first person singular are e. g. e/x>0 9 o3jo, Wi 
(of ews^); ^z3o3oo, 3do3o&>, ^do3j (of tfrgj; tf< 
or ^s3 , ris3&>, r'id (of ^a*); e^do, ra>6?k, zj^6 (of 200*). 

3, A paradigm of the negative of c3j2>d>, to see, in the modern 

Singular. Plural. 

1st pers. $JScif3o, &J3?zi, I do not ?J3^5^. 

see, etc., etc. 
2nd pers. ^JS^ci. cSJB^O (i.e. ?2J3e^+^0, see Nudi- 

gattu page 78). 
3rd pers. 

Other instances in the first person singular are e.g. 

o3o (of e5&^) ; ^^o3o^o, ^o3o (of ^d); 3e>6?b, 3D6 (of 

The conjugated negative is somewhat seldom used in the modern colloquial 
dialect (except in proverbs and in the verb ?*& t see 316, 12), and its 
second person plural ??J3?c30 is anomalous, its termination 50 standing 
for 'ao. The same dialect generally uses the third person neuter 
singular of the (present-)future tense which is a bhavavacana i 200, 
1.3), and the infinitive with ss^o (9j*) which too is a bhavavacana or 
verbal noun ( 188), followed by ^^ (see note 1), e.g. &t3os3as;, > 
CaOo, the first form for the present and future (I, etc. do not give, I, 
etc. shall not give), and the second one for the past (I, etc. did not give). 
See 298, 3; 299, i. 2; 316, i. 2-, 368. 


When in the ancient dialect repetition of the conjugated negative 
( 211, 6) is used, the first verb may drop its personal termination and 
the e5 of the infinitive, e.g. WDO*, arado (for aracio We>6o, Sabdanusasana 
sutra 398). Cf. &zi fijrfd in 170. 


1, It is a peculiarity of the only two defective verbs ^o*, to be fit, and 'SO* 
(another form of ^o*), to be, that in the three dialects they have the forms 5^ 


and ^o for all persons in the singular and plural of the conjugated negative. 
The formation is the following: the infinitives are v and 'QV, to which ^ is 
added with the regular doubling of the final v 6 of the theme, this & represent- 
ing all the personal terminations (cf. the suffix ^^ in 243, and see their use 
in 298; 316, i. 9). The meaning of w and ^ depends on their nomina- 
tive or subject which is either expressly put or is to be supplied (see 210). 
Occasionally a euphonic sonne may be added to Q and '9^, so that we get 
CS>e; o, 'SO o (see e.g. Sabdanulasana sutra 523 ; 298, 4; 300), which (sonne) 
may change into 33 s or & when it meets with a following vowel. The same 
holds good with regard to e3(JC3 of 23?dj, to be required, and, with the sonne, 
fcS^CSo (see e.g. Sabdanusasana sutra 524 seq.; 207, note; 316, 5). In the 
modern dialect ?3e> of ti* ( 316, is), to be proper, is another instance of 
this kind. The Sabdanusasana (sutras 19. 584) introduces also e3rt or UAa), 
for tfrido. 

The grammarian Kesava calls ^^ a particle (avyaya) that partakes of the 
nature of a verb (kriyatraaka); see 212, 7-, 298. 

2, When the author has stated at the beginning of this paragraph that in 
the conjugation of the negative the personal terminations are attached to the 
infinitive with w, he seems to be at variance with what Kesava in and under 
his sutra 216 writes, viz. that a verb's theme (dhatu, according to his instances 
a theme ending in enj) appears when one removes the termination (vibhakti) ^a 
of the conjugated negative (pratishedhakriye), so that e. g. the themes e3J3*c&, 
3J3C1), ?rJ8Cl> are formed from c5js?^o, djacfo, g\eco; but because his rule is 
superficial (see 143) and therefore seems to give only a certain practical hint 
to students, we must not lay too much stress on its wording, and not conclude 
that &3?do+9c, rtodj + ao, s'js^j + ao showed the exact final rule for the 
formation of the negative; we have to take the infinitive with final ^ and the 
termination o, i.e. c3j33+53o, ^rad+ao, 5^-i-eo j n order to get 3J3rio, dra^o, 
^Jsdo, and find the theme by removing the termination and by adding tfu in 
the instances given by Kesava. 

210. In examining the origin of the conjugated negative we have to 
reject the thought, as if the change of the suffixes erudJ and ^rosj; into 


and wsj could help us to find it, for already in the ancient 

dialect we have, side by side with ?rodo, 533^ (that is another form of 

193 under remarks) as a termination of the past tense, and 

the positive forms LJS^, they are ( 194, remark i) and z3dcs S^j 


they scratched ( 198, i); then in the mediaeval one e^ in the third 
person neuter plural of the present, past and future tense ( 194; 
198, 4; 200, 2; 201, 2. 3), and in the modern one $&} in the third 
person neuter singular of the future tense (200,3) and }) * n tne 
third person neuter plural of the past and future tense ( 198, 
5; 200, 3). Also the change of the vowel w into w in 3"o* and eoc* 
( 209) cannot assist us to do so, as some other monosyllabic verbs 
appear in their positive forms with long and short vowels (see 52. 53), 
as we have the positive forms 3e)dG*, 3e>de3* for ^dsj*, todej* ( 1ST, i), 
3>6 for 3d ( 187, 4), 33d, fcred, 33, ETC for 3d, zod, 3V, wtf ( 205. i, 
2nd pers., &; 205, 2, 2nd pers., b; 206), era^ for ws5 ( 184), and the 
negative forms 3dc3, wdd> for 33dd>, wudd ( 170). 

There can be no doubt that the origin of the conjugated negative is 
based, as has been stated in 209, on the so-called infinitive ending in 
$3 ( 187) in the same manner as that of the negative participle is (see 
170). That infinitive originally was a verbal noun and only in course 
of time came to get its specific meanings ( 188). Thus e.g. f3J3?sg at first 
meant 'seeing', 'a seeing', and thereupon 'to see', 'about to see', 
'yet to see 1 . fSjs^cIo (?JU>^+<^o), therefore, signifies 'a yet to see-I', /. e. 
my seeing (is or was) yet to be or (will be) yet be, or my seeing (is) 
not actually existing, (was) not so, or (will) not be so, whence we 
arrive at the meaning 'I do not see', ' I did not see', ' (I have not seen) ', 
'I shall not see'. Regarding the meaning of 3^, 'ao, e3^ and ?jt> 
it has been stated in note i of 209 that their meaning depends on 
their nominative or subject which is either expressly put or is to be 
supplied. Originally they denote ' a yet to be fit ', ' a yet to be', ' a yet 
to be required', 'a yet to be proper ', (the dashes denoting the of 
209, note i), i. e. fitting (is, was or will be) yet to be, being (is, was 
or will be) yet to be, requiring (is, was or will be) yet to be, being 
proper (is, was or will be) yet to be, or being fit (is or was) not really 
existing or (will) not be so, being (is or was) not really existing or 
(will) not be so, requiring (is or was) not really existing or (will) 
not be so, etc. Now if for instance ydo (S3s3^j), he, becomes the 



subject, the translation is 'he is not fit, he was not fit, he will not 
be fit', 'he is not, he was not, he will not be', 'he is not required, he 
was not required, he will not be required', etc. Cf. the prohibitive forms 
of the infinitive with && in 208. 

That S53o and e^ are suffixed for vurfo and eros^) is very probably 
done to show off the use of the infinitive with y in the formation of 
the tense. 

211. In 152 (of. 165, &, 1-3; 170) there is the statement that 
frequentative or iterative action of the verb is expressed by simple or triple 
repetition. Without respect to the various meanings created by that 
process (see 339) we give here a number of instances as they occur 
in the three dialects: 

1, regarding doubling the verb without any alteration (in the 
present, future, past, imperative, infinitive, participle, and. conjugated 
negative) enirso.rso. ( enjrao. eporso.): es^ dd) do (&& rfj yd) do), 

eo eo v eo eo-<x}oO v oJ <j / 

(wrtos^ wrtos^), tJ^cxSosa (wa 
. ewrsorso ferorso erureo), eo^ 

' cao^ / 1 ' 

(for wd &i3); 
^, w^sj^ 


2, regarding tripling the verb without any alteration (in the 
imperative, past, and past participle) 

eje) WD trs: 20^0 20^0 20^0: ^reoraorao fenjraj erorao 

o o o' cacaca v a> ca 

3, regarding doubling the verb, dropping aoo (or al so 
. e. 5s3) of the first one (in the infinitive) 3oJ3?rt aJ3^r(ejJ, sotf 

4, regarding doubling the verb, dropping the termination of the 
past participle of the first one, e. g. 3Q> ^StoJ, vJ&> ^oSdo, SeJOiJ*" *e)0ijj , 
?5? ro^cSo (see 165, 6, i), and also its vowel, e. g. ^ ^do, Jr? Jrirto 
(see 105,6,2), to which class may likewise be referred the doubled 
negative participle dropping its e$c3, viz. ^3J 33i d, 

oJ J ' 



5, regarding doubling the verb, dropping the termination of the 
relative present participle or that of the present participle of the first 
one, e.g. tfje^d cSjs^o^, 3jsd rfjsrfod;" 'ad 'adj;^, zod 

6, regarding doubling the verb, dropping the personal termination 
of the first one, e.g. %&>& ^e^o, j^d ^J3?c5o, wtf totfotf, wao* 

Q O 

w)do (for 2J3do zjsdo or wad srsdo, see 209) ; 

7, regarding doubling the verb, dropping the final syllable of the 
first one, e. g. 3d 3drto, ^J3w Jjs^rto, doo0o 5i)o0jrto, sSjsrf slertsJo, 
?oJ3ri ^J3r\^o (see 165, 6, 3, and cf. 183, i and remark i and 2 of 
this paragraph; c/. also 253, 3; 243, A, ie); 

8, regarding tripling the verb, dropping the termination of the past 
participle of the two first ones, e. g. 2oc3 2od sozlcSo ( 165, b, 2, remark, 
where 2oc3 2oc3 '&'&' is adduced as a peculiar form); 

!>, regarding tripling the verb, dropping the personal termination 
of the two first ones, e. a. S53J s3 o ( <js essj e333 o), 2J?j wj^ 20^ o; 

x) oO oJ V oO ,J :>J /' o O C) ' 

10, regarding tripling the verb, dropping the last syllable of the 
two first ones, e.g. ^J3^ Jj3^ JJS^rto, 23^ 23^ 23^rio (see 165, b, a, 
remark). Cf. also $ti tfti ^dorto. 

11, Observe also the curious repetition of verbs wherein the initial 
of the second one is changed, e. g. =^J3^o A^os^^o, 33 6 ftrf d. Cf. 303, i, 

Q O 

after e. Observe also the colloquial expression )d 3 3> (for 33 3e>). 


1, Also by setting a sort of adverb which is of the same root as the verb, 
before the verb and occasionally doubling it repetition is expressed, e. g. 

; aodo soc&s'o; iwrfo sos?i3, aorfo 



; ^oes does^ ^esorto; sow SoyfS ^ioeaorio; aod sorf;3 iorfos'o, 

It is possible that some of the instances are connected with No. 7 above. 
'2, Of double nouns not seldom verbs are formed by means of 'Slrio ( 149 
seg.) which may be regarded as frequentative ones, e. g. ^W 3oUx!o (of 
d aoarfo, stt ?rO?oo, ^d s'o^o, ^^ *$&, ^"B* 3?^o, e'cs rw?io, 
w ri7oo ? rtoQ r!oQ?5o, riodo rtoa?io, rtooo 
<s* ds??oj, dtf d??5o, Sort 

and s2j?3 might however be tle^dje and SJ?^J? (see 181, note <) so that there 
would be no dropping. 


VI, On adverbs, etc, (See 28 1 seq.) 

212. In the present paragraph a class of words is introduced which 
are called indeclinables (avyaya) by Kannada grammarians; some of the 
words they term also particles (nipata, see remark i). Many of the words 
would be called adverbs by Europeans. 

The expression of ' indeclinables ' is not quite exact, as some admit 
of being declined, to which the letter d (declinable) in parenthesis will 
be added in the alphabetical lists given below. 

These alphabetical lists are composed of the adverbs, etc. found in 
the Sabdamanidarpana and Sabdanusasana. The adverbs, etc. contained 
in these two works belong to the ancient dialect and are left unmarked ; 
if they occur also in the mediaeval one, they are marked with med. 
(mediaeval) in parenthesis; and if they are used also in the modern 
one, with mod. (modern) in the same parenthesis; the additional words 
in brackets have not been met with in the ancient one. Slight differences 
of form in the three dialects have not been regarded. A few words and 
peculiar meanings rest on the Sabdanusasaua. 

1, Numeral adverbs 
(exceptionally arranged according to their natural order). 

kdoF, once (med.); ^)J3or, twice; ^OJSSJJF, thrice; ^W^OF, sometimes; sto^JF, 
several times; ?ra&;3oF, a thousand times, [^^i once, ^o^, twice, Ji>Jaj3o, 
thrice, are other forms in the mediaeval dialect; z-^ occurs also in the mod. 
one.] See 279. 

2, Adverbs of place. 

e^, e^o*, that direction; in that direction (d; raed., mod.) ; fc^e'o, after, 
afterwards; ^eD, there (d;med., mod.); '3^,, ^o 5 , this direction; in this direction 
(d\ med., mod.); ^Qo 5 , the front; in the front (d; raed., mod. ; mod. also "OQcio, 
<odod->) ; '?, here(d; med., mod.); en)^, eru^e*, in this intermediate direction; 
2A), in this intermediate place; ^, ^o 4 , what direction? (d; med., mod.); *>, 
where r 1 (d; med., mod.); kd?3, together with (med., mod.); ^tfrt, in, within, into 
(med., mod.) ; 5 ; J3cl j together (med., mod.) ; ^tfrt, below (med., mod.); ^o^, io^ro*, 
the south; in the south (d; med., mod.); 3&>s3, in the middle (med., mod.); 3jC&3, 
^j^o*, the west; in the west (d ; med., mod.) ; ^, behind (mod.) ; 3jesrl, behind; 
^pesrt, outside (med., mod. &6esri); zoc^rt, eorirto*, the north; in the north (d\ med., 
mod.); 23(63*, zStes 8 eSto 8 , separately, apart (raed., mod.); 2oo^, in front; forward 
(med., mod.) ; so ad, ^jjsdo*, the east; in the east (d; mod., mod.); s3Je^, above 
(d ; med., mod.); 3o?e3, above (med., mod.); ^J^, around; that surrounds (d ; 
med., mod.). [#$, that side; on that side (d), 3^ this side; on this side (c?), 


3, in advance, first, occur in the mcd. and mod. dialect; &&,$, &&J&, near- 
ness; near, close by (d) belong to the mod. one, and appear as ^^.d, sS^, in 
the mod. one.J 

3, Adverbs of time. 

^?^i that time; then (d; raed., mod.) ; o^o, at the time that, when; (so that); 
0(3^0 = 0^0 (see 365; until, in med.); o^ado, o^drto, until that time, so 
long as; odfcdo, e&edcSsOi^o ( 365; e3ds5, raed.); wrtifc, that time; then 
(r/); rtv*, that time; then (d; med.); wSrto, continually (med.); *3o, *S|3*, from 
that time, afterwards (med.); ^0 = 0^0 ( 365); xj5rio = ?^o (365); Ity 
this time; to-day (d; med., mod.); '^rto, up to this time (in med.); ^Sdo, 
sic^adrto, until this day ; -^rtdj, this moment; now (d.) ; ^rtv*, this time ; now (rf; 
med.); ^steo, a little while ago (d) ; wdy, at this intermediate time; "-"o^Sdo, 
up to this intermediate time; <^^, when? (<7; med., mod.); ^rto, 
, .o^adrio, till what time?; 2^3, forthwith (med.); ^ew^ofc 8 , subsequent 
time ; subsequently, afterwards (d; med., mod.); 3$3 s , at dawn; c^ack, the 
day after to-morrow; on the day after to-morrow (d; mod., mod.); 
to-morrow (rf; med., mod.); $c3., yesterday (d; med., mod.); ^P^ 
P^esS), daybreak ; at dawn (d) ; sow (rf), zoca'^o, 2JO 
, afterwards (Joes', zocs 8 ^, med., mod.; zoc^^o, zjw?^, wcy^o, med.); 
8 , again (mod.); ^JJc3*, that is before ; before (d; med., mod.); dJ3;3oS.x:t>, 
some time ago (d) ; sS^c^, the day before yesterday; on the day 
before yesterday (c?; med., mod.); ?Wtfc3, at daybreak; rtos^d, daybreak; at 
daybreak (d). [ort, that time; then (d) ; ^rt, this time; now (cf); ^i3, after 
this, afterwards, are med. and mod.; s^co^ appears as B&aieM and ^fi^ew (d) 
in the med. dialect, and as ^Jas^es 8 (^) in the mod. one; ^^6, forthwith, 
and ^rt, at dawn, are mod. words; 3oJ3^ora,3, 3oJ3^o ^ (z. e. 3c>e^o sleeJli 

n 8 eJ B w^, ^ z 

^^), at daybreak, early (mod.); regarding ^^, still, etc. see Dictionary.] 

4, Adverbs of circumstance and manner. 

(The meanings given are to be somewhat modified according to circumstances.) 
ortof^O, abundantly, exceedingly ; orao, soever : whatsoever ; orfoiido, 
abundantly, exceedingly; o^tf, osnS^Po*, osn^a* =0^, etc. orf^, orfofcjo 
(^qraSabdanusasana), W^,9^4W^, o^^ ?^, in that manner, in like manner; like; 
similar to; in the manner in which (&,, ^,, raed., mod.; orfo&o med.); W o5^, 
excessively, exceedingly (med.) ; oOsSo, o3, o3 snicy, a little, to some extent (3 
mod.) ; o^ Ses 5 , causelessly; oaort =0^0., etc. (mod.); wrao, soever: whatsover; 
wdo, further; ^^rt, woi^, vehemently, quickly; oarrfo, excessively, exceed- 
ingly ; 'Srfo,, 'g^&Jo (tl^o Sabdiinusasana), ^, in this manner C3SX med., mod.; 
'g^yo, med., also gs^oUj); 'gdojS, in a proper manner; 'gadrt, in this manner 
(med.); ero reused) do, greatly, much ; ro^, sro^., in this intermediate manner; how 
(^$o Sabdanuaasana); Torf^ib, how? (^^o Sabdanusasana) ; sro^, silently 


Sabdauusasana) ; eroSF^o,. excessively, exceedingly; e/uAffo, en}A5r<3, silently 
(eruAi^, med.); =%^ by degrees, slowly, irresolutely, ^, spaciously, extensively; 
eO?k_, <o^, how? (<o3o., med., mod.); lO^ifo, how? (^$0 Sabdanusasana; med.); 
<02otf, how? (med.); arto, rao st certainly ; ^do, certainly (S^ofc^ro Sabdanusa- 
sana); ^o3^3, clearly, evidently; ^> excessively,- swiftly (med.); s'siy^ 
fragrantly, deliciously (med., mod.) ; s^o, excessively, greatly (med.) ; 
suddenly; $'<& (o. r. $>&), closely, densely; ^^fS, redly (med., mod.); ^o, 
excessively, exceedingly; a>c3eJc3, axo 9 ^, .sowd, in a shrill, piercing, rough 
manner; rid, rttf, certainly (rt^, med., tlcss is used in emotion and command); rto 
ric3, quickly (raed.; rttfrttf, mod.); ^|,^, ft 3, spinningly, round and round (med.); 
rioo.irioSoj^ inactively, silently; ^o 9 ^, quickly ; tf^$, quickly (med.); 2^04^3 
quickly (see 307, a); a3^3, quickly; zS^do, quickly; zS'^cio, manifestly, clearly, 
certainly; ^SzJCd, with embarrassment (in speaking, med., mod.); ^^, ^^ 
coolly, refreshingly (raed., mod.); ^tf^otfo, decisively (SraroJJS3"J Sabdanusasana); 

S, glitteringly (med.); ^W, s&A ^esr^, ^^, whirlingly, round and 


round (&?, med.); (**j$ see 307, a); *^^, thinly (med., mod.); ^^, not 

firmly, irresolutely (^c^cpr^Fo Sabdanusasana) ; ^coi?rfo, by degrees, slowly, 
irresolutely; Sja^rt, ejs^fS, vehemently (med.); (^^fS, see 307, a); s ^, 
wearisomely (med., mod.); rf^ 6 , certainly (med.); ?>Ae;(3, with consternation 
(med., mod.); 53^, excessively, greatly, further (med.); S^sio, certainly; SSfD*, 
ScSrdo, causelessly; Sdi, S?rfoo, extensively, excessively; rfora^, N^^<3, softly 
(raed., mod.); clctfdo, much, exceedingly; ^^^, ^^^ clearly, distinctly, nicely 
(med., mod.) ; ^^. ^^> vehemently (ft'^roa^ro Sabdanusana) ; ^ea 3 , exceedingly ; 
much (med.); (fSja^^, see 307, a); ^^ ^^> suddenly (med., mod.); ^^> 
greenly (med.); sioJ^cS, quickly ; &9do, IjOrfoo, extensively, greatly, further (med.); 
&?rfo, profusely, much, further; sf^ri, s^SfS (^^j^> ^^j^)) suddenly; woi)^ 
quickly; We3 ; d, in vain (med., mod.); ttscfo, much, further; ^^, ^^fS, silently. 
inactively; ^oj 5 !, 23d>yS, silently; ?3e3^, firmly, tightly; 2^3, hotly, warmly 
(med., mod.); ^zdo, quickly; zS^bo, clearly (^S^FO Sabdanusasana); 23^,^0, 
ti^Vo, timidly, tremblingly; $J3o?r3, swiftly, quickly (med.); ^-o^o^o 6 , swiftly, 
quickly, without restraint; ^?dj3, swiftly, quickly; sio^N, other, different; ^^, 
excessively, much (med.); ^Jsjrt, ^o^jS, slowly (med., mod.); 3do, deJo, 3^o, deso, 
most certainly; clearly; (*^c3, see 307, a); 38, perpetually, constantly (med.); 

sweetly; JkS^rl, rfoa^cS, silently, inactively (med., mod.); 

much, more, further; ^-ra?^o wsdo, causelessly; 3oO, how? 
suddenly (med., mod.), [oadrt, qodrH appear also as 353^, S3or5, ootf, Socor^ in the 
med. dialect, and always so in the mod. one; <oadtf is also ^^j ^ 50 ^> 3 ^ r ^ in the 
med. dialect, and always 35^ oo^ort in the modern one.] Regarding <o^rt ^rt, 
ouo^_ ooart, 353^ sari, .ON^ a^ see 327. (;i>?<3, a tadbhava of 3->c&F, may be 
adduced here too, e. g. & s3o?d or ^ s3o6r^. in this manner, thus; ^^rf 

according to his command. Samskrita ^^Ojs similarly used, e. g. 


in this manner; ^d ^sd, according to that; ^tf ^^DdO^, in various ways. 
Likewise *,:&, *d, 0a, ^tf are used. 6y. also iaaaaoto*, 

5, Conjunctions. 

eo, n>o, and (med.); 2J3, again, further, and; &>', again, further; 3o^o, 
^^, again, further, and (med.; 3-i^, mod.; also the form 3j^, is used in the 
mod. dialect); sfotfs*, further, and, or (mod.), [eruo appears also as A>, A in 
the mediaeval dialect, and generally as A>, exceptionally as eru in the modern 
one.] See 284 seq.: 297. 

6, Postpositions. 

Several of the above-mentioned adverbs of place and time and of the 
conjunctions are used also as postpositions; they are adduced under 
this heading again, but without their meaning. 

Postpositions, i, e. words and letters (particles) placed after, or at 
the end of, nouns, pronouns, participles, etc. (see 282), are: 

^, a particle of emphasis; a vocative particle; ^o; a^ (w^do, etc., see 
8 109, a, 5); e3 3*; os<3; esstf^Po*; c3 ; &$ ^Po*; yrfo ; yrfo; ejSrto; eo*, in: to; 

O 7/7 o _s 5 _a _; CO t C 

at the time that, when, whilst (med., mod.; see 109, a, 5. 187, 1); ^, (med., 
mod.; see 109. 117 seq.~); 533ort; W, a particle of emphasis; a vocative particle 
(med., mod.); 'S, there (med., mod.); *3o, from that place or time; thence (med.; 
see e.g. 109. 120, a, 3); ^Oo^- 'gtfo; stfrto; yy; ewo; wurfoo, at the time that, 
when ( 286); enjj; ), by means of, from (see 109, a, 3); <o, at the time that, 
when; so that (med.; see 187, 4) ; <o, a, particles of emphasis; vocative particles; 
particles of interrogation (med., mod.); ^>, $*>, vocative particles; particles of 
interrogation (med., mod.); ^3, together with, along with (med., mod.); &^, if 
(med.); a-v*, (en>**), in, within; into (med.; see e. g. 109); 8-tfrt; tftfrt; &^; 
jw^, uw^o, ucs-^, jowoioo; doo^, as far as; till (med., mod.); 
3do, Jidrto, until; ^Po^, ^?a*, like; as; in the manner in which; so 
that (mod.; see 242). [^, if, another form of i>$, appears in a sasana of 

1076 A. D. C9od), in one of 1123 A. D. (Orfcl, wdd), in one of 1181 A. D. 

.j^), and in one of 1182 A. D. (rf^dd); &,d occasionally has the form 
of 23C and &$ in the med. dialect, and always that of $ in the med. one; yrftf, 
till (med., mod.); wrt, at the time that, when (med., mod.); $ (see sub ^), 
yzS; ^z3; ^rt, together with (mod.); i.^ort, Ljforfd, i^d, on account of (med.: 
k?^d a i so mod.); ^rf^, till, until; as far as (med., mod.); ^orij?, for, on account 
of, in order to (mod.) ; 20^, zorl, on account of; concerning; for, in order to (mod.) ; 
dooo'J, previously, before; 3oj^; sart; Ojjs^or, except (mod.).] 

7, Some verbal forms, etc. 

which are classed under thoavyayas by the Sabdanusasana, but of which only 
one, viz. 'Qu, (see $ 209, note i), is called an avyaya by the Sabdamanidarpaun. 


They are : 

(=an J^o 122 or ay dodo, O f eo*, 209, note i), a bhavavacana 
or verbal noun, (literally ' a yet to be fit-it', 'a not actually being fit-it', used 
for all persons singular and plural, expressly pat or not, in the three tenses, viz,) 
I am not fit or meant, thou art not fit or meant, he, she or it is not fit or meant ; 
we, you or they are not fit or meant; I was not fit or meant, etc., etc. (see 
301. 338)5 ***L (' e- 53y i+ o ) am I not fit or meant? etc.-, I am indeed not 
fit or meant, etc. ( 301. 338); (or eoo; see 209, note i; 210; med., 
mod.; 300); <uj3, except (see 170. 171 ; med., mod. ; 301. 338); w&o 
Wifco, either or, 293; S|w (or ^sJo; see 209, note i; 210; med., mod.; 
mod. also ^^^; see 298, 1-4; 316, 1.2); ^^cS, in absence of, without 
(see 170. 171; med., mod.; 338); io, wholly ( 301); arfido, what shall 
I do? (med.; 301); S3 6 , what? how? why? (med., mod.; 301); o3o, 
what shall I do? ( 301); z3* (or 3o ; see 209, note i; 210; med., 
mod.; 301. 318,5). 

8, Interjections. 

s, ah! (in admiration); alas! (in affliction or grief); 3^J, es^fas, alas! (in 
affliction or grief, med., mod.); ah! (in wonder or surprise, med.) ; 

uitiu., uiou.j ; wuj^uu, on ; aias : ^m pamj ; <-'MI| on i ^in painj ; 110 : siup : , "i aias . 
(in affliction or grief) ; ws, ah! (in surprise, med., mod.); alas! (in affliction or 
grief, med., mod.); 'Sft, fie! (med., mod.) ; sro, fie!; eros, ah! ha! (in pleasure); 

fin'- olocT (in r\am f\r cnr r^k\lr^ PAf^ -fio t PAD 5 aloe* fin T\airi r\r cnrrricp\' tOoJ^. \vf>ll 

, alas! (in pain or sorrow); 

3o^3, oh ! woe to me ! : 

pain, med.). Cf. 308. 

9, Imitative sounds. 

Imitative sounds (anukarana, anukaranapada, anukriti), i. e. sounds 
used in imitation of the effects of the operations of nature (as the rolling 
of thunder, agitations of water, pattering of hail-stones, voices of birds, 
bodily functions, falling, breaking and the like) arc very frequent in 
Kannada and essential parts of the language; in fact there is scarcely 
any sound in nature that has not been imitated in it. Such sounds are 
often idiomatical and therefore strange to the ear of foreigners. For 
the vast number of imitative sounds the Dictionary is to be consulted. 


Those mentioned in the Sabdamanidarpana and Sabdunuiiisana are a^sta, 
tho sound of kavakava (a particular sound of the cuckoo) ; sucyt><3 with the sound 
of (in speak ing) ; rioorfodo, tho sound of gahagahath (in laughing) ; rtorto, the 
sound of gaj.agaj.a (in running water); riJu^o 4 , t no sound of gulgul (e.g. in the 
clanging of bracelets); rt-itfortotfj, rbcwrtocw, the sound of gulugulu or guj.ugulu 
(in the gurgling of water, etc., med., mod.); efJSJ$Jo, the sound of Shataihataih 
(in breaking); e^oco??, with the sound; d^wSo^, with the sound of 
jlium (in oozing); de^w, with the sound of darr (in belching, med., mod.); #3,y5, 
with the sound of dhamm (in banging, mod.); 3*3tf, ^o^K, 3o^, the sound of 
tajatala or tal.atal.a or tal.taj.a (in boiling with a briskly bubbling noise, med., 
mod.); cioqksiyS, with the sound of dudhumm (in plumping or plunging into water, 
mod.); tfosiyS, with tho sound of dhal.amra (e.g. of a kettle-drum when beaten, med.): 
ifcs&yS, with the sound of dhumm (in jumping down suddenly from above, mod., 
mod.); c3c3'w^, with the sound of (in breaking); <3c^3. with the sound of 
nej.k (in breaking); ^^(3. with tho sound of pathill (in banging or slapping, 
mod.) ; 5jC3SJca^, 2je^G3$, with the sound of pal.apaj.a or paj.paj.a (e. y. in tin- 
pattering of hail-stones, mod.); $)AO*, the sound of bhugil (e.g. in the blazing 
of flames, med., mod.); $>?o 5 ; the sound of bhor (e.g. in the running of 
streams, -raed., mod.); *T^<3, with the sound of sigg (in splitting); ^o^, with the 
sound of surr (e. g. in flowing or showering); &tf><3, with the sound of hill 
(in cracking). Cf. 309. 


1, The Sabdamanidarpana expressly calls only 53&3o. atf, .0, <oe3, <053?, o, 
k, l> and i-c^JS? nipatas, to which tho SabdanusA,sana adds o, 

, us, eru, n/a, cn^s, oc, <oio, )e;^ 
C?, <^, cSes*, J)J^, ^03?^, aoja?, agjs? a&fl?. Nagavani! 
Kanmtakabhashabhushana has tho following nipatas: ^o (used in bhi-du and 
vismaya), ws, ^oSjs,, wt^js.s, 55ddo, a6, we^, wad, j, <o3, i:!, o, is5js. 

2, Regarding the formation of adverbs, etc. it may be stated that not 
unfrequontly ^ or ^cS appears at their end, e.g. ^^>T5, f^rt, iSi^rt, T^^rt : 
BrSjjS, ^^j^, tf^tf, Tjodo^jS. e?^ may be the same as wrt, 'so that it becomes' 
(both ssrtj and *rto appearing as Kannada verbal themes, 17G); ^N may l>r 
another form of ^f( ( 176), or belong (especially in uiuikaraiius which not 
unfrequently are written either with final 3 or <0c?, e.g. ^-'^ or jto*3c3) 
to c^ and <0c3*, to say, and mean 'so that it says'. Cj. 275; 281 note 
below the text. 

3, Some of the adverbs of circumstance and some imitative sounds exhibit 
consonants with strong aspiration or aspirates (mahapninu, J? -'.'), e.g. 

Ja^cS, djqjjrfo^ (see tj 218). 

4, There uro no prepositions in tnu; Kaunada. 


VII, Euphonic junction of letters, 

213. Euphonic junction of letters (sandhi, samhite) has not un fre- 
quently been referred to in the preceding paragraphs. It occurs in the 
ancient, mediaeval and modern dialect, especially in poetry. The collo- 
quial dialect and modern prose writings often disregard it. We in the 
main follow the Sabdamanidarpana in describing it. 

Generally speaking it takes place when a consonant with a final vowel 
(svarayuktavyanjana) is followed by a vowel, e. y. ^JS^OF -Sssjo becomes 
tfJS^Frfo, oirf. S3d?oo oiNjtiSjo, sJwfl ^>,S3 9 5Jo doo&3 9 3c; and when a 

*C \. s. C 

consonant without a final vowel (svararahitavyanjana) is followed by a 
vowel or consonant, e. g. 22e>p* vurao. becomes ^rsorso., 

ii eo 

It would, therefore, be wrong to use e. g. eSrOOJo ^S5 3 (for 
e$&3o (for OjsjjrtjrfSSo) , ^^estftfo (for 

214. According to the place where euphonic junction of letters takes 
place, it is stated to be of two kinds, viz. 

a) the junction in the middle of words (padamadhyasandhi), i. e. 
either the junction of a declinable word and a case-termination (nama- 
vibbakti), or that of a verbal theme and a personal termination (kriya- 
vibhakti), e.g. djs^j+ ?3o becomes 

(see 122); ^o&a+SSo becomes 

(see 198, 2); 

6) the junction at the end of words (padantyasandhi), i. e. either 
the junction of a declinable word (narnapada) and another declinable 
word, or that of a conjugated verb (kriyapada) and a declinable word, 
e.g. arf^ 50 becomes 

becomes ?&3dddo s , zS^^ddj 0^0 top o. 

215. Euphonic junction takes place by elision (lopa), the insertion 
of o&* and 53*, the permutation of consonants (ucitfiksharfigama), ;ind 
the doubling of final consonants. 

Sometimes it is optional whether elision happens or 0&* and 53* are 
inserted, sometimes euphonic junction itself is optional, sometimes also 


euphonic junction is forbidden, sometimes the permutation of consonants 
and sometimes their doubling are necessary, and sometimes do not take 

1, Euphonic junction by elision. 

a) When the final vowel of a case-termination (vibhaktisvara), either 
of a Saiiiskrita declinable base (saihskritaprakriti) or of a Kannada (Or 
Tadbluiva) one (karnatakaprakriti), is followed by a vowel, it suffers 

elision, e. g. ^riod o3o^o becomes tf.3ocrso3j3o, &$ oT\ ooarfgo arf 

^ *~> OJ OJ 

C^zio, rtvSod 


6) The same happens when a case-termination, or a conjugated verb, 
or the formative -3^0 ( 150. 151, remarks) is suffixed to a Saihskrita 
word ending in the vowel 3, e. y. wjqS+^o* becomes z 

Jpe)C)?oO (C/. 2, C). 

c) Likewise a final es, Q, ^ or a euphonic en) ( 96. 98) suffers 
elision when it is followed by a vowel, e. y, S5d?o as* becomes 

-f Jo 

(cf. 4); 3^ -^^kc3o ?5e^tkc5o, dojafl 'a-5\cSo 

O" O" TT 



(c/. 2, / '.); 

. , 

(/. 4). cy: 213. 214. 

rf) Also when the final vowel is that of a personal termination 
( 198) or of the participial suffixes ^, ^j and d) (ij 155. 156. 166), 
elision happens, e. r/. ^JS^cS^) z*tf o becomes rfjaaddp^ o: 


2, Euphonic junction by the insertion of 

a) If the w of the genitive is followed by the j of emphasis, oii % 
generally conies between (cf. 6, #.), e. y tJ^^ + oi becomes tJ^tfol), yd^-(-0 
y^v'oSo, yci&3+ j wciSioSo, when, as the Sabdanusasana states (sutra 45). 
for ^rcSo, ^foSo and ^>?o5j 3?al>, ^a$j and ^?oij may be put. 


b) If the final es of. imitative sounds ( 212,9) is followed by a 
vowel, o&* is generally put between, e. g. sJCOsjeo oj^o becomes soMsJW 


o3o^o, rfeoto o?3o rteorieooSotfo (cf. 5, d). 

O O Q 

c) If to a class of Samskrita and Kannada themes with final es the 
formative ^o is suffixed (cf. i, I and 3, a), o& comes between, e. #. 


. Qf- 151, remarks. 

d] If the letter w is followed by a vowel, o&* is often inserted 
(c/. s, b and e, ft), e.g. e* ^rfr d^eo^ becomes tJ03odr rfows , 
woajd^j, ^ ^ wo3od, ^+ o j^ ^^crfoo 4 ( 187, i), 

e) If the letter ^ of a declinable base is followed by a cases termi- 
nation beginning with a vowel, o&* always comes between ( 130), e.g. 
w)+S5o becomes eoOcdoo, fiO+wsrS?3 AQcrfj^ri)^ . 

/) If the letter ^ of a declinable base is followed by a vowel that 
is not the initial of a case-termination (cf. i, c), or if a verb with final 
r a is followed by a vowel, oi5* is generally put between, e. g. 

( 187, i). 

g) If the letter -ds is followed by a vowel, o&* is mostly inserted 
(cf. 3, c), e. #. >d becomes 


( 130), ^^ ^rf^ ^c&d^; DJS+'S^J wj?)05asjo ( 151, a, 5), 
^odao* ( 187, i). 

7i) If the letter ,0 of a declinable base is followed by a case-termi- 
nation beginning with a vowel, oto* is always put between ( 130), e.g. 
becomes Jja 

i) If the letter x) of a declinable base is followed by a vowel that 
is not the initial of a case-termination (cf. i, c), or if a verb with final 
<o is followed by a vowel, 0&* is mostly put between, e.g. 3JzS ^d) becomes 


tr ' 

( 187, i). 

It) If the letter > is followed by a vowel, o&* cornes between, e. g. 
becomes ^^o5o^o, do^+'S.^o ^o^oSo^o ( 151 a, 5), io oi^o 


( 187, i). 


If the letter so is followed by a vowel, o& is inserted, e. g. d 
becomes do3j?;d>3o. d x *o?So d>o3.>?3o, <5> <>o>o ?io eSioSjOo^o. 

} _0' O Q W Q ' '-a ~W ti 

w) If the letter k is followed by a vowel, Q&* is often put between 
(';/' 3 i g; 6 , a-^), e. #. ^JS^+^^j becomes ?$JS^o&o?jj ( 151, o, 5), 

3, Euphonic junction by the insertion of 53*. 

a) If to the class of Samskrita and Kaunada themes with final y 
mentioned under 2, c, the formative 'azoo is suffixed, 3* comes frequently 
between, e. g. 3Dd^)^o, s^d)?oJ, a^O^o, o5j?tfS?i), oo3d^^io. See 151, 

b) If is followed by a vowel, 53* does not unfrequently come 
between (cf. 2, d; e, ft), e. g. t? snaci^o becomes ^ 

c) If -d?, which stands for 'acSo and 'asj, is followed by a vowel, 
comes between (c/. 2, g), e. g. & wxjcrac^o becomes o -d?>d> rt.^o, -ds "ad) rt.?iort^ dsSsA rt.rfortv*, in which case the 
^J 9 ^Jqi' ^Oq> ^^9 

^5 may be shortened, e.g. d? 'ado may become 'a^do. 

rf) If a radical SAJ (see 97. 128) or radically used y\i is followed 
by a vowel, 53* always comes between, e. g. iio io^a^oo becomes siijj 
d^nejo, ado -ado aqioado, ado 

aw ^o^oas;, do^j 'ado sjodoadj, ^$0^0 + 

e) If M3 is followed by a vowel, 53* is always inserted, e. g. 
becomes zpj^Odo, ^JS+^N Z&dtf ( 129). 

/) If sjo and sxjJS are followed by a vowel, 53* is always put between, 
e.g. u^r wdo becomes 3^FS3e>do, aoJS^+oi ao^^s5, ^+*ao 5>s^Oc 
( 129); Ddjs ^rfo sdJSsS^o, S3J3 'a^o adJsa^o, adJS + 'a^ ajjsa?i ( 12'J). 

g) If the final L of a declinable base is followed by a vowel, 53* 
always comes between, e.g. rU>?-fS3o becomes rtJ3?do, flj^+'acS ft&? 
Z>$, riJ^^+'a^o rU)?3r3o ( 129). 

O Ci 

/O If S3 1 is followed by a vowel, 53* always comes between, e. g. 
o becomes ^rfo, rr^ + ^o rf^^o, rf 3 + a?S rf 3 Ofi ( 


4, Cases wherein euphonic elision is optional. 

If Kannada words end in (^^ o, or a euphonically used P/O, elision 
is sometimes optional (cf. i, c), i. e. in its stead o&* or 53* may be 
inserted, e. g. ksl 'aelo may become t&eJo or fc 


or oJo^jra z jso ^^>o rfj)e;o or 

J or &sdzi)4|3i& (c/. 97 and remark thereon), 

C3 O 

or tf, ('sc5j + ^) 'Sici-jsS or *ac, (ssrfo + (Orfo N ) esriosS^o or . 

5, Cases in which euphonic junction itself is optional. 
a) If S5o is added to =6 ( 187, i) and sscS to ao* ( 170), euphonic 
junction is optional, ws. ^d wa* or ? ! 6ajoe7 > , 's.d yd or 'add. 

6) At the end of a half (kanda) verse (padyardha) euphonic 
junction is optional, e. fj. 


|| in the sense 'there is this' 
there occur everywhere the words wu 1 ^, z-doi), d^ (243, 5, 20. 23. 36); where 
comparison in any way takes place among excellent persons, ^<^, 4P?S3 6 are used ; 


when the female 

friend said "Sister, I will go into the garden and bring thee a bunch of nice 
flowers; (go) thou a little quick (and) remain in the dormitory of thy beloved 
one", and went away. 

e) In a quotation from Samskrita (vakyaveshtana) euphonic junction 
is optional, e. g. 


?ie3 3 rtjsy o, 

o3o$&>3oo ^^orzso ziae^rUkS,, "who? why 
a petitioner? who? a poor man": how much soever, Dharmaja gave (it) all away; 




d) If a Kannada imitative sound ( 212, 9; is followed by a vowel, 
euphonic junction is occasionally optional (cf. 2, b), e. y. 


<od <oe3 eru 



But if the imitative sound is from Samskrita, it has always to retain 
its original form, e- y. qSriqSri never becomes qJrtj^rt^ before a vowel. 

e) If ajj is preceded by a sonne or a vowel, euphonic junction is 
optional, e. y. 



6, Cases in which euphonic junction is forbidden. 

a) If the nipatas ending in oj, i), t^ and t> ( 212, remark i) are 
followed by a vowel, they do not form junction with it, e. y. 5d;3j 


o! 6y. remark i. 

6) If the vowels ^ ^, o and to are used as nipatas, o, > expressing 
emphasis (avadharana) or doubt (visanke, or also simple question) and 
&o, to, doubt, and are followed by a vowel, there is no euphonic junction, 
e. y. 


riort^JSa^rforSiaiJS I) did he say he 


would certainly protect? Let not thy courage fail on account of Yama's 
gruffness! Did he say he would certainly give? That seems to be 
scarcely possible. But will what he said fail to occur, o best of the 
Gangas?; &a$% -djrfo; ^JS^F?^ tJ^o; ^pd^fS? wtf o; ' 



c) If k> is used in approval (meccu) or abuse (akshepa) and followed 
by a vowel, there is no euphonic junction, e. g. <^$ r^? ^8 ^U sSja 


d] If esoSJSr^ and 3^,be) express 'sorrow, grief (kheda) and are 
followed by a vowel, there is no euphonic junction, e. g. 


e) If o3;jo ( 212, 8) is used in the sense of 'certainly, well' 
(angikara; cf. another ^do in 137, a, plural) and followed by a vowel, 
no euphonic junction takes place, e. g. ^rfort&rfo 


/) If w is used in the sense of 'indeed' (gada; 212, 4. e) and 
followed by a vowel, there is no euphonic junction, e.g. 53-35:3 

^) If the y of the genitive or its lengthened form tJ is followed by 
the vowel of a nipata, the Sabdanusasana says (sutra 45), there is 
exceptionally no euphonic junction (cf. 2, a), e. g. tJ^ Jj3?dcSjsdr^*; 

=5^3 tJ8 ^WJ^SJ^^O 5JOJS3 9 ^0; ^^3^^X18 SJSS^Oo. 

/) If e is followed by 55 and y, there is uot unfrequently no 
euphonic junction (cf. 2, d; 3, 6), and if followed by 53 and 2J, there is 
always none, the Sabdanusasana says (sutra 43), e. g. sr yd?do, 5? S5oS, 

; W SO^O^FO, W SD^O^O, W O?^gO, 

i) If ^S3, 2o^, ^js?o, sia and ><$ are followed by a vowel, there 
is no euphonic junction, e. g. i&>t3 V&, ^ w ^> 3P 7 * ^^^, ^^ e$&)rb, 
oi^ ?5o^. C/ 246, b; 247, d, 5. 

k) If a protracted vowel (pluta, 20) is followed by a vowel, no 
euphonic junction takes place, e. g. =5*0 ^J3 ^J3? c^^o , ^J3ei^ 

^ Z3a) ! ; 


1, With regard to 6, a and 6 it is to be observed that when the > of 
emphasis loses its exact meaning, e.g. in ^wtf ( 170. 171). or when the 
nipata 3 ( 212, 4; 212, remark 1) gets the meaning of 'half a thing', there 
is euphonic junction, e. g. sira^otfrfu d f 3& n becomes 
oi>sjd -qy ^srt^rf ^oOrtoJJwQy (see 338 under 


2, If two rephas come together or in any other way cacophony (srutikashta) 
happens, it is wrong to form sandhi, e.g. tJ^osrsDo*; dczdr&Tiort; EC^U toko*. 

3, If a bad notion (dushpratiti) is likely to be produced, sandhi is to be 
avoided, as e. g. pa3soiJ^dd?Wc3? (does he not tell to bring a bodice with flowers ?) 
may be read 30w3 # >rfd;3<Oc3s; &ri >o*tio &ti 3oy wdo; ;3otfo&>d di^o 3jd. 

-* to P to t* 


7, Euphonic junction of consonants: their permutation in the formation 
of compounds (samasa, see 244. 246. 247. 248. 249. 251. 252) and in 
their doubling when final. 

a) As a general rule it may be stated that the hard letters ^, ^, t> 
become the soft ones rl, d, w (see 28), e. g. sJW 3$ do becomes !J 


wo; ^oaoiooo ^3 AiSoJoo^ e3. See 243, , 26. 

> O 

Exceptions are e. g. ^d^eJo, t3^^J3^, ^^^oi3*, ^dosi^ , Oft> 

J Cj ^J 

Further specific exceptions are that after ^o* (^r), one, and 'a 
('ar) , two, after a repha (r) that is a substitute (adesa) of ^, and after 
a 0* that is a substitute of & or $* ? the letters ^, ^, si retain their 
shape, ^ #. 


rtdreo, ?ra^J do; ^^3j?,jS, ^-^3 Si 3 (see under letter 6). 

^j OJ ^ 

. 234. 
^ and eJ always remain as they are, e.g. ^doas^h, ^rs^o, ^^2J3? 

o,, ^ssJfeSja^rt, ^<l3^rao. 

b) After vowels and radical consonants (sahajavyanjana) 3J, to and 
are generally changed into s^ e. /. ^^ sSCS 3 becomes 

:00 doc^i sjoorfdi, siw 



tod ijse^d, z2eo* 


; 53og3 dv^^O Sjoa^o; ^prto* 20^. ^artrfF^.; 

oj U CO 

(cf. 5JOJ3rf^,, 55^0^^, etc. see 278, i, doJS^a, etc. in $ 280). 



This rule holds good also in sentences (vakya, i. e. cases of nouns or 
the infinitive of verbs to which a relative participle or a conjugated verb 
is suffixed), e.g. &todJ8flrs8{5J (- 


Exceptions are e. g. =o3>>S3 s , 

Further specific exceptions are that after 'so*, two, the substitute of 
and after S , the substitute of ^rta, the letters sj, 20 and do 
remain unchanged, e. ^. 'awsr^*; ^rfor^; ^-^Jtvci (see sub letter a). 

c) After final consonants the letter s3 generally becomes ^ and ^, 
and when the numeral pro^do is concerned, ^j, e. g. ^oro* AJ^O becomes 

( 278, i), ^ja*5 ?j)^do clfccpF^do ( 278, i). 
(see 218); further remark 

Exceptions are ^cl&P^o, 23^ D ^s^O. 

A) rO ' r\; 

Further specific exceptions are that after o&* and & the letter 
retains its shape, e. #. 


Another rule is that sJ after a short vowel sometimes becomes double 
. e. z3 or ti e. . doo ?3d becomes 


d in 278, i. 

d) When the vowel of monosyllabic declinable bases ending in 
c3*, P*, c*, 030* and & is short, and such bases are followed by a vowel, 
their final consonant is doubled, e. a. ^dosJo^^ fifs 6 3 S?^ becomes 

, , cc)o 

I ea' 

; =5^+25 ^s^, ^sy + ^^o ^sS^o, 5jj5 s +eroo 

oo ro co ro 

SjOOij^+^o ^OOJ^o, ^Oi3+S5o ^OJOoo; 3ojV* 
V^eJo, zs?*+ t$S^ ^^V s ; <^^+ Jo o^o. (Q/*. 

Ti IT 

But if their vowel is long, that doubling does not take place, e. g. 

'. 120, a; 247, d, n.) 


o; nor if the declinable base is 
polysyllabic (anekakshara), e. rj. rotfr^c*, rldefo o, s^Cotfor^, 3J3r3e; ; 
nor if the final consonant of a monosyllabic avyaya having a short 
vowel meets with a vowel, Q. y. 3 d)do (see 212, 4). 

e) When to monosyllabic verbal themes with a short vowel ending in 
c3*, P*, <9* and <s> the formatives S5<3, <=3&^o (se3* + ^rfo) and o are 
suffixed (c/. 187, i and 4), there is no doubling, 'e.g. 3^dJS,^ 

a Q 

J3 do, ^JSsj^.ricoo, ^jstfera rfFo, 05?&%(do: 

> W rO <. 

, erufl; when such verbal themes end in o&*, the 
doubling is optional, e, cj. ^pai>ejjo (^poJJ* + 5^ + 5^0) or ^ako^oo, 

or ^J3oJJoe;oo, rtaSoewo or rtoiowoo; the verbal themes 

Q -0 

, ?3o&*, Sjoos* and 200^3*, however, always double their final conso- 
nant, e. (j. eA)ol>o^>o, rSorfjpWOo. 

t>tfo&*, which has a long initial and is dissyllabic, may or may not 
double the final consonant before 3^3*, ?323J3i^o, <o, and before a personal 

termination, e.g. tJdoJoe;oo or e3c&>osx>o; wdo3j or tJdoSJo; tJdoSoo or 

/) In the negative form of the verb, either the conjugation ( 209) 
or the participle ( 170), monosyllabic themes with a short vowel ending 
in , R, a*, o& 5 and s?* always double their final, e.cj, 



The only exception forms =5^"*, e. g. ^^cS 20^ o. 



When, in samasa, ^ is followed by c^, this & may take the form of &*, *. ^. 

3E5* (3co^ may become ^ifcoo*, 3& s?o^ ^rl?o s , ^TO* ^J3?yo ^e&a^yc. Gf. 222. 

8, Rules concerning the final sonne (o) are the following: If the 
soune precedes a consonant, it may change into ^ (in the singular), into 
z& (in the plural) or retain its form, r. //. t?^* ^^a or o s 

or ^1^0 ^2^, 33?$* zfo^rfo or 3^)0 ?oJti^o; ^^J (XlJSer^o* or 
?ooir(v* or o rfjjQ^v*, ttrif ^e^o* or 3^0 



concerning the drtrsJoSask see 220; when the sonne of the nominative 

singular of Kannada neuter nouns ending in es ( 109) meets with a 

vowel, it often changes into ^, e. g. dodo 'adordo becomes 

$vo ^tii r3 >>&), ^3 wo ^do ^ 

may also become rfj*, e, g. s3jd)oc3o, ?3w>jc3o, opwC>ock, 

in Samskrita and Tadbhava nouns (which are neuter in Kannada) it 

uses to change into dj* or & e.g. sl^SocJo, ^^Oorfo; ^.^JS^o , 

eK^ c^uj^ -i s^ 

^CTd^rasSo^dorfo, cSJS^Orfo, ^A^^^o; when the sonne of the nomi- 


native singular of masculines and feminines ending in & ( 117) is 
followed by a vowel, it becomes $*, e. g. z3^^o, esd ?&>, do, ssOnjjSe)^ 3Jo, 
wg-,^ ><*, ssddj^dv* ; when the sonne of the pronouns yo, ^o and 
( 137) is followed by a vowel, it becomes ^ f in the singular, e. g. 
^^o, 33?3s3o, and rfy in the plural, e.g. 


; when the sonne of the accusative singular and plural is 
followed by a vowel, it changes into ^, e. g. ^J53J 

da^oo riwo, rtorioJo 

&J O 

when the sonne of the third person singular meets with a 
vowel, it becomes ^, e. g. rta?3J3dFr3 sa^qSro, ftv^) >$o; when rloo 
and =^oo ( 203) precede a vowel, their sonne becomes do>*, e. g. w^orsSo 
(w^oFo+oi), ^JSrtcOjrfortosS^, S^tfos&ste*; when the ^o and 3o of 
the imperative ( 205. 207), the adverbs of time and postpositions 
o, we^odio, the postpositions 3^0, 
etc., the copulative conjunctions eso, sroo, and the 
in esdJSrfo are followed by a vowel, their sonne becomes d^, e* g. 



may become e^^&Sdj, (see 215, 5, d). 

216. In 213-215 Kannada euphonic junction of letters has been 
introduced. Now as many Samskrita compounds, joined together according to 
the rules of Saihskrita grammar, have been borrowed by Kannada scholars and 
used in their writings, it becomes necessary to point out also some of the 
principal ways of Saihskrita euphonic junction of letters. Because there are 
no Samskrita rules of sandhi in the Sabdamanidarpana, etc., we make the 
following alphabetical selection ourselves. 


1, Junction of vowels (svarasandhi)). 



w + *q = o, e. <7. Tf3dJ. + 'ga*.= 

e . a. 33&J + 


ts + eru3= i), g. ^r. 
w -i- aio = wo 5 , e. 

= , e.g. 

(The e + ^ in . ^^^ + L^, Od^ + 1,34, and 

?jja y+ i^^o may become either t. or S.) 
= G. e . a. OA 

i? & 

o. ) uirado = 

O = ?3D, g. (7. 

= so, e. ^. 

w + a = so, e. g. sSoasa + so^oior 

y + L = 5!, e.g 

'S) + w=oJ3, e . a. 


si +'?=*, e. fl. 

G = odP, e. <7. Sos -f Gnaoior 

^ t=9 





en) + so = &, -e. g. rfodo + S^OJOF 
eoo+ero=yio, e.g. $fi 4 sro ^30 = 

sJo + sOo = adJ3, e. g. ** & ~^~ 

2, Junction of consonants (vyanjanasandhi). 
arises from a* and V s , e. g. srio^ 5 = adots*, SoiiFs* = 

mains unaltered when no special rule is 
before a vowel becomes n s , e. q 

before the consonants rt, as, 
d, ri, (rf), 20, zjj, (3o), 
oJo, d, u, 3 becomes n 5 , e. ^. 


art oi>, 


= ar 

art ra w), ados* + 
+ deed = 
+ s3?d = 

before the consonants 
and so becomes also 

after the vowels e, 
and n) becomes *3* 

t ?3?o= ^oJ^FZS^^rf ( O r 

+ jrart = azso^ri (or 

y (or art, ra y), sra^ + 

& <a *> a a ' 

= nss. do (or 

t> ^ 

d + edrf ^ = es^ d^ rf Jo 6 ', ri, ad + e?d, = rt. ad 

. ~5 ^Aepco ^J s) 

^, ^^ -t ^ = 

^arises from ss s in 

rule is given. 
&* before a vowel becomes 


a e,)<a 

, and remains unaltered when no special 

e. g. "&& 4- wort ^c^ort, ^b 5 -- 


before the consonants r(, a, 
d, d, & d, S becomes s*, . 

before the consonants rf 
and do becomes *, c. jr. 

before a vowel becomes o, e. ^. 

before the consonants rt, d, 
^ 20, ijJ, oJj, d, 3 becomes n*, c. y. 

* = 

artr = 

(rf becoming ), 

+ ^^ = 


rtodo + Krirfdo, arts* + d^rra = art 

= art era d, arts* 

before ^ becomes 13 s , e.g. 

g. </. Krt3 J + 

lo ' 

^before a becomes 

before & becomes &, e. g 

before cJand do becomes 3*, e. g. arts 5 + 553d=art?3 l d,do 1 ora3* + 

before w becomes 
before tf becomes 

+ a;J = 


+ i*,= a** (^ becoming <), 

= xS-J eo. 


before the consonants 
3, s, ft rf becomes 



-- = 

before ^ becomes 5 , e. g. 3o* + t333ooioF = 3t3-) j 3ooioF. 
before a becomes &, e . g. 3c* -(- aoio = 3a o3o, 3cs + ^ = 3a . 

" ?5j 

before &3 becomes &J', e. gr. 3n 5 + t3c^= 3^?^. 

before rf and do becomes 3*, e. ^r. 3o + 332$ = 3$^, 3w 5 + dja3, = 35^3, 

before ^ becomes ^ 5 , e. g. 3a* + Sw= 3z ,?w (i becoming ^) 


(preceded by ^ and eru) 
before a vowel becomes , e. a. 

before the vowel ^becomes So, e. q. 

before the consonants rf, 

a, d, d, 3, 20, $, 3J, oh, 

d, t>, ^, ^ becomes So ? e. ^r. 

before the consonants &, 

^> ^5 ^> ^t ^ becomes s, e. g. 

(preceded by 'a, eru, L) 
before the consonants ^, 

a, d, d, a, , ^j, do, 
oJo, o, d, 2d becomes o e , e . g. 

+ wort = 2J?odort, 





titf + dca = 




j^ (or 

+ 73S-3- = ^o^i 



TJ 6 + 

+ rtora = d^orforcs, 


4- y-S- 1 = . 

before ^ and $ becomes 3*, e. o. ^rf^ + ^dra g^des, ^oi:7j f + t$oi) 

* t.3 

i cJ, 

(preceded by ^ and eru) 
before the consonants ^, 
4 ^>> often becomes ss 6 , f . o. eJjo?^ + v.3 = ej?o^, .^, ^^rjo 3 " + 

/ C) 00 * 

rtlA^ ^, W03J07J S + 53^0 

TT 6ft 

?io7^ + vJ3?&3 = tfoaJ3^&3 (or 
?^ + stfW = ^jdoeJ (or qJ^o 

VIII, Particulars of some letters, also in prosody, 

217. That the vowels , so, to and 23* are no real diphthongs, i. e. 
compound vowels, in true Kannada has been stated in 21. Kannada 
> does never arise of ^ preceded by es, nor its t, of ro preceded by es, 
i.e. they are never formed by Samskrita guna (22); likewise its so 
does never arise of 'a, d? and > t nor its S of sro, eae and to, * e. 
they are never formed by Samskrita vriddhi ( 22). > 5 so, L>, 23 are 
innate (sahaja) in Kannada or exist therein by nature (svabhava). Kesava 
states that an yoto* or yoSo may optionally be written so, e.g. 

may be written ^jjsdo, =2rJ3?do3jA)do ^J3?d>?oc5o, J?doQoroc5o 
J^)OSoA)rfo Js3 x^^o, aoJS^oSj^rfo 3cJ353 x^rfo ( see l^ 1 - under remarks); 

PO roy n row 

and an e^) 23, e. //. ^^jc^o may be written xpsorfo, ^^jo^J^* ^po^oS^, 
5^o&c!o 23o-S-do, S3^r?o 22rso, ^sjpf ^pS, ^^0^2^ g^o^o 8 . It is 

^ C3 Ci lA 

also customary to write fd for 23*, as ^sjuo for ^>dj, 3dtfo for ??a^j 
(see 21). 

218. In 29 letters with strong aspiration or aspirates have been 
mentioned, in 212, remark 3 it has been stated that som<> Kannada 
adverbs of circumstance and some imitative sounds exhibit aspirates; 



and in 215, 7, c the aspirate 33* has been introduced, for which there 
is the instance sia^roi) 2odo 


Aspirates, however, are rare in pure Kannada. The grammarian Kesava 
adduces the following probably for the greatest part uncommon Tadbhava 
terms (regarding the form of which MSS. disagree; cf. 370) in which 

aspirates are used 5J^e>r (o. r. slurs'), dsrers fo. r. d<5js^), risers? 

aj v so '' aj v aj '' su 

(o. r. ^Jud), U> d, arara, 530fi (370), ejte (o. r. 

(o. r. ejS&Tfo), otf,qj3e>ok (o. r. <o 
?jo), cre^J, qS^, qj^sicl ( 370), ^o^pg (o. rs. 
^ri (?), ^qs^cdo (o. r. =a2p|oaj), ^oio^CS, ^^^rl, $$ (probably 
^^), 5?!oij (o. r. S5s^s?o5o), ^^ 9 o3o, ^?s^ri (o. r. 
(3^70), ^J3e?i, ^?S?o (o.'r. ^?3), ^ssid, dp^ (370), dp^ (o. r. 
370), dp%^ 9 (370), dc^^^o, d^^ 9 rio (?), dptf&?k (o.r. 

JSo^re, ^o^rS, z^js^rf, ^o^, ^s^, was^ (?), 
(370), dJ3$ ( ?, 370), ^o (?), qSdtf (qJrfrf), d^ (370), 
, ^Ouo3a*, ^e3cdo, sp-srf; 33\ or ^^o , sp-s^ or zsv (370). 

co Zp to 

The true place of aspirates is in some Kannada adverbs of circumstance 
(212, 4 and remark 3, that originally were imitative sounds), e.g. 

and in some imitative sounds ( 212, 9), e. g. ^e3ejj&3o, 

. r. 

si rS, cpJSsJ ?3, ^jslj ?3 (the form of a few of which is doubtful). 

219. In 33 it has been stated that the letters cdb, o, 53 are not 
nasal and sometimes nasal. Such is the case in some Kannada and 
Tadbhava ( 370) words. According to Kesava ojo is not nasal in 

ok^SS, nsoSort, 3s>o3o, wo&s/, and nasal in 
rodo, sjooiora, ^oJjrs, djsoio; ^> is not nasal in 
and nasal in ^js^rari, e5^>r^r( 

(V) CO 

is not nasal in =5^, SoSJtf, 3d^, ^sj^, and nasal in 

220. In 39 it has been shown how the upper nasals without a 
vowel may take the form of the circlet called sonne, and in 40 how 


they also in connection with a vowel may take that form. We give here 
an ancient Kanda verse quoted by Kesava in which not the sonne, but 
the vargapancama letters ( 28) themselves have been used: 


His further instances refer to final o or sonne (see 215, 8) which 
may likewise take the form of the vargapancama letters without and 
within compounds, e. g. S3do ^ciirt may be written 





221. There are several words that in the ancient dialect always have 
the sonne or bindu ( 34) or are nityabindugal, e. g. ^3do^iJ, ^ortj, 
s5Ceortj, ^J3^oz3 (IJSi^sSo.), IJS^Q^O, ^JS^o3 (^JS^^), etc. (see Sabda- 
mariidarpana p. 48; Sabdanusasana p. 69). In the mediaeval and 
modern dialect this rule is not found; there is rather the tendency of 
leaving out the sonne, especially in the modern one wherein scarcely 
once the sonne is employed. 

Other words of the ancient dialect optionally appear with the bindu 
and without it or are sabinduka and abinduka words, e. g- 


Others of the same dialect appear always with double letters or are 
nityadvitvangal, e. n. 3) 3, ^sira, &*& &>, urt, ^J3r( 0, 

i ' oO C3 oj A A 

etc. This rule holds good also in the other dialects and 
regarding the same words as far as they occur in them. 

222. It has been remarked in 215 (?, remark after /) that in 
s.-imasas or compounds ^5* preceded by f* may become f*. Such is also 
the case in the ancient dialect when there is no composition of words 
(asamasa, bhinnapada), e. g. ^ftf ?SJ?)r5^^o may become 

223. The change of the letter jj into So has been referred to in 64 
and 184. Kesava teaches that in Kaniuula and Tadbhava words an initial 
3J may optionally be changed into sso, e. g. sJFSo" may become 




3J> 5o> , ^)Q 3oJ0, tivft. sd<L>ri, sJ^?oJ aow?oO (see 370), and says that 


this change is (especially) beautiful (sundara, celvu) in a provincial or 
native dialect (desi). 

But the change is bad (dushkara) and as a rule does not occur, if 
fj is not initial and is a double letter (dvitva), e. g. snirf do, 3%$ do, 

, , , , 0, 

OJ oj OJ O ;>J Oj - 

Howbeit, as we have learned already from 184 (cf. 194), the 
present-future participle essJ exceptionally becomes esao, also when it 


stands at the end of ss?^, ^r^, STOr^, ^^i ^ ^ii 3 ^ being such 
as that, 'Sr^So, being such as this, erur^So, being such as this intermedi- 
ate one, <o?3 3o, being like what?, which forms occur as well in the 
mediaeval dialect (except sro^Soj as in the ancient one. 

Besides, the mediaeval dialect has changed WFSO, ^^ 3o and ON co 

into es>5$ 'SioS and <0o3 , anc ^ w ith a euphonic a into es^o). 'SirSS and 

O Cp Q CD Cp 

which forms exist also in the modern one; at the same time the modern 
one has also the mutilated forms 55^, -s?^, ^^- 5^, ^cS^, ^cS^,- 
See 224. 

224. Kesava says that 5^26, 'S^Qo, eru^ao, o^ad ( 223) in the 
ancient dialect become es^J , 'a^,, 6A)i3 , <>Sc3 (cf- 275), and, with the 

o(s <x/ co ois 

addition of ?, he, and o, the sign of the nominative ( 115), S5^,o, such 
a man as that, ^r^o, such a man as this, ?rorlo, such a man as this 
intermediate one, cO?lo, what kind of man? 

He gives the following instances in which the genitive precedes 3^ o, 



*roa<L>3,o koritiz \o ^jrfadd^oQrlrs rf,^ ^drooaoo I Narasimha is a 

^ *- 03 ^- v 

man like a thunder-bolt, one like a lion, one like the flaming eye of Siva. 

^o^n}^^^?^dar3^oij^grf?S^^e) 8(&#tff!f$Ji?^o | what kind of 
person Kama is, such a one is this man ; what kind of being the beloved 
son of Aruna (Jatayu) is, such a one is this man ; what kind of being 
the sun is, such a one is this man. 

The feminine of e5?lo is &3v* (^F^+y<ff*. she, 193 under remarks),, 
e. ff. sJOfgCj&v*, such a woman as (is agreeable to) the heart, a dear 
woman, which takes also the form of es^ , e. g. s3o^c3?l. 

*/ ^ 

The neuter is es^cto (^?l-r^^), suc ^ a child, etc. as that. 

With reference to the terms e^, ^rf and <^Z etc. in 4s 223 it is to 

qr 9 ca' 

bo stated that the masculine forms are y?3 SjfjO fw^do /. e. 55^4. 



l, such a man as that, 'arfsjrfj f'arfrio), such a man as this, 

CO y ' 

(.orfrfo), what kind of man?, the feminine erf^tfo f? 

V A /' A . \ 

(orfsV), and the neuter ones 


If ?3Fj 3rfj, esrf dtfo, erf j are added to another word, this is put in 

the genitive, e. //. Jiflrfdrfo, such a man as thou, 3)33jcxforf dtfo, such a 

woman as a mother, Stf.dGjorf do, such a thing as sugar, (or also Srf =3-3 

6 9 J - (a 

drfj, 330Bjo&c3adtfo, ?j^,6o3j^9c3j, c/ 223). 
9 w" 9 

225. The letter 53o appears also as j, as for g^rfjd there is likewise 
for ^15^0^0 ^^o, for slOjo 5 3^)D*, for J^oo* ato*, and for 

?je>>. See the datives plural .o^ori and id^, ^dori and ^drt 
iu 137, ft; 304. 

226. Regarding the lengthening of the letter $ into y in the 
accusative and genitive singular (see 141) Kesava quotes the following 

( see 3 03, 2, a). 

and adds that such a lengthening occurs optionally within some words, 
as one may use 'a&jstf or ^f^e ^ (Tadhhava of 
or wdJS^nrodo <ofl^J3r2o or ^rlrHJS>rso r^oojorto or 

227. In 15. 17 (under <s*) and 31 the so-called 3 <tf (a grammatical 
invention) has been introduced. A few instances showing how it may be 
optionally used for Sariiskrita ^, are the following: fcjtf or fci^, 3tf or 
3w, ?i^ or ^J^, jjtf or w^, sj^ or aj<y, ^^J^ or ^^osj, ^jtf or ^jw, 
3^ or ss, ?i^w or ^is^, ^ov v or sjj^, rfoo^^ or ^JDD^. 6/. 231, 
also 239. 370. 

228. The so-called tfjtf or the Kannada tf (that in fact is not 
different in form and sound from the so-called = ^ of ^ 227) has been 


mentioned in 15. 17 (under ^) and 31. KOsava adduces a few of the 
words in which it has to occur, viz. 


Rustics use tf erroneously (according to Kesava) in the Kannada 
words z3do*, cod^, 2*ds, ^jsoe^, ?odo', <sdo*, 33 do*, slides, 
pronouncing them 23d<s> s (z3d^o), ^d<s> (oidtfo), 2ds?* (&dtfo), 
3d<s*, yds?*, d<s*, sjods*, ^ds*. cOd$ often stands for <ode3. 

Occasionally tf is also represented by ra, e. #. es^d or ese^d, k><i? or 
J3S? or ^jsrs, =aJ2^rlj or ^JSrarlj, rlo^O or rlo^rsi, f\& or A*, 
or ^J5?s 5 s^o^e^ or rforaa*, ri^ (the ancient rtCO 3 ) or ricl, 
(the ancient ^^e^ 9 ) or ^js^di, ^t)^ (the ancient ^oe*3) or 
^^j or ^ra^j. Cf. 235. 

tf is frequently employed for the ancient C3 in the mediseval and 
modern dialect (see 32) in which e.g. ss^y appears as sss 
e3C3 9 as e5S?, -^e^ 9 as s^$, sw^ f as w^o, =5^ 9 as ^^, ^pe as 
or 3oJ3s?, which peculiarity partly dates back about as far as 900 A. D. 
(see 32, note). As stated in the same paragraph, the letter S^ has 
has been retained in the present grammar. 

About the change of W into ^ see 229, and about that of d into tf 
ij 230. For words in which <$ or &3 may occur see 232. 

229. Letter W is changed into $ in the following words when they 
are in the apabhrarhsa state or are tadbhavas i. e. words corrupted from 
Samskrita ^ !&, ^sj=g, O?eJ^, ^o!3^, dOs)^, O^^S, sio^iJ, 

, in which case their forms are sjs?^, >?%f\, S^rt, rto^ri, 

^j)^, 3J3e^^, ^^^- ^J^kJ^ and ^>^eJ may once appear as 

f( and orfo.W. See 370*. 

230. When the words co^arfo, ^JSss^/s, rf 9 ^, rijd, d^rtd, ^i^ori, 
and )d^ are in the apabhramsa state or are tadbhavas i. e. words 
corrupted from Sariiskrita, their is usually converted into tf, and they 

appear as asS^a, ^osl\tf, ?W, rto^, &prt (tert5?), ^^ofv, and 

See 370. (The change of c into tf takes place also in Samskrita 

itself; cf. 15.) 

J) As there evidently are a few Tadbhavas (regarding which see 370) among the words, 
it seems as if, at least in this case, such words on account of their V* (that was taken for 
the *o<?) were considered to have become true Kannada words, losing their Tadbhava 


231. In the apabhraihsa or tadbhava state the letters fed, tf, 3, tf, 
and the tf tf (see 227) of the words 

(Sjo<3e>o0, o. r. sjje>c3e>o) , and ycg^a&d (e3)??e>uc5 ) become C3 according 
to Kesava, in which case the words appear as 


. See 370. 
The Sabdanusasana (under its sutra 140) adds 3JreJ=3o3J 13, 

(see 370), 

*U "0 

232. There are twelve words regarding which it is to be remarked 
that it is somewhat doubtful whether they ought to be written with 
tf or CO; they are tip^ or &p&33 ( 370), &$&&> or dp^&KJJ, &G o 
rtj or zifcorta 9 , &fSsl>o.S? or t3J3^oo.eo 9 , w^dJSS? or wCOrfjs 

Zv W 

or s^oO, ^^r{ or d^ 9 ?^ ( 370), ^^o or ^^J0 9 , fcortoS or 

O O 

5^$ or ^j^s3 9 ( 370), F^JS^ or rtJ3^ 9 , 33? or ^e^ 9 ( r - v^ or 
; 370). Q/. ^JS^fej^ and o^o y in 229. 

233. Kesava saw the following words with J in the works of the 
first great poets: 

wrteo'i? (o. r. esrlFCO 3 

'j^ra^-13 9 (o. r. 
o. r. 

*?W, ^oCJ, ^oCO' 3oC3j ^Jt3 ^W 9 ^ o. r. 3&3 

* (o. r. 


(o. r 


(o. r. 

318^3', ^jsrlq^, (3}8C^ or 

c^^, ^.33, ^e^d, ^sc^, c^e^ 

ZJ^3 9 ^o, 2J^3 9: c?, U!0 9 ^_o, zo!3 9 ^, fc&^oko, 2J20 9 o (o 

(0. r. ^WJ^W 9 ), WOMO 0^0, 83 

(o. rs. a^ 9 ^, 

(^ortoeo*), sfce^w 9 , 


To these are to be added the tadbhava words of 231, as far as they are 
not repeated here, and under circumstances the words of 232. In 32, 
note i there are in the sasanas also *& (to be), ^otf, rfcs^, ricao , sJw o f , a 3 J3??r (for 
S?JS??T, djs?^). See also 234; Kesava's Dhatupatha (Sabdanianidarpana 
pp. 330. 331); and regarding the meaning of the terms with C3 the Dictionary. 

Concerning the anukarana words that have no aspirate ( 29. 218) at the 
beginning, Kesava observes that they may appear either with o or & 

The Sabdanusasana (under sutra 140) adduces nearly the same terms in 
which C3 has to be used, as the Sabdanianidarpana. Besides, it adds a small 
number of others; but as their meaning is not given (the work does not give the 
meaning of any term with w there) and thus the possibility of explaining them 
becomes difficult, as the reading of at least a few may be doubtful, and as the 
use of w in a few of them was seemingly wrong at Kesava's time, we mention 
them with diffidence. They are the following: 

t9c (the act of weeping?), we (the act of diving?), eua^e* (?), 5n>C3^o > (?), 
ero9O(?), yuc:^ ( = en)^?), ^c?c3o (= (Otfdo ?), <oe^ (the act of rising?), ae.{?), .M^ 

not in 


X U *J 

Mr. Rice's Index), s&wsd (=s3p^^?), uc^ (the act of living?), U33 (=u^ 
z3cs^ (?), storio (=e3tfrt:>; the Index has tfcosS), do 8 (=23tf?), doo* (?), 

), doow (=300^, the state of being irritated?), ska* (=s3o<?P), 

234. It is a rule of the ancient dialect (and to some extent of the 
medieval one too, but which uses & instead of S^*) that a final d) 
becomes 3* when it euphonically joins a following consonant (see 215, 7, 
under a), e. g. 3do&^o becomes ^e 

,. (i 8 58. 


In the formation of the present-future participle a similar rule 
exists, e.g. djsdorf may become sjj^e^, r$Ja?cfcs3 ^JS^CJ , 

( 58. 183, 4). 

A similar change of d into CO^we find also in ^d ifcdoo = 


o^^/ 5 , (dative of ^3) = ^ 

235. The middle d in the Kannada words dod^, esCsj* (c/ 228) 
and o^do may become e>, ws. rfo^o*, ess;53*, <oe;23 s , in which case the 
final o*^may be changed into o*, viz. SJOOD*, wwo^, (oi^>D*). sl)^)23 6 
appears also as sjorao*, and in the mediaeval and modern dialect as 

236. Words in which it was customary at Kesava's time to use a half 
repha (r), are e.g. erutfoF, )3or, r!dr (=rl&2|, cf. 32 and 233), etc.; 
^), ^rior ( = 3eoo), -S-rtor (=*Mo), ^orlor ( = =^oSO^), etc.; 
, i?33)r, ^JS^jr, etc.; yrfro, ?JS)^FO, ^p^dro, etc.; eruartrv*, 

It will be observed that in some words &y had been given up in the 
common language of that time and F had taken its place, which 
peculiarity we found also in the participles <oci>F, 3oF, ssrfjF ( 160, i; 
see also 32, note; 239 regarding a kind of pra>a). The remaining 
words ('SI^F, etc.) present no irregularities. 



237. It is a peculiarity of the modern dialect that it changes a middle 
before a tf into v 6 , e.g. esd^o may become 55^, 


,, 5A)dos?o enitfo., 2d^j t*tfo,, ^do^o ^o., ^odj^o tfotfo. 

iL/' oJ' /' / 


rtodos? r!o#, Sdjtfo 3^, ?3d^o tftfo,, sjodo^o sjotfo,, sod^o sd^o,, 

V V TJ w 

238. In 33 it has been stated that when two consonants are 
produced in (about) the same place or by (about) the same organs, they 
are called ekasthani in grammar. The ekasthani letters are d and C5, 
d and &3, w and <$ (see 239). 

239. Grammars of the Kannada language are based chiefly on poetical 
standard works, because almost every thing of its literature was composed 
in verse in the three periods; it is, therefore, to be expected that they 
contain some terms connected with prosody (chandas) and the way of 
poetical composition (kavyamarga). 

Such terms employed by Kesava are sy^ (called also o&e)5l> or 
)C&>5i> by him), sJe^FS^^, cdo^o^, and dJ33J^. 

So>.?o in Kannada is an alliteration in which the second letter 

(generally a consonant with or without a vowel) of the first line of a 
stanza is set in the same place in every other line. 

sJcsaJFSl^ is an additional alliteration in which the prasa letter or 
a cognate one is set also in other places in the course of a stanza. 

oobo3J^ is the repeating or setting in opposition alliteratively in the 
same stanza of words or syllables different in meaning but similar in 
sound (paronomasia). 

dJ95j^ is metaphorical diction. 

Kesava, when introducing the first three terms, does so in order to 
show the proper use of the ekasthani letters d and 0, t> and ^, d and 
&3 ( 238) in them, presupposing that d and d, and CO, w and ^>, 
< and ^, d and d, C3 arid C3 form regular prasas, etc. 

He states that =5^ and =5^ ( 227. 228) form a right prasa, e.g. 

but that ^) and ^ tf cannot form a right one, e. g. 


as also ^) and &j<3 cannot do, e. g. 

Further d and G3 are wrong in prasa, e. g. 

as also ^ and J are wrong, e. g. 


Regarding varnavritti Kesava says that it is properly formed by d and 

and by cS and ec, e. ^. 

and also by e; and tf (the kula), e. g. 

dor, ^b5rfo, w)rfoc5o, =$tfdor ^^o^3^rtv | . (This 
half Kanda verse bears various shapes in the MSS.; its purpose, however, 
appears "clearly in the present reading.) 

Concerning the vamaka Kesava says that the employment of d and 
C3, & and tf (the kula), and d and &3 as letters of alliteration is wrong 
in it (as in the prasa), and in order to show this brings forward only 
the following anomalous instance: 

, remarking 


"herein the application of words is spoiled, and if for ^CSSctfoo ^8o3oo 
be read, no meaning is brought about; therefore there is not the 
characteristic^lakshana) of the yamaka". 

With regard to the prasa with &3 it is to be added (according to 
Kesava) that a double consonant formed by means of a half repha may 
be substituted for &3 (cf. 236), e. g. 


1 Qfi 

X ty \J 





The Sabdanusasana remarks that also c^ and ^ may be used as 
letters of alliteration in the prasa. 

Rupaka has been mentioned in 104 with regard to nouns, e.g. ta, 
which are of neuter gender, but receive another gender when they are 
used metaphorically. There is the following quotation concerning ^ 
in the Sabdanaanidarpana. 

and concerning fcsrfrf sJFrs there are the instances 

O Q 

240. Double consonants ( 20. 38) in prosody are sometimes "slack" 
(sithila), i. e. they have not the power of lengthening a preceding 
syllable. Such double consonants appear 

1, in the nominative plural and dative singular of nouns ending in 

e&. s* s , and e3, e.g 


A A A A A 

, j^^, ^sl^^, ^)rto^s? s , djorio^s'*; wdo^, 

s?, sjjorto^ ; 


. etc. 


Exceptions are formed by words with a long initial, e. g. 
d by some words with final v*, e.g. ^odov 
, though its initial is long, generally has a slack 

double consonant. 

2, in the conjugation of verbs ending in 0', <*, o*, and S3*, e. g. 

, 3rtoo, 

' ' 


o ' o' o 

o; , , , , , 

, , , , 

CO O O O ^5 /i *\ / 

oo, dj?ktfoo; 

Exceptions are formed by verbs with a long intial, e. g. wo*, (5^0*, 
; and by some verbs with final <^, e. g. Jd'p*, ^jativ 5 , in which the 
use of slackness is optional. 

3, in words ending in o and & the first syllable of which is 
short and which form the first member of a compound (sarnasa), 

&QF^J o, 

oJ ' 

(7/. 246, a. 

4, in some words in which it is inherent (sahaja). They are 
wadoOF^, y^orfoF, ^Z^F, rfdoFrt), waF^o. (ssarfooFl,, seems to 
belong to No. 3.) 

5, optionally in the dative plural of Samskrita and Kannada terms 
that are masculine or feminine, e. g. vx>3 driF, zooqiriF; ^e^crijTV, \^ 

"When, however, in their dative plural no "slackness" (sithilatva) is to occur, 
it is customarily indicated by doubling the rt of the dative in the ancient dialect, 
viz. warfsr^F, awi^r; ^^oioi^r, ^?cx5or^r; <o6dr^F; ^ja^oior^r (see 119, a, 
under dative). Cf. 371, 1. 


Some people have thought that in the elaborate prose composition called rtc^ 
which belongs to prosody (chandas) and frequently is found in poetry, it is 
allowed to treat a double letter with repha, c. </. '$, ^,, *^, as " slack " i. e. as not 
lengthening a preceding short syllable ; but this their thought is quite wrong 
according to Kesava. Cf. 241. 


241. In writing stanzas (pada) it is bad to leave no space between 
the different words unless they fall under the rules of sandhi (213 seq.). 
Thus one has to write: 


and not 20^ ctfo^dod^Jkd etc., in this case especially also because the 

>- "0" 

obscene word ^doz^o might be thought of in four places (cf. 215, 6, 
remark 3). 

Likewise one has to write: 

and not eoOro^^^do^o^OrO^OJo etc., as the prosodical length of the 
short-vowelled syllables A), <j and o3o results at once from the following 


double letters 3J., & and h (see 8 20) to an observing eye. Some use 

-~j o/ <p 

to write ^v ^ . wu i n is unnecessary. Cf. 240, remark. 

IX, On primitive nominal bases, 

242. Nominal bases (namalingas) or crude nouns in general have 
been mentioned in 68, 4. As slightly indicated there under No. b 
by Kesava's introducing the compounds (samasas) t3o30e>3jd, 3^ 3 r\e)ej, 
etc., they finally include also all the other true declinable bases, viz. 
taddhita, samasa, sarvanama, gunavacana, sankhye and krit, which in 
fact are nothing but nominal bases or nouns in their crude state. 

In 100 a number of crude nouns has been given that are identical 
with verbal themes (nijadhatu). Such are, therefore, primitive nominal 
bases without any suffixes (taddhitas or taddhitapratyayas) and also the 
simplest bhavavacanas or verbal nouns (cf. 243). 

Another primitive nominal base, that is a mere verbal theme, is still 
to be adduced, viz- the ancient s3pe3* 5 which has also the forms 5^>o*, 
z3Je>G*, e3J3e^, 'likeness', 'equivalence'. In the mediaeval dialect its 
forms are ^p?o*, 5^>j*, s^soj, t^, i*!*, 2o>o; in the modern one it has 

remained as k^x), 'equivalence': 'bail', etc. Its original form was 
ojjp^o* (aJ3^*, SoJS^J); the change of sj into s3 or to was done, because 
it was originally mostly used as the second member of a compound (see 
215, 7, a. &); for the omission of 3 see Dictionary under &, 1 and t> 1. 
In rendering it into English its meaning often becomes 'like', 'as', etc. 
In the ancient dialect dp?* or 4?>* is frequently preceded by & 
which is nearly identical in meaning, so that the forms become SS^^a^, 
eSr^sSpeTS "without the fault of tautology'' (punarukti) according to 
Kesava, its meaning remaining the same, viz. 'as', 'like', etc. eSja^o*, 
t3j3e3* are used only in compounds, when they are always preceded by a 
euphonic sonne. 

Kesava quotes the following instances to elucidate the use of 



The Sabdanusasana has the following additional instances: 

Other bhfivavucanas or verbal nouns formed, without taddhita suffixes 
( 243), by a mere change in the verbal theme are tfeJ, S3e)U, 
^^>^, 23e^, s33)kJ, etc. (of w^o, 53-3^0, etc.; see 58), 3z&, 
(of -a^o, etc.; see 101), tferio, ii^o (of *to, etc.; see 101). 


(f tfozi}, etc.; see 101). These may perhaps be classed 
with the primitive nominal bases; but others are apparently not found 
in Kannada. 

X, On secondary nominal bases, 

243. Taddhitalingas or taddhitas have been referred to in 68, 2; 
99. 100. 102, s,/. They are secondary nominal bases or nouns, as they 
are formed by means of suffixes (taddhita, taddhitapratyaya) from nouns 
and verbs. 

When neuters and derived from verbs, they express the abstract 
notion (bhava) of a verb either as to state or action, i. e. are bhavavacanas 
or verbal nouns; when neuters and formed from nouns, they have a 
similar character. [About bhavavacanas in general see 100 
etc.); 188 (eWo*, e3&3>o 3 etc.); 194, remark (erorao.); 198 
etc.); 200 i. 3 (tfozfcs^do, ao^orfrfo, etc.); 203.204 (atfoo, 
etc.); 205, i, c (gj^zfc, etc.); 205, i, d (floSo, etc.); 242; 254, remarks 
i and 2 (o&3&3^ck, sjjsdcjrfj, etc.); 298, 3 (wcjoae;, atfosjaw } etc.); 
cf. 316, 2.] 

A. The chief suffixes for forming neuters are: 

1, W, e. g, wco, rty, aetf, ?ray, &eo (of the verbs wa s , etc.; see 100). 

2, oi, e. g. ^B,, *ae3, rfrt (of the verbs tf&b., *o*, 3rfo ; see 100), and 
(by altering the vowel of the theme) ^e 3 , i 3 , cSe3, 23e3 (of the verbs **, etc. ; 
see 101). 

3, ysSo, e. ^. awsSJ, ^cdd3 (of the verbs wa^, so*). 

4, 54, e. ^. siti^, 2-04 ^^4 rto^, ->4 ?Jti^, uo^, 7^0^ (of the verbs 
rgo*, i& t 3&, etc.). 

5, ^=1, e.^. wo5j^, wd^^, 3j^S^, 20^^^, ^jarfA^ (of the nouns yoi>3, 
etc.). The Sabdanusasana has ?3UA^, ridj^^, ^doOTf, d^, sae^ ( O f t?eJ?^, etc.), 
^^5363'^, LeSsses'^, ^o^orraes 5 ^ 20s?nje3'^ ( O f ^^5363, etc.). In another place it 
adduces os3^, ^^, ^^^ N^^, sgp?^ (of the verbs esoao, etc.), &31&3, i0^, 

^, ?3?S^, addQ^ ( O f the verbs w^^J, etc.), 
( O f the verbs w^o, etc.). 
Keiava says that ^$3 (of verb ^5*), ^p^# (of sdP^), 33$$ (of sciv*) in 
which ^ has been sufi&xed to verbs ending in consonants, are wrong (dosha; 
sec under ^); consequently the Sabdanusasana's ^^^ (of o ff , under sutra 568) 
would also be wrong according to him. 

Instead of ^ also ^T?, occurs, e. g. in 

-L. *J 


0, Qft, e. g. 33Wrt, saSrt, 233rt, SJSts-rS, SjJSfirt (of the verbs 37, etc.), 
and 3(Jrt (of the verb S&s*). This is only in Sabdanusasana, sutra 565. 

7, si?aj ) e.g. erofSrio, Sarfo (of the verbs w s , etc.; Sabdanusasana, sutra 

8, eruSjj, e. <7. 3^03,) ( O f t ho noun 35^). The Sabdanusasana's sutra 572 
seems to refer to this suffix when it teaches that 3a\>r;3o and JJS^rdj are derived 
from the verbs ^o* and UD f by means of SAJ^J an j the insertion of ^- This 
sutra might have taken notice of ^*->r, zotfjr, verbal nouns which are used lor 
the third person ( 203. 204), to which the suffix ea>3j would have been 

9, f?, e. g. eructotf ( o f the verb swcfc), rfcfctf (from the verb cSdorfo, the final 
rto having been dropped; c/". No. 16). 

10, =$, e. g. 53 s|, s&e|, JjsssV, 3d<^ ( O f the verbs 5ara*, etc.), zb&3, 
(of the verbs 3j<3, adfi). The Sabdanusasana has no 308^, aS3#, but adds 

(of the verbs tfofc*, etc.), |. ^^ s5^ wa^, A?^ ( O f w?3*, etc.), 
^Jsce^, ^Ji^, 3od<^ (of N?<D*, etc.), 5Q^r, ogpra^r, 23Q^r, ?3a^r ( O f 
etc.), en) 8^, sJ^, SJ3?* (of 2A)E5, etc.), -^es^^ (of -S-eao = -S-W), Sco^ (of aaj = 
# (of S&IKO = s&e) 5 ), e>c3', enjc^ ( O f c3 f , etc.), ^, A^>^ ( O f wv*, etc.), 

(of issw^, etc.). 
Compare the termination ^ of the imperative in 205. 

11, rtov, e. </. jSaoij^v* (beating, of the verb s&ofc*) uoJoo^ (of 
This suffix is given only in the Sabdanusasana. 

12, f\, e.g. ea)d>rt, sifs^rt, rf^rt, sb?l>r?, 23?oort (of the verbs SAJ^J, etc.), 
(of 5^o s ), to which the Sabdanusasana adds wrtirt, osfcrrt (for wcwrt 

o^-irt, ^odj^rt, i^o^rt, rfao^rt (of z&, etc.), 02^, 83tf, ?o3 ( O f O'J f , etc.). 

Compare the termination ft of the imperative in 205. 

13, 3, e. g. w93, eroesi, ^Q^ (of the verbs oa 9 , etc.), oir( f ^6^ = 000), 
(of 3^et)^= ^jsesi), a^ ( = oes^ of ^ss->), ^^ ( = i-rfo^ of i^0), to which the 

Sabdanusasana adds ^^, ^^, ^30^, ^oi^, rtoi^, ^JaoJ^, ssaoJj., sboJ^ ( o f *, ^5^, 
etc.), <3A, ^es 3 ^, ^orf^, ^0^, z3A^, JlifSo, siJOA^, ^oos^, TJjft^, i.^ (the act of 
loving, of k, which is different from Kesava's $3). 

14, ^rf, e. g. w^rf (of the verb or noun wv) f or^irf, *C^rf, sJra j, ^>do^rf 
(of the nouns <o^, etc.). The Sabdanusasana adduces ^tfoi>3rf, d^^N, ojy^rf (of 
the nouns ^s?o3j, etc.), rid^^, rfj3"#^?i ( O f the tadbhavas TldS, etc.). Krs : p u adtl- 
that ^^ is not suffixed to Samskrita nouns, and e. g. t?3 536^33 is wrong (" uc ^); 
the Sabdanusiisaua (sutras 430 seq.~), however, expressly teaches how to form 

15, J, e. </. on'c^, artc^, sSprtc^, sJoorfj^ ( O f the verbs rfcs 4 , etc.), 
(of erurto, etc.), (a^, of the verb R* 3 )- 



16, 3J, e.g.*& 

2033, ^6.3 (of the verbs 3rt, etc.), ^oasJ, ajQJi, 3<?3tf (of the verbs ska, etc.), 
(of the verb 3-tf). This suffix and the instances (except ^33 which is 
used also in the Sabdamanidarpana) are mentioned only in the Sabdanusasana. 
We adduce still (from the Dictionary) 2033, jjesrf ( O f 206, 2Jes 3 ) in which the final 
<o of the verbal theme has been dropped (cf. 60 and the ># above), 
and 333 (of *tfrti = la<ifc), d ( O f Sdrio) i n which the final rto is dropped 
(cf. 211, ?; see under No. 18, a). 
Compare the suffix &> 

17, &, e. g. tfO, &3?so (of the verbs *o*, <3J8cS*). 

18a, SJ, e.g. 3*3a$ (of the verb 3i), ijse^r, dJa^r (of the verbs 
3J563*), rfdsS (of the verb 3$), ^J^) (of the noun ?rdo), ^rej, rf^ra^, 2Ji>^ 
(of the nouns ^BB*, etc.), ^^)r, ^So^ (of the nouns tfr, 3& ), ^JBsJ-, j33iF (of the 
nouns stoF, ;3F), 2-% i^ ( O f the nouns w s , $&), zStfo (of the noun av* =; z3v*), 
sj^o^r (of the verb s^JO 5 ), z3sJo^ (of the noun 3rfj), L$, ^>4, s3J?4 (of the 
verbs i, etc.). s^so^ comes from the noun 5)8- The Sabdanusasana adds that 
s5p^4 is to be derived from the verb $5p^rto; likewise there are i-0^4, >oeOod) (of 
the verbs ^.s^rfo, Soeaj^, se e under No. 16). Cf. 185. Could ftoaw be a 
formation of ^wrto, the rt-> being dropped? 

Compare the suffix ^o. 

18&, (S^o, e. cj. s&dso, of the verb 5^3). 

1 8 c, ( sjjj, e. g. seWg of a verb ^^ ? ; ^jjoo & O f the noun ^ y )- 

19, s3o, e.g. z-^, ^^, u^ ( O f the verbs ^o , etc.), ^JadiF (of the verb 
STJSO*), SJ^OF (of the noun 33F), ^dodo, d^oS^ (of the nouns ^^J, etc.), S3SS & (of the 
noun 233^). 

Compare the use of this suffix for the numerals in 279. 

The curious form fcs9oi>;3o is found e. g. in Candraprabha 4, 2; Abhinava- 
pampa 7, after 11 ; 8, 45; 11, 54. It is quite possible that its meaning is 'the 
not knowing', 'absence of knowledge'. If thus, it would have been formed from 
eesoJo, yet to know, t. e. not to know (see e. g. 170. 171) and 3j, so that it 
would be a negative noun. Cf. the noun ^^3 under No. 25. The meaning 
given to 553oiodo in the Dictionary is possibly wrong. 

20, (>, e. g. I S)3^3, rfrwd, ao^a^od; of the verbs '9^, etc.; cf. a$). 

21, (rfrSfl, e. 0. 3a3rfr5, Sabdamanidarpana pp. 219. 387, Jfceddrt, 
mediaeval and modern dialect, of the verbs c3es* and sSoa 8 - Regarding the 
dropping of the <o see under 3. Cf. drfrl and ^ri under 5). 

22, rf^, e. g. tit9 (of the verb *&), 3$3$, rfo3d? (of rfd, etc.). 

23, 3, B. .9. ^Ja0, 20^^ (of the verbs AaesP, utf), as^^. Observe that in 

the final <o of the verbal theme is dropped; cf. 60. 


24, 4, * 9- "^ ecy ^> wo-i, **3. *k>'3>, ^3), ^w3, *kw3 (of the verbs 
eess, etc.); -add, *atf, *si, c3a3), sfcad, *<3) (of the verbs >, etc.); ^4 (?), 
3jtf3> (or ^u3>? see 233); -*<d, c3-e?3>, ?ra^ (of the verbs *, etc.). Observe 
that in <od4, ^ws^, etc. tho <o of the verbal theme has been dropped; cf. 60. 
See 185. 

A few nouns ending either in ^ or & are given in 96. 

25, 3, e. g. *d, sjod (of the verbs *e#, etc.), d (?), otfd (? . r. )**). 
Observe that in 33, 3:a3 the final <o of the verbal theme has been dropped; cf. 

'9%3> the state of being not, may be compared with wa'okdJ under No. 19. 

26, TJO, e.g. rfwsTi). Soo??io (of the verbs siJJ, etc.); *S;&, 23<^?iJ; ^pt?ij 
(of the noun 3pe3). Observe that in tf?i) (of the verb tftf) the final o of the 
verbal theme has been dropped; cf. 60. 

27, 3o (c/. d), P. ^. ras$, si^ai, ^d3d, 2Jda6 (of the verbs o, "Sl^, rfi, u3). 
Observe that in rf^, wd^ the <o of the verbal theme has been dropped; cf. 60. 

Compare the suffix si. 

28, 3oo, e. g. 53odo, w?adj, do?gdo ( O f the verbs ^3, etc.). 
Compare the suffix $. 

These and others are the suffixes for forming neuter nouns (Keiava says). 


a) Kelava states that some taddhitalingas end also in 5TO, and gives the 
instances yurio, ario, oorto, a^go, ^odo, rioao. Their suffixes (taddhitas) are 

A A A K 

not adduced by him. fvn^ may belong to the primitive nominal bases ( 242); 
*rf^ may be connected with AS, perplexity; 3rio^ seems to be another form of 
iesrt<>, the quality of a simpleton; ^3o may be *^ and wtij (j=?nj5), 'ear- 
breakage'; ^o^j is o and ^J (=^); rto&so is nots' ( = ^oe3)) and &" 

6) Other taddhita nouns are &^ (5j^ + di) or 2o^ and ^wrfo^ (^ojjy" f d). 
They optionally take the form of Acfc, (is* + *)) and doo^ (dA>3*^iJ, see 122). 
Their final sru may become A in which case they appear as &<| (2Q?|), 

The same change of final sro into <o may take place also in the taddhita 
nouns ktfrto (, ^tfrtj (^tf + rto), sSorto (33+rto), ^p 
), in which case they become 

/?. The chief suffixes for forming masculines, feminines, (epicenes and 
neuters) are 

1, S$iM (y&J-f3ri, a player, a man who busies himself with, one who is 
occupied with), e.g. i^sJ^rt, 3ai3rt, 

e . g. , ssar . r. 



4, 5050^) ( = WC&)y), e, g. 3M3?ooDoeJ, ^ oWs;, 3Jdc&>i>. This is only in the 
Sabdanusasana. See ^JStraoD.)?; in Dictionary. 

5, WCXJ^, e. g. t5t^93cb, ^donsoi^, Srosoi^, d^tf^cfo, ri-fSKpaoi^. It 
occurs also as wol>3, yco3; see Dictionary. The Sabdanusasana adds W3A<D3o^, 
edroosod^, and says that the suffix means ' superintendent ', ' controller ' (adhikrita). 

6, WoSoo ( = cooe;), e. g. tsc33 coy, !>233cOjy, sp'JS^aoD.xjj, s^naroDosj ( . r. 
^n^oSow), 6?aJ3oDow. It has also the form of wo^ (see Dictionary), and is used 
for Kannada and Sarhskrita nouns. In the Sabdamanidarpana p. 30 s^-e^s 
cow appears as tadbbava of 3^'JS ?&3d,E d. 

7, tJ (another form of ^^, 'that moves, plays, performs', etc.; see 
Dictionary), e.g. ae^sS, S-nsS, ^tS3<S>. fcsjsro-s, sid^S, (o. r. 30^533$), ^rasas?, 
Steps'!?, Ans^?. It forms epicene nouns which occasionally are used also as 
neuters, e. g. kcraS ^o, i-roS -^s^, Lro3 ^do. 

8, 'a (a feminine suffix added to wri, etc.), e. g. 33<^A (33KOA), 
, z3diA, rfjs^on (c/. Nos. 16. n. 28); s^orirf, a&>3cS, Tj^rortodo 

, ^oorfo-3-; tfjavso^, ad^osoo^; odA;_( a masculine and neuter suffix) e.g. 
C (see No. 266); (an epicene suffix) e.g. 

9, <^ : o ! , e. g. v&3, ^Ds^, dA^ ( . r. 2oAi^), wsa^. The Sabdanusasana has 
NASr, 13333^. it refers a^ to suffix ^, teaching that it is formed of 

which drops its final syllable; see No. 24. 

10, ^ri, e. # s^rf, ^J3?^rt, ?ods^rt, Aonort, sj^ss 
ri^rt, djaAri, ^^Drt; ts^art, ^3^or<, s'dgo^ri ( . r. 

(o. r. ^raOri), s^An; 2J3?oDoar>, d-^rf, ^pys^r!; ?rart, adoArl; - j3?riort, 

The Sabdanusasana has the following series: 

^^r(; rfSTi 
3 s rt, e3-5\rt, 33A rf, 

' * 

?ooo-3-rt, wsArf, c:^5ri, jfjso^ori^-^ojsort, s'ooosarf, z-^Qrt, 233 art, 

11, 'S.^, e.g. 3y9^, ^j5C3^. The Sabdanusasana has s^fial l n some 
instances a preceding vowel is shortened, e. g. ^ooS^ (for ^syjse^). The 
Sabdanusasana adduces also ^#0,9^ (for a-^3^), ^ot)o5^ (for 

(for W3S^), ^^ (for ^s^), ^dgde^ (for ?rdS3S^). 

12, 'Sj (a feminine suffix added to *3|rt, etc.), e. ^. 
W^ESA^, ^^(SAIs, d^A^, e3?3S3*Als, SJo^SJAS. ^> AS ?55) AS, 

l <o ' J 

The Sabdanusasana has also 


Occasionally ^ is suffixed to simple Kannada nouns, c. g. 
or to tadbhavas, e. g. a>^7J30lt 


O.a, or to secondary forms of tadbhavas, e.g. ^So^S, tfoao^A, or also to 
Sarhskrita nouns, e. g. ^<&>S, rf,5S*, aa^d*. 

13 a, '&>, e. #. 3ft3 c&jy, ^tfoDjy (?>, sdosow, nasw, 32^0. (Cf. eoooo 

13k ^t> (a negative form of ^o 5 ), e.g. Z03ru. cy. 209, note J, 
and No. 14. 

14, '3, (a negative form of *$&, used for masculines, feminines and 
neuters), e. g. a/IOC, 9^ <D, ^jaOO, 33^6, tftfnC. 

15, ero^, e. . wraji^, tfifoar, ^sdo^, ^SJoiSr, are:^, ^arfj^, ^re^tf. The 
Sabdanusasana has also 

16, eA)r<, e.g. 

The Sabdanusasana has also *w,r<, odotfort, sa^ort 
Cf. No. 8. 

17, Ajh (a feminine suffix), e.g. sa<fcA (33MJA), 
This is only in the Sabdanusasana. Cf. No. 8. 

18, enjr3 (of verb eross*, a masculine, feminine and neuter suffix), . g. 

orf. The Sabdanusasana adds 55dt>jrf, wudjrf, idwirf, 
, eorao rf. 


19, n)S?rf ( = en>cyrt), e . g. deirf, dora^rt. The Sabdanusasana has also 


20, ?A)^,, which is the present participle of wv (see 180, remark 
after 6 ; 215, s, 6), and by adding the suffixes eo, *, enjrfj, (W^rfo, wd^o, ed)> 
may be used to form masculines, ferninines and neuters (see 185. 186). 
Kesava's instances are all of the masculine gender, viz. 

?3N,3oo^o, Tiiradjo^o, Lcio^o, J&5doos^o. See 273. 

21, eroto'rt (= en)ri; cf. A^?rt in Dictionary?), e. g. 

22, oi (a feminine suffix ; c/. 74), e. g. ^3, &acJ, 333^, A^rt. The 
Sabdanusasana adds <or, ^ , ^JJ, i?33, ui, z3, &fi, sioo, dootl, wrt. 

23, ZwdoJo (a noun of the masculine gender preceded by the genitive), e. g. 

7?js^o3jadojj, 2srid.Qi33Jj, S33e?.ed5oj), jSu^jaclaJo (Mdb. 
See 215, 5, 4. Its feminine is *-d3. 

24, : 3 i , e. g. &&&, z-ras', -S-do^, ^J3s?r (^o^ ?), 

(o. r. wtf*). The Sabdanusasana has ^0^ ( 8e e under r 9 

25, 5)S5, e. </. 'siiSSiO, ^oioo_53e3, rtKSsjes, rfrt^ss, srac^rao, Urtvses, 

, 23?3oJ53is, ktf^a^a, ^rt^?^3C3 (o. r. Nrtsia^r*). The Sabdanusasana has 

ri^jo, ^oasses, Sojfaj wes, dJ3?7j?3e3. (y. No. '-9. 
26 a, ^oiJrl, e. g. tfo^Urt, tfaSrfoMrt, jattforUrt, dod^Wrt. The Sabdanu- 
sasana makes it rto&Sri (according to the sandhi rule in $ 215, 7, a) in the 
following words: #ol>o63rt, nwSrto&Srt, cs 


26 i, &J&. It is used with the application of the saudhi rule in 215, 7, a. 
See No. 8. 

27, ^JS? ( ~ rtj$, a masculine, feminine and neuter suffix 5 probably of 
3\>v* = ^J39 5 , to seize, etc.), e. #. l^oSrJs?, t?oJj 

The Sabdanusasana has also c&3to, yco^s?, SJaoo^ (see $ 58), sa 

28, ri, <?. #. -o^rt, s^rf, rfdArt. tfQrf, w.e3.>rt, tfjs^rf, dra^rt, ?o&3rt. See 
under No. 8. The Sabdanusasana adduces also 

29, rTe>&3 ( = ^3i with the application of the sandhi rule in 215, 7, a), 
e.g. ^aSnaea, rtsinae, zjtfnas, 3of3na, dra^nsa. 

When nsea is preceded by sru, a euphonic sonne is put after the w, -e. g. 
wwTooonDea, lodjcnses, ajsdoortses, sss^onses, or the AJ may be dropped, e. g. &otf 
njes (for ^o^onsa). 

^^and ^o^Jj drop the ns of n33, so that they become ^do^a, ^os^es. 

30, rio^ 1 ( = ^J*, with the application of the sandhi rule in 215, 7, a, 
preceded by a euphonic sonne), e. g. wfcJoitiS, 2ro^ortJ? ( . r. ^o^ortj*), sjreorbs, 
oorforto*. ?J30or!o?. The Sabdanusasana has also ^acrfM *, sJrso . 

31, S (a feminine suffix), e. y. Jd3, ^es^, r^ra^, ?Jd^, ^pud (with the elision 
of finals); s3ra^, ^cSS, 333sr^, ^&3.g; Sr^io^i, ?rOdo,33 (see under No. 29); wy^^r, 

'~d fiu^t*J^ ' ' 

rra<a53^F, rfrtss^r, rfoQ^sSr, w^^aaF, 23^^>r ( O f wy5;a, etc., with the elision 
of final ); t-es'ns^F, ^O^TO^F, zsDuns^F, J323onD^r, zjs?rn>3F, 

(of ^e3 3 nce3, etc., with the elision of final 

^d (of 55drfd^, etc., with the elision of final ). 

32, (a, =S, e. g. 3$S, ^poO, with the dropping of final i). 

33, dl3rt, e. ^. rtds^rt, rtC3aMrt, srtrttri. This suffix is only in the 
Sabdanusasana. (Regarding rtd3&3ri it says rtd 

34, rfart, e. g. s'oo^rfan, ^w dSri. The Sabdanusasana has 

35, 5Jrf, e. ^. 

36, sjjd , e.g. fcrid^ (o. r. aoj^rf.), A03^, aojs^d^ ( . r. 
See 215, 6^i. 

37, d^, e. 0. 

38, 3*3 (= a* 1 ), tf . ^r. ec^dtf., wdJd^, etc. < 

These and others are the suffixes for forming masculine, feminine (and 
neuter) nouns (Kosava says). 

The taddhita nouns mentioned under letters A and B are more or less used 
in the three dialects. 



According to 115 (cf. 249) masculine nominal bases are frequently 
formed by the addition of the suffixes J, he, and o, the grammatical sign of the 
nominative, to the genitive. Kosava adduces the following additional instances: 
usudo (uyd-f +o), a man of the right, Sotfreo (So^rao-W + o), a man of the south, 
udrireo, srfriJdreo, docrtrao, ^tfrtreo, rfdosreo, z-tfrireo, sgpwrtra 
w + o, see 139), ^okreo, <ooi>reo, tfcSofcreo (see $ 139), 
o + o), fc^reo, ss^reo, ^reo. 

The feminine forms in the ancient dialect are SoV&v 6 (io&n+ssv 6 ), a woman 
of the south, zodrtrav", Nriodrev*, 3rCoi)rev. J n the modern dialect 3 (33^) 
and 3tfo are added to the genitive, e. g. ioSrred (Soarrsask), a man of the south, 
^c3oi>3, ktfnrfS, aoj^cte, a^otoi; s'zlojjdtfo, a woman of the side, etc. 

A strange form, however, appears, when in the ancient dialect ci and o are 
suffixed to %, -gC, eruC, and )0, vJ2. w ^,^o, a man of that place, ^^c, 
a man of this place, eweD^do, a man of this intermediate place, ^^,^. a man of 
what place, <?. g. 

A d and o are found in the attributive nouns ^*,do, stoo^do, 

Cdc ( 273. 274. 276). 

How is the do in ^^,do, etc. to be explained? Let us take the corresponding 
modern form w^oJoSrfo, a man of that place, as our guide. It is composed of 
, that place, ois*, a euphonic letter to connect the of the genitive with the 
crude base of the noun ( 109 under genitive; 130; 141, remark under dative), 
w, the termination of the genitive, 3, he, and ?k, the grammatical sign of the 
nominative ( 114). It is evident that the o* in ^eS^ j g a substitute for the 
euphonic vb 6 in yeoi>3NJ, which connects the & of the genitive with 53^,, so that 
esOd (for ^>,ak) is obtained, to which , he, and o. the grammatical sign of the 
nominative, are suffixed. (See under fc^do in 276.) 

The feminine forms of *2,d, etc. are dv*, S|0d9 s , en>C dv* f ^0 dv 5 . 

XL On compound bases, 

244. Compound bases (samfisuliugas) have been mentioned in cj (IS, s; 
102. 8, d; 215, 7, a seq. "When (two or more) nominal bases (etc.) seek 
for a meaning (directly, without intermediate augments and terminations) 
as a calf does for the close union of its mother, a compound is produced'', 
says. In such a case intervening augments (Agamas) and tcnni- 


nations (vibhaktis) are elided, e. g. |j3"3oJj (i. e. 

becomes &GS 3 si535g), Jjazloij 33, IJS^^^,, ^sloio 

O 1 TJ 

w^3oo sjj)^oeje;2do, 3J33C3 % tfJSSSosJ^ ( 278, i), 
^,0 Jo^sj^o (cf. 215, 7, &), and also substitutes (adesas) are 
introduced, e. g. 3o0 & a becomes sSo^a ( 247, 11). t?tfr\s ^J33oo. 
tfi^Arfj^ ( 246, 6), ^ 9 cSo OS ^os^a ( 247, is), ^^j sSjsd^' SosSjar 
c5-j* ( 248, i), ^dck ^oos;* 'adoroi: 4 ( 248, 2). 

Compounds are used more or less in tbe three dialects; about the 
extent of their use in each dialect the Dictionary is to be consulted. 

The rules about euphonic junction (sandhi) in 215, 7, a seq. are 
to be remembered. 

245. First there are six compounds in Kannada which are also in 
Samskrita, viz. 3^> dossi, tfSjorqraCcdo, arto, W2oj>^oo, 3 , and yslo5J3 

<3 ^~^ j o3 

spud. About three other Kannada compounds see 253. 

246. The first Kannada compound is 33j do^. It is called so, 
because the leading instance of this class in Samskrita is tatpurusha, 
'the servant of him', indicating that the last word 'purusha' governs 
the preceding one 'tat', requiring in this case (and in Kannada, it may 
be said, generally) the genitive. Cf. 253, 2. 

a) Instances in which the first member of the compound is unaltered, 
are: iJS&^slras^, a mango of a river (i.e. a mango grown near a river), 
, a word of inferiority, sjjs^odo, a tree of the mango, 

, e5??orlira. 


.. .^, ^, 

M* . O eo 

, , , 

tJ o) nl 


In such compounds a double letter may appear after a repha (F), 

e.g. ^h FSoJ (for ^e^F^j), ewas3?r), ^?s^F^?S, ^DTT^F^. See 
r\ j IT j j ** 


Also where there is no compound such a doubling happens, e.g. 

dative). See 371, 4. 


6) Instances in which the first member loses its last syllable, or a homo- 
geneous letter (uditakshara) together with elision is introduced, or a 

homogeneous letter without elision comes in, arc fco^j^fi ( = 2otfrb or 


, or $ orrsS = otf or 

wddorS (=yrf^oor ssdAo^ ); i;3o^o* (i.e 

Or 3o3to <0^0 S ), CTSortaa ( = C3e>r3^ Or 

or rfjeO^ 53333*), wortvistfrti ( = t?4 or 

or 3j tfrl a&^jSrfjoi =^^rto or _ 

or ^^rtre ), -^^o; w^orto^ (i.e 

(i.e tj5\ 
(i.e. tiU+O-^JBoiJA, which finally is= 

^ 1* 


(see 234). 

Observe that there is no sandhi when 1*$ and ^jG5 are followed by 

a vowel, e.g. ^ esU.o, ^{8&3 5^; see 215, 6, z. 

247. The second compound is tfo3JFq3o>da>. Kesava says that 
"when the (two members of a) tatpurusha are in the same relationship 
(ekasraya), it is a karmadharaya ". That is to say, in a karmadharaya 
the component words stand in the same case (as two nouns in apposition), 
the first word being but the predicate of the second one or expressing a 
peculiar quality of it. Kesava elucidates this by saying that 
means y^d^si =5^, an eye that is like a flower. Cf. 253, 2. 

a) Instances in which the first word remains unaltered, are: sJ 
rra^o, a burning-wild (a wild where corpses are burnt), ^orkdC^ 4 , boiling- 
rice (rice that has been boiled), ^j^jrl?^, an opening-eye (an eye that is 


6) Instances in which a euphonic sonne is inserted after the first word, 

9 , vu^oF, v , 

Q C3 O CJ 





Jja^JSSXef, 33s>5305& S 
U ,' tO 

.. Je>etfo, ^&f)ooti5JNo, eSeJo^ja.&S 3 (here: 

6J ^j W W 

a hill-like load), c3^j,rfe3, 3c>e3j;jO N &3 9 , w^siiaka* tftf.ortrid, 

do ' O & to v 

c) Instances in which an en) is put before that sonne, are: k 
(^+^ra+o ). ( a&3 9 odijs3JS,e*3o B . Of. 23tfj,rfj.& under d, No. 23. 

/' tO - V tO W 

d) Instances in which substitutes (cf. 273. 277) are used. In them 

1, 3je3rto becomes s5^ or &tio, e . g. sj^rioft 5 O r sj^ortoij 5 , s5c^de3 or $3 3 
(o/.251) 5 

2, <o% retains its form or becomes ^3 (c/. 266), e. g. ^s^^acxJjro or 

o or oo^d^o, oO^^^o or <oo^^^o, <ou^)dj^o 5 " or 

^3cS OJJO 5 or ^^3 ^3^ OJOD e ; 

ro _ 

3, ^oao^ becomes s&a, e. 

4, Us&S becomes 20^, e. gf. ZJ^^^O; e>d^J 3d, e . g. esdcSees^, a kingly Eugenia 
jambolana tree (c/ 1 . 246 under b about 53d30(3) 5 

5, $J<u d) appears as ^3^, sto:i> as sJcs, ^prf^j as $3?o ? <o^do as ^*, e. g. sypeJ, 
sSjsrto, sicartc^do, ^p^sdia, dtfsSe'; (if ^prf, sico an d i^are followed by a vowel, there 
is no sandhi; see 215, 6, z); 

6, 2J^^o appears as 2^, 23fe|^o as s5^ (c/. No. 21), cd^^o as dUj, e. ^. 
uWdjail, eSU^TJrt, dy.d.; 

&3 eJ &J V 

7, ^^j appears as ^9 ff , ^<?^ as ^s? 6 ', W9 ^o as wa*, ^jsD ^j as doo ? , e. g. 

Jtfctooo, W.Ae* ^^ rf,c^o ej^oQ, umrtov 6 ' 
a^'eJ n<* < * e ' 

(c/. No. 11) ; 

8, z3^^o appears as >&*, 3$& as ^s, oo a $ ira, ^?;o as 

*. etc.), e. <;. 23raJ3f3, e3fSjs es 3 , ^csjoso 5 , ^sJ3 do 6 ", ^ora R, rforado, 'g^oo^, 
/' 9 n * ' . tj & a ' ta w 

iort^^, 'go^do ( C /. No. 10. 11) ; 

9, Ij9d3, before consonants, appears as *>&, ^do as $v 5 (cf. Nos. 10. n), 
e. g. Sj^Jsrd, sS^rdo, sS^jar^o, z3^ortv s , z3tfo & Ao*, 23^^, zS^oJoo*, a3tf 0; 

10, &0do, before vowels, appears as siko*, e . ^. SjDDcS, sjdds, rf^JSfl^o*, 
3j?dQ, ^?6j^o ff ; (regarding ^ of ^S^o, see No. 8, it is to be remarked that 
before consonants it may appear also as &&, e. g. ^oz^do, 

11, si?*, &*, ^ s , (^v f , see No. 23), rfora y , uo*, s3s? s , s!oo s (see Nos. 7.8.9) 
and 53^ ? , 5jg s take dvirbhava, i. e. double their final before a vowel, c. g. 



12, ^Qrf->, before vowels, appears as ^ ff , S><Sdo as S^, rf^s^ as tf&J*, the 
final &>* being doubled, e.^. ^^. ^oi)o, tffa^^, ^^^^ ^^ 


13, e9do, before vowels, appears as s* and a*os (cf. 151, 6, 2; No. 14), 
the final 3 s being doubled, e. g. -3-^Q, ^tf, -^riv*, a^Q, tfo^v*, a'o^io; 

14, Brfido, before consonants, appears as ^J, ^Qdj as ftdo, ^rfj^i as 

2oojrloi3 5 ; $;do appears also as S^i e. g. 

15, dd3, ^z^^, z3^f3 appear as So, tfo, ^o ( c /. 251), <r. y. 
rfPo*. ^crt9, ^orts 8 , ??ortoe, T?o?tod, ^o^^, ^rf?o^, ^dj,8., 

Q & tJ eu 


16, ^fS appears also as aSo, e. ^. 



17, ^c3, before vowels, appears as ^?*i (^trf), e.g. ^??j 

18, tftf <3, 23d j3 appear also as *?i), ^^, e. ^. $ibrtt$r\&, -J^orto 5 , 

19 s>t3 cS, before vowels, appears also as ^J (3Jtsf),e.. 

lo to tor . v .. . 

20, ^^^ appears also as *j?to followed by a euphonic sonne, e. ^r. 

21, 2361^0 (see No. 6) appears also as tfew, e. ^. 23ew^poiw, 

22, ^Jsoa^o appears as &J&, e. g 


, 239*, 3e (see No. H) may be followed by a euphonic en>o, e. g. 

248. The third compound is Q rtj, i. e. (worth) two cows, this word 


being in Saiiiskrita an example after which this whole class of compounds 
is called. Kesava says that "when (the last word of) a tatpurusha is 
s.-u'ikhyfipurvaka, i. e. preceded by a numeral, it becomes a dvigu". The 
numeral is the predicate of the noun which follows. Also ^w^j and 
3j^>^) are reckoned among the numerals (cf. 90; 278, 4). 

Substitutive forms are often employed in dvigus, especially in the 
ancient dialect: 

1, 2*3^ often appears as a-o*, e.g. 2-rforQ (for 2-^ rfoQ), a-^d (for 
, 2oi!JSFde^, 2-&r, 2-^jF^, and as io* before vowels, e. g. 
. Sec 278, 1 and Dictionary under 2-^* 1. 

2, <odcoo often appears as -ida 5 ( c /. 215, 7, a; 234), c. ^r. 

, .oti^do, Bjdwsew, or as 'lO 5 , c. g 

or as ^o* before vowels, e. g. ^doiw^, ^dfi^. See ^ 278, 1 and Dictionary 
under ^. 

3 5 Sojsoo often appears us 30J?, e. </. 


91 9 

l X l 

or sometimes as ^^ after -which the consonants *, n 6 , $ 6 , 6 , ^J are doubled, 
e. . sSW^Sj., Soo&^cf, sjjorjo^, sooa^u*, ^jo^coe^, 3-io^o, doodra^Bi, or 
sometimes before X s which then becomes *3* and is doubled, e. g. sojzSja^&Jo, 
rfoo^^Q, ;3oo2f 6, siootspo* or before vowels, when it gets an ofc* between which 

fa la la 

is doubled, e. g. sfcocQ^o*, dwoJ^a, 3AX>So tQ*, coioto^S. See 278, 1 and 
Dictionary under 3oo, and cf. 300^^ in 278. 

4, 33 w^ often appears as sao*. e. ^. 33%^, 33<^8, crae^do 5 . See 278, i 
and Dictionary under era 2. 

5 5 wofc^ often appears as ^0*5*, e .^. eoi^Q, yoJorsorto, yoba&do, 
See 278, 1 and Dictionary under woft* 5. 

6, we,) often appears as &), e. g. ^ 
See 278, 1 and Dictionary under &> 3. 

7, acw often appears as r , e. ^. 
See 278, 1 and Dictionary under <^C3* 4. 

8, <ors^ often appears as <0ra ? , e . g. ^ra,^, <ora^^do, cO^^. See 278, i 
and Dictionary under <03J S 2. 

9, 2-^^i appears as ^dJ* before si^, v/0. i^^^, and as ^J^ois 5 
before rfjaeaJ and ?ra^^ (sacQ-xi, sa^d), vj^. ^S^oJ^esj, Zorf^oijsArfo. See 278, 1 
and Dictionary under &;&*. 

10, sd^ appears as irfcOJ^ before ?33Ai, v^. rfcOooepaftdo, as si^ (^3^> ao^^ 
aoc3^) before ^^ and <oci^o, viz. rf-S^^, ^fS^d^o, as srfa (aoQ) before siwseji and 
J330J, viz. ^a^Jsesj, 5J933WA, and as ^3c^ (ada^) before wcxJw, wesi, aaj, 

tJ TT * O 

yJ2. sdOrfoi)^, 3ia?52e30, 5ja(3?63J, 5iQ^fso ( . See 278, i. 

11, ^esj and ?33^d appear also as stee 51 (rfJ8F) and ?J3A 

toepsrado, ?raadJFS, saAdrdoJoo, ?33AdJ3?r^o, TJaftSro'. See 278, i. 

12, ^eJsS and srfwsS appear also as ^ and sjw, e. g, 

249. The fourth compound is eoSoJoDi&>. It is a predicate referring 
to some subject or other, or serves to qualify or define another word, 
sometimes being so to say an adjective (see 102, 8, d). The word 
bahuvrihi, 'possessing much rice' is, in Sariiskrita, the instance after 
which this class of compounds has been named. 

Bahuvrihi compounds terminate in 53 (S5o) and ^. 

Instances are: (55^0) C)^o^rfo<, (^rf'ff 6 ) SsJowrfoS, (ssrfo) 

TT>>, ^dot^sh, s^^s^a, s5o?lr$, 


(c/. 243, B, s), ^ 


, Jirionratfo, $:2o3r$oi>o, w^^oioo, esrt^oddo, sSe^& 

O O 

rfjeSj&zk&o (e/. 115; 243, B, remark), 
, esWrtd, ^rozjsa, zow&oft, >) (^reoi:*), eftO 
ofljaetf), tftfA (rt^), srcraO (sSps*, e/. 243, B, w), 
(c/. 243, .#, a), to which the Sabdanusasana adds 
, a>rto) J sras^rto. Feminines with g^ are e. g. 

In mutually fighting with swords, fists, etc. a kind of bahuvrihi is 
formed in which the same word occurs twice, the final one taking the 
suffix i and the preceding one taking the suffix a, e. g. 

, , . < . . 

W ' fo "" SU flJ v SJ 

. The Sabdanusasana has 

(0. r. dsy-jCSsQ), aoe)f5s)ao)r ("0. T. 
v ' 

250. The fifth compound is c$<$ It unites two or more words 

oJ O(i3 

which, if unconipounded, would be in the same case and connected by 
the conjunction en:o (?AJ5) 'and' the last word frequently taking the 
terminations of the plural, e.g. ygASrtv*, ^O^odriortvS 3?3 3e>o3o <*, 

but being also in the singular, e.g. si>rfft3ao, ^>s3d> do, 

See 354, II, 4. 
When 3s3o. and ^rfare joined, the first 3rfj. may drop its last 

syllable^ e. g. ^^rfo^ &e>g> ^^do^ Ol^J3>S, ^dv^SjJ, 2Je;o, ^dOgSJo^ o)D. 
6y. 137, a, genitive plural; 304, a. b. 

251. The sixth compound is es53nOSJ5>a3Q>53. In Samskrita this 
compound is formed by joining an indeclinable particle with another 
word, the resulting compound, in which the indeclinable particle forms 
always the first element, is again indeclinable. In Kannada the first is 
a substituted form of a noun, which form by itself is indeclinable; but the 
compound is declinable, and may be said to be identical in quality with 
a tutpurusha (cf. Kesava's &33j^s3oo N , etc. in 246). 

7T I** 

The substituted form of 53 a is so, of sSj^rlo ^?o, f oork dooo, 
of &?& & , of =^^rio ^W 4 , of sfcsrto o^f^, of g)^o z3o (c/. 247, rf, is. is), 
e.g. yorioi:*, ^orrao*, sj^oflatt*", ^o^orraa*, ^ooo^aSi* 

dooo^S3or(j, ^oorfj,rto*, ^ioodjs^h, ^jorraa* (o. r. 


, , 

OJ "O" 

6y. also the substitute 3^^ or gSrfo of sSesrto in 247, d, i. 

252. After the six compounds that occur in Kannada as well as in 
Saihskrita, have been treated of, it remains to draw attention towards 
the rules which exist in Kannada as to choosing words for them which 
are congruous. 

1, The general rule is that Kannada words may form compounds with 
Kannada words, as will appear from 240-251. 

2, Another general rule is that Samasamskrita words ( 70) are not to be 
compounded with Kannada words (see the few exceptions under No. n. a). It 
is therefore wrong to say s^^ooo, dJoajsssd, and to use such compounds as 
appear in the following part of a verse: 

^dro. (Regarding odtfoskslrado see under No. 7.) 
In such cases there occurs what is called an arisamasa or viruddhasamasa, 
i. e. unsuitable, incongruous compound (cf. No. 11). 

3, The Tatsamas mentioned in 71 may be compounded with Tatsama, 
Samasamskrita, Tadbhava (No. 4), and Kannada words, e.g. wo^o 3 , ao^s^o, 
, d-raao^o, ztarrao^o, 3, ^300*0; wortresjejcrfjo, esoriraaaa, eori?e;3L il assort 


D3ojjrlj3c6., ao^o^JS?^., 3=^r\J3{S; 

eo w ^ w 60 

rirart^ro, ncsri, ricsrtorao, rscssjc^o^, rfre 

CA a a a a ' a 

tf o o: <odrra^o, rts?rra^o, ri 

A n ' 

cssdd^o, ., 

' eJ ' e^ fti 

., ., . 333oJo^ $ J.o; 2JS rt.aoreo, w 

eJ &i 6J eJ ' a^ ' 

(US SQdo 23dJ3rfd?J3 cidOO), 2JW?) 53630: Wtf OO. ^UrWO, iJS?^ SJO, 
v T " 

(or 3j20rs;o), 2^02220^0, ^Jjaejyo, dradroo (or 
rto; ^D 

4, Two Tadbhavas ( 370) may be compounded, e. g 

^tfrf^rt, wsraadrao, awrta 
, g^^jdo, ^^driddri, ^d?33^, 

, ^J2&, d?r3-3r ^fej 
jo w * *' td 

, rf?oAdo, 063. 23?oo, 


, stecadio, zrarSoiiOTdo, ura 3)do, ura rfdo, 


o^, d^d&Jjrt, 03oi>rtJ8?y, do^ddo, ao^csdo, dotfuado, 
, ?j?3 d&.reo, riuwsrreo. Tausirfreo, risk drtdtfo, rtddrfo, 

-eJ lO -i- b) * b) <a ' 

5, The first word may be a Samasamskrita ( 70) and the second one 
a Tadbhava, e. y. eru^ddcsio, ^dreziad, ^J3?oojdo, CD?i?J3d, 

6, The first word may be a Tadbhava and the second one a Samasamskrita, 

e. g. >rf4do, ydriortocso, .os^xido, g^rasiuo, rraddsio, 

TT C^ 

?, d^rtorao, 

, rfortdcsatfo, ToeSsado, ?jjij sa^o, ^ds'drao, ridroQ, ?i3c3?^3, s 

7, A Samasamskrita term of which a Tadbhava exists should not be 
combined with a Tadbhava term, e. g. the poet Hariraja's 3d3(C3 5 SJarf^ra^d^ 
4&3^rttfo should be 3d;3?C3* djarf^^g drf ^^^rt's'o. adrfo^o^Jado (under No. 2) 
ouglit to be odsiorto^do. 

Remark by the author of the present grammar: It seems that Kesava 
means a generally known and as such used Tadbhava, not one which is less 
known and seldom used, as 533ojj ? for he himself (under No. 5) uses ssarfdx^, cad 
533?oo, and 53ad?oo3re3 instead of soaakd^, 35aoi)oa?jo, and sjsojjrios'd (ssaoii being 
a Tadbbava of 353^). 

8, It is allowed to compound a Tadbhava and a Kannada (deslya) term, 
e. a. tsdn*. 3d3j{3, sjcj;3a$?jo. s&^rftfo. ?o^^c3, Aortd?eS., ^Adjstfs.o. 

* "t CO K, SO W 

9, It is allowed to add a Kannada term to a Tadbhava compound, e. g. 

s!<9Sod tfdaorfo*, ^js^&rire v 5 . saraa^srtdtfrto. 

o =1 n 

10, It is allowed to add a Kannada term to a Tatsama compound (see 
No. 3), e. a. ^y.o^rfycso, iprfJa^dosjrSjj, TjUtfrfc^redo 5 . 

/ ' a to M 10 & 

11, Of old a number of incongruous compounds (arisamasas, see under 
No. 2) were in use and may still be used, viz. : 

a) eight compounds of Kannada and Samasamskrita words: 
yc^Krfo (o. r. oeya^Q), s^c^a^o, ^dodsiro (o. r. ^^J^sJo 

dwo, doort^^es 5 ; and 

b) titles (birudu) or a string of titles (birudavali), e. a. 

, etc. In such titles or string of titles incongruous 
compounds may bo used at pleasure (^o^d^). 


In the compounds under numbers 3. 4. 5. 6. 8. 9. 10 and 11 a change of 
an initial consonant of a compound member may occur according to 215, 7, a. b. 

253. As stated in 245, there are three other samasas in Kannada, 
viz. ^oSrarisisssSortv*, rtsktfris&sriorts*, and D^SSeirislrarictte. They 
are found more or less in the three dialects. 

1, The kriyasamasa or verbal compound is formed "when as the 
compound's first member a noun that has a certain relation to the verb 
(karaka, 344) and a verb are placed together (sannida), i. e. compounded, 
so as to give a distinct meaning (arthavyakti). 

In forming such verbal compounds a sonne must be added to 
Samskrita nouns ending in ss, whereas concerning such Kannada (or 
tadbhava) nouns this is optional; Kannada and Samskrita nouns ending 
in ero optionally insert a sonne; in some cases the final syllable of the 
first member is elided. See the sandhi rules in 215, 7, a. b. 

a) Instances wherein the Kannada (or tadbhava) noun (ending either in ^, 
s, consonants, w, or enj) has the meaning of the accusative, are e.g. zotfde^o 
(i. e. zotfoko Jjs^o), ^s?rli3fSK3 (z. e. ^<$oi>o ^jsr^o), ie^cS^o (i. e . ies'oiio i^o), 
skes^Sio ({. e. 3oe3 3 oi>o s^Sro), w e#rfo&3.d 

^ V "QT / " oJ gj 

SrtOF<Sdo (i. e. ?>?tio sksdo), saso^fido, 

o a. e ^odrfo sjaoioov SodrfQcfo, 



or jstso, oja wonsdo or ^o3^ ejrrado, sjdoftffi&Jo or 

j oj eo 

or sJ3cj3?o, sroo.o or 


Ado or ^do^JS^Ado, riJ3^oortofe3.rfo or sra^jrtj^.do, ^a^oortra o or ^s^ortra o, Adoo 

So H A til 

rtsdo or ftdortQdo, 3ii)!jAfl^o or 0cfo4P8^o, o^ooi^jst^o O r e>?forU>?|o, ^rf:ort^o 
or ^d^rtra^o; liOQ?^io (&0do ^jjo) is an instance in which the initial of the verb is 
a vowel (in which case the accusative is generally used; see 346). 

If, however, distinctness of meaning (arthavyakti) is injured, the insertion of 
the sonne after nouns with final ^ is requisite (Kesava says), e. g. 

As remarked above, Samskrita nouns with final ^ always require the 
insertion of the sonne, e. a. rforeotfjacs o, ^.oJJo^oQdo, qS^do.ddo, t3orte3j3.5-,o, z^oijo 

*7 c& *-^ W W w 


6) Instances in which the noun has the meaning of the instrumental, are 

e a SKd&Ftfdo, storeo. ^odjrlracdjs oi>o. rio^rtrao, ^J2?c3jfc3,dodo, ^?rtzorfo, ^20. 

y na' nco' ca' -i-bi ca 

; an instance in which the noun has the meaning of the dative, is 
(=^iaJje3 sp?do); an d an instance in which the noun has the 
meaning of the locative, is 3oc&oz3o o O r rfoc&ac^o. 

In the kriyasamasa, as the instances show, an arisamasa ( 252) is faultless 
(nirdosha). Kesava's special instance is: 


(see 271). 

c) Instances in which the final syllable of the first word is elided, are 

e. a. 35p:33o (for^ptrto 3$o), woh rf o (for woioo ^rfo), tftfsadro (for^rt-J zradro), 

r ^ 4d / ' ^ CO C3 "^ 

(for s'tfrto sio^do), odw^o (for >3o or arf Sw^o), o3rfo (for a^tfr 
(for o33r s^s^do). 

2, "When a noun with the notion of a case (karaka, i. e. the kartri) 
is preceded by a numeral (sankhya), or a pronoun (sarvana,ma), or an 
attributive noun (so-called adjectives, gunavacaua), or a krit ( G8; 177 
seq.\ 185. 18G), a gamakasamasa is formed", Kesavajsays. Gamakasainusa 
may be translated 'consecutive compound', having this name probably 
because its members succeed one another without alteration. Conse- 
cutive compounds "may be", Kesava says, "a class of karmadharayas, 
and occasionally may be tatpurushas"; he does, however, not state 
which belong to which. 

a) Instances regarding numerals (cf. 244. 248. 278, i) are: "3if 
^oiw, cicewrf^, 3Ji333^o (aoJw, rf^, wai being the karaka nouns). We 
may perhaps say that such instances are tatpurushas, the first word expressing 
the connection which it has with the second one, i. e. the connection of the 
genitive ( 246), e.g. ^F^ciu (TSiri g^ + aotar), of (/.<?. above) twenty (there 
are) five, i. e. twenty-five. (Would such compounds not be rather dvandva<: 
See 250.) 

6) Instances regarding pronouns viz. &3, (oirajj), w, ^, SAW (see 264. 
265) are: 


. Here, we may say, the two 
words are in the same relationship (ekasraya) and form karmadharayas ( 247). 

c) Instances regarding artributive nouns are: 

)F, $3oJ.>33Cr!, 2)3o3oajrto. If we consider these instances to bo compounds, 
they are karmadharayas', but they are in reality no compounds, and ought not 
to be written as such (cf. 241). They are genitives combined with nomina- 
tives, e. g. w&ok is the genitive of w* (c/. 273). 

d) Instances regarding verbal declinable bases (krillingas) are: 

(see 364); 

(see 363); artdessioFo, ^J3dd^oi3 (see 179). If we consider th 
instances of compounds, they are karmailhurayas; but, as stated by us in IT 1 - 



179. 185. 186, their first words are very probably genitives of the so-called 
present-future and past participles combined with nominatives. See 254. 

As will be learned from the instances, an arisamasa is faultless in consecutive 


Such instances as are adduced under number 2 letters i, c, and d are 
commonly, and we think quite justly, not considered to be compounds. 

3, The vipsasamasa or repetition-compound (which has various 
meanings, vide 303. 307. 308. 309) is formed by repeating adverbs, 
interjections, imitative sounds, and nouns, the final syllable of the first 
word being often dropped or also changed, e. g. vt> ^.3 ( = ^s^?3 3t> f3), 

, , , 

starts') ;-3tftfrt (=^fl tftffl), 

=^sJ <^ ^3J e^). Regarding the repetition 


OJ oi 

of verbs see 211. 339. 

XII, On verbal declinable bases (cf. 363. 364). 

254. Verbal declinable bases (krits, krillingas, 68, i; 102, 8, e), as 
we have seen, are formed from the so-called past relative participle 
positive and negative (bhutavatikrit, 175-179) and from the so-called 
present-future relative participle (bhavishyantikrit, 180-186) by 
suffixing the pronominal forms and pronouns yo, fcoo, (S5do), tJ^o, $5$*, 
^<^, (wsj**), W^, enirto, Swrto, S5D*, oD*, W5^) (cf. 193) in the ancient 
dialect, or <9?&, es, S3s^o, S5^5^o, S5^, w^o, w^?do, w3, wdv*, ws^^o, ^, 

in the mediaeval one, or S5d?jj, 
in the modern one (see 198 
under 3; 200, i; 267; 273; 316, i; 330). 

Similarly any nouns ( 253, 2, d; 363; 364) and certain adverbs 
(postpositions) are suffixed to both kinds of participles. 

Instances are: s 



^, aoJ3adv% ^ocs-d^, 2053^??, 'cJ 
, 2jdo?rjddd), ^dj^i^), aSjjta^i; c4>a<rijdo, watfdodo, 
o ; 


An explanation of the structure of verbal declinable bases has been 
given in 178. 179. 185. 186. 

1, If the participles aro combined with pronominal forms or pronouns, 

a) the declinable bases may stand by themselves without reference to 
something or somebody, e. g. w$do, he that played, 333&do, n e that sang, tfSdv*, 
she that sang, wfidodo, it that played, saaQdodo, it that sang; &eadcfc (or 
generally N-OeSd^, see remark 3), it that saw, ^3_zk> (or generally ^^j^), it that 
brought ; 43^o, he that nourishes or will nourish, ^p33o*, they that nourish or 
will nourish, wutf^do, that which is; 3^, he that does not or did not stand, 
esoasd^tfj, she who is not or was not afraid, ywahd,}do, that which does not or 
did not perish, wsddj^, they that do not or did not come, siradddo (or generally 
ajaddo^, see remark 3), that which does not or did not make, 'gw ddo (or generally 
^d^), that which does not or did not exist; 

6) they may bo preceded by a nominative, e. g. ?k 3. 3J* Lrioado, he whoso 
affliction was removed, rtr^rf.) To^tfo, she whose husband died, J3?3j3* z-c33%j, 
he whom God was or is pleased with; Sj^tf.) wsaoidtfo, she whose children are 
alive, d^UjQ Soortojjrfrfo, he whose firm mind fails, 3333 s ero^o, he to whom 
wealth belongs (i. e. he who possesses wealth), rfocw^o, he to whom neatness 
belongs (i. e. he who is neat), u^ccoaddrfo, he to whom nakedness belongs 
(i. e. he who is naked), ^prfo.^,^0, he to whom gold belongs (i. e. he who possesses 
gold) ; 5ae> s " 'go d3o, ho to whom feet do not belong (/. e. he who is without feet 
or a cripple), $5^3* es^d^c, he that is not or was not a devotee, 5^rfo aoJ&^dad), 
they to whom a son is not or was not born, so^tfo U3'^dstfj, she who loses or 
lost her children by death, Qt^ddo (or generally a ^^, c ^ ) , see remark 3), it for 
which there is no refuge; 

c) they may govern the accusative, as the verbs do from which they are 
formed, r. g. <od^o zortas^o, he who intended two things, cra^SJo z3fido, he that 
asked a boon, J^rttfsk ^J3^jj&, he that killed enemies; ^Jscsja* efodo^, ho that 
eats boiled rice, 3-raorid 3rfj a, he that eats flesh, )y So Ssl> 3o, ho that eats all 

W tO 

kinds of food, WfSoiJcS 5 ' oeaosa^, ho who mounts an elephant, ^d watfoijo rioO^zio 
33^o s he that patiently endures the pain of austerities, ft* AatSMfrt**! females 
that scare away parrots, ridFdjs* sns^Ji, he that possesses pride, c&ra^ avv^o, 
ho that possesses neatness, Jift^jtMftaJig* eru^arfo, he that possesses acute 
discernment (regarding the accusative see 316. i); zjJ^^artrScS* efe'abd3<&, 
ho that does not or did not know devotodnoss, doesrrfcirf^ ^?dd^ ? he that does not 
or did not join bad men; 

el) they may be joined also to other cases just as the verbs from which they 
are formed, e. g. ^rude^dro, he that was in the field, a^rt a&a?dad), they that 
went to the hamlet, 333<3rt or sadfoJjsv* ^fe^do, he that sprang from a lotus, 
, he that was born of a female servant, ^^Q^ rf*dAds?io, he that 



is emaciated by sickness, 33ft 3Sc3 sdo&Jo^ck, that which grows by its own force 
(i. e. spontaneously), uva9^ 20^3^0, he that came from the village, rid^osSd^flo 
^fc^do, he that sprang from a good family ; 3303^ ^e3 SyS Sradoddrfo, he that 
loves (his) mother-, ^s^rtd^e^ ^ortowd^do, they that do not or did not recede 
from a fight, aJdra^oKdrfd), they that are not afraid of death, 3^3^ wstfd^NO, 
he that is not serviceable. 

e) they may be preceded by an infinitive, e. g. cEUisrt waddodJ, that which 
cannot be gone to (or reached), tfa'oi) u^do, that which came to one's knowledge. 

2, If the participles are combined with nouns, the rules regarding the thus 
formed declinable bases are similar to those of number 1, a. b. 

a) 53^ ^rJ3C3 ? , rice that was or is boiled, 3'tf. ^3sb, penance that was or 
is bad, 3<Sd Oftuo, w i n d that blew; (3.oe&Jd<D) -3<jo;j waa, a we ll that is (in the 
garden), ^o^j)7o3c, a chair on which one sits, &&3 sUes 5 , a stream that runs, 
^jsdd TO*, wind that is violent; ^etfd rfre^Oj a husband that is not or was not in 
harmony (with his wife). Observe also >ra^do (for 3^3) rt^o. a room in which 
(one) bathes, and rfst^C^, in the place where (one) walks (or in walking), ^eO?^ 
30, in the place where (one) compares (or in comparing), z3d^rt, to the place 
where (one) has fallen, ^^^i to the place where (one) falls (or to his falling). 
Regarding the 'one' in parenthesis see 358. 

6) ^J3doo\ sJoiOd^, an ox whose horns were or are broken, tftf 33^d ^ad), 
a jungle in which wild fire broke out, ^ 20^ ^3, a house to which the father 
came, or a house from which the father came, 330 20^ ^soSoro, the business for 
which he came, 3& &e$d eadre, the reason for which he went; 33od: ff ^s^os 
, a child which the mother brings up, ^a.)^, a place where there is mud; 
ss&J, a garden in which the cuckoo does not or did not cry, 
J, a village in which ripe fruits do not grow, cradode$oi>Ooii)d ^o," 
a case in which the conventional meaning of a word is not or was not damaged, 
docScOoo d zoonsdo, gold that is not of use (i. e. is valueless), &3fo ao^rtd adcjj^), 
a jungle which people do not or did not enter, 2t^0y djsdj, a village in which 
there are no tenants. 

It is to be remarked that if a nominative (a subject) does not precede the 
krillinga and the verb used in its formation is transitive, the subject is somehow 
to be supplied mentally (cf. 315, 2, fc), e. g. ^fi ^J3e$, the young bull that 
(people) tied, c&oj^ ejcy, the place that (somebody) struck, ^P^d $0, the kettle- 
drum that (warriors) struck, ^*oA> 53^0, the foot that (somebody) cutoff, 28 3, 3o3, 
the room in which (a woman) has given birth to (a child) ; Sfo^o^d, a place 
where (somebody) gives; 3^d ^0^3*, a piece of land that (people) do not or did 
not cultivate. See 358. 

c) ^odotfoi)^ oes'd oa^^o, a horseman that mounted a horse; 
a whip with which (people) beat horses etc., so^ 


a cup from which (people) drink spirituous liquor; 33o3i WO'oi)^ en>O'oJjd 
a calf that does not or did not leave (its) mother's place. 

d) dd&p "add saoj^r, an affair that does not suit to one's wish, 
^5&F~, a black colour that (people) apply to grey hair, cCds'd^ tftoja zn>&, a 
sinner that falls into hell, aodde?* ?o3\)d eoe^rf, a decorated seat that was 
made of wood, to^orf^o iotfAd-Qrirs 1 *, villages that are surrounded by gardens, 

d6J ,d3 rfrf yudotf 3^J rt<? 5 , stones that roll down from a mountain. 

to a 3 "> 

3, Regarding krillingas formed by suffixing declinable postpositions the 
following instances may be adduced: oa&tfo zJdoa^ (os>zs;3o sodo^s a^), ^wod 
3"o<*j (33 jjrf ao?<0?i Qrf), ydrfo OTdd aojozS (warfo uadd 3,wo"Jrf ?$aooi>). 
Concerning the general use of postpositions after krits seo 282, i. 


1, As seen from the remark in 200 under i the verbal declinable base 
(krillinga) formed from the so-called present-future relative participle is used 
also as the third person singular neuter of the future tense and as a hhava- 
vacana ( 243). Thus staw^cb, rfjado^io, srerfjado means 'that which makes 
or will make'; 'it will make'; and 'a making', 'the making', 'the act of 
making', 'to make'. 

Regarding its use as a bhavavacana we adduce the following instances: 
d<?fo djso^do, the making or to make beautiful, sj^o JJJ3^J^)do, the act of making 
subject, e3'do &0do SJa^o^do, to make large what is small, wS^obo ^pz2 SJa^j 
3do, to honour a guest, ^^^arS*^ sSOtddoo jlo^y dJsdoSdo, to embellish the 
body by means of sandal etc., R^, ^Js^oddo, to sleep, ^^ ^Jaz^osdj ajra^oi), to 
deceive is injustice, -^^)do ^rarort ^^KO, giving (was) an innate quality of Karna, 
^doo ?j5^do Brrarotf zss^^o, to grant the wish (of another) was Karna's 
vowed observance from birth, 2-^ tfaibj ^i^ ^JsSoo^do, to give one thing and 
take another thing (in its stead), Sic^ 20 ^"do, to come after (i. e. to follow), 33^ 
our going, SK^ ^JS^orfdo, your giving, W33J cOiorfdo, their coming, 
, to play incessantly, o&d 'gdosdj^ to be fearless. 

The bhavavacana may be declined, e. g. c33doi>o B^&3cM&z&otabo SoaQo, 
contrive ye a means to stop the boat, sa^rf^ ^c^jad^ i)^^^, I am come to 
see you, wsdo rfrfrt TOSSOJJ ajadoadis'oS ^u^ ?33rto^d, because they assist me, 
the business advances, 33^ zodoado'jatfrt wSrtoissndC, lot dinner be ready within 
(the time of) my coming. 

2, Likewise the third person neuter singular of the past tense in the 
ancient and mediaeval dialect ending in 5A)do (see 198 under 3), the krillingas 
formed from the relative past participle by means of the suffix tJ do in the modern 
dialect, and the krillingas formed from the relative negative participle when 
used for the past ( 209) by means of the suffix erodo in the ancient and mediaeval 


dialect and 3i in the modern one, have been used as bhavavacanas expressing 
the action or state of the verb in the past. E. g. tsaAoSJ^do, lit. a liberal person 
a having given-it (i. e, a liberal person's gift), osasd) a,eddo, lit. the king a 
having gone-it (i. e. the king's departure), 83) ^3, your having come (i. e. 
your arrival), 33030 ri^do, the mother's having died (i. e. the mother's death), 
5\G7l> 3j3s3oi>oredo, the child's having drunk milk, wstoj fSJSS&ddo, their having 
seen; w^o* 5i>redodo 5 their having not seen, ?3d) watiddo, their having not come, 
eddj j&adddo, thoir having not done. See S^&Addo in the portion of a verse 
in 258. 

Also this kind of bhavavacana is declined, e. g. sscoo ri^da^ do^srt u^tf 
, because (their) mother died, the children grieved very much; ^ 
fSJ T&/3SJ dijr dorto^j SoA ^j } because the father gave (him) two ripe 
mangoes, (his) little boy rejoiced; adodortcio 3& sari ^Ooiiddey;^ sJ&fi^a aSi^ 
3J3<SdK$o ? because the boys had not learned or did not learn their lesson, the 
schoolmaster became angry; rfc^ s^To^d ;3o?$3 3JA tfddrf^ s'rao esoi^ctodi rfrfrt 
A&J^ dJaSddo, the schoolmaster saw the having fallen of ink (i. e. that ink bad 
fallen) on my book and became angry with me. 

3, It is a peculiarity of the modern dialect to double, almost generally, 
the d> in 5C5j, when it is the suffix of a bhavavadana of the past, e. g. ^^ 
(for sorfdo), 5;J3ddj (for aojseddo), ri^do, eruradj, ^e&, w'ddo ; if such a 

v co /' <a v /' - a' a a 5 u co' ca 

bhavavacana is formed from verbal themes with final sn) ( 166. 175, 2) or 
from the so-called negative ( 175, 3), the suffix tsrfo almost generally becomes 
rfo (cf. 122), e. g. ^IraSd^ (for S^Sddo), ^Qd^, tf^d^, sijsddo (for 

^; also forms like 3<cl> (for ^?ddo r ^^dd^), ^dd^ (for 
(for yddo), sSjstd^ (for ^addo) are used. This peculiarity holds good, of 
course, also with regard to the similarly formed krillingas, e. g. in No. 1, a. b. 

It may be remarked here too that in adding ^do to the genitive of neuter 
nouns ending in o, its initial w is generally elided, e. ^. ^wrid^ (for 

XIII, On pronouns, 

255. The pronouns are declinable bases ( 90). e?o, 
?i?o, ^1^0, ? are called (by Europeans) personal pronouns, and 
, 33 ^ called (by them) the reflexive (reciprocal) pronoun (see 102, 8, a). 

'ado, tf\id> (see 122; w &, y^, ?A)^o 272), ^3^0, 
; wdo, ^rfo, erus^o, es^o, 'ad^o, erf, arf, s3&5o; es^v*, 

d^o, 'ad^o, 32&5v*; w^o, -d?^o, erua^o, w^^o, -ds^^o, 
( 265): t>^, ^5=^, enja 1 ^ are demonstrative pronouns; and ws^^ ( 265. 



;trc interrogative pronouns (sec 102, a, b). The 
initials odJS and cjs arc dialectical forms of later time; es3?l), 'aj, 

WSjtfo, 'SSJtfj, W^ffo, -di^fjO, 030e>r&, CjeJSJtfo, O&e^tfo, OeJSJtfo, >?& are 

modern forms with a euphonic final vu ( 112); wsjtfo, 'asStfj appear 
also in the mediaeval dialect. 

256. The declension of the personal pronouns w , ?3e>o, 
>?o, >e&, $?, thou, and of the reflexive pronoun 3^3, sa^o, 3e>, he, he 
himself, she, she herself, it, it itself, is given in 137, and their probable 
origin appears in 138. 

In 138, remark, their connection with the personal terminations of 
the verb is alluded to (cf. 193 and remarks thereon). They express, 
Kesava says, the meaning of the three persons of the verb ( 193), e. </. 

, though we 

know, we cannot tell the state of the king. dra^ f3 >?o (or 
, thou wentst before me to the battle, ^^o (or 
. 3>c3 s =0^0 ^^^o^dasDSo^crfoo, he threw arrows at the 

> If tr tn 

enemy's army (or river) which was no river. 330 (or g^do*") ?3c?7323 
3d)P^5 9 OJOD*, they met even Arjuna, (but) did not pierce. 

o, yo 3^$ 4; ^?c5* ^ oi^, ^?o ^d s ; gc3* r aciro, 33^0* ^dro* 

O <^ C5 

(c/. the remarks on the final sonne in 215, 8). 

Their gender is shown in $ 102, 7. 8 to be depending on that of the 
noun to which they refer, i. e. viseshyadhina, e. g. Wo (or 
Wo Tf^O, Wo $$ ; ^o (or 

(see 357, 3); y (or 

257. $*>) (the plural) is generally used for ^>^j (the singular) in 
modern Kannada when people of some standing speak of themselves, 
e.g. <33wz3 >& rfjsdo^O, what will you do without me? This way of 
expression occasionally appears also in the medieval dialort, e. g. 
c3s>^>^?jo rfJSVr 1 ^, ^^o^)^4, I will send this one to the world of mortals. 
Also in the oblique cases this holds good in the modern dialect, e. g. 
20^, come to my house!, and in the mediaeval one wherein 


e. g. a girl says: rtarfjdo^dJSs* <odo alri^ and: 'S.d^d^o (i. e. 

and: ^sj^ddo (<osk t esddo, lit. 'of us they', i. e. our people, my parents) 
oi&tssrttf S)?SJ ridcS?l>3o ^s?d&. In the last three sentences the girl 
intends to honour her master and parents by using the plural of the 
pronoun (i. e. <O^J, for o}<3 ) before them, a practice that obtains also in 
the modern dialect, e. g. fdsjo, 3e>0&iCdoN^ ^o, ask my mother! (Is 
354, II, i to be compared?). 

In the Southern Mahratta country ^o,3d:> (sta wdCo, = i^o.sJ^o, 
our people, he that is mine) is often used by native women when speak- 
ing of their husbands, while the husband when speaking of his wife says 
^JeX-^ (r$s&i, e?^, of us she, she that is mine). 

258. In the ancient dialect $o, thou, is used, without the least savour 
of disrespect, in addressing a person of respectability, e. g. 


|| (See translation in 360) 

23rfrlJ3rao. n the king having seen 
that Muni and said " A venerable man (?) thou art, nothing else!", lovingly 
moved three times round (him) with the right side turned towards (him), praised 
(him), bowed several times, and worshipped (him) with devotion. 

Regarding o, thou, such, is often the case also in the mediaeval 
dialect, e. g. 

t, 3 


2073303233 ! 



t> fe, --3 



But the mediaeval dialect, in accosting a single person, uses also the 
plural ,{;& e.g. >?s3 ft^Ojoortcrfjo , even thou having gone. 

In the modern colloquial dialect the following distinction is made between 
^o and >?s3):_when addressing a person of some respectability, the 
plural ^PS^) (also in its oblique cases) is always used, followed by a 
verb in the plural (cf. 3-353- in 261); and when addressing a person 
of low rank, or a child, the singular >??uO is always used. 

Further, in the modern dialect of conversation it is considered uncivil 
to say even to a little child e. g. ^ gtf,, $$ esz^, ^ 94, and it is 

expected to say ^d^ es^,, >s^ e53^, 0^ W 4 etc '' because tne 
sister, the father, the mother, etc. require to be honoured by the pronoun 
in the plural; it becomes particularly uncivil, even abusive, if one says 

to another $N. Sorg 3, instead of asjj, 3oo^3. It is not unfrequent in 

v ' ^ <a 

such polite language to add y^jdo to the words , wd,, 3s)03o, 

S'oh, etc. (see 119, c, i; 131, e, i), e. #. 
cdosjtfo, etc. (Plurals that are formed with y^c!o are in themselves 
honorific, e. g. e30jOof3sj&>. Similar plural forms are met with also in 
the ancient dialect, e.g. )^3)G*, he of the spear, literally 'they of 
the spear'.) 

When addressing a deity (or God) in prayer, the singular 


or one of its oblique cases is always used in the three dialects, e. g 

(Vishnu), ^e rfwa^j oi^! _ do3o riois* 
! The pronoun may also be omitted, e.g. ^3, d?w, d 
c^j nj5Jo rtorl^^*, ydoaoi)! Cf. 355, I, i, where 
has its verb in the singular. 

259. In the three dialects 3^0, 3e>f&, 3e>, he, he liimself, etc., and 
their plural g^o (SD^), SDS^), they, they themselves, are used 

1, when they, in the nominative, refer to the subject mentioned in a 

sentence, e. g. rfj^o^.o 3*^00 ?o^ O^o* o^?r ?roujo3JS>^ c o, of Udayaditya 
it is said "Manu and he (are) virtuous people". _ 

, J^WS3?rfo? 

2, when they, in the nominative, refer to a noun that is not mentioned 
in a sentence, but understood to be the subject, c. //. 3>c3* <O23o. 



o. 3e> . . 

20 Co, 3e> WSdFoNO, fcoW, OrUSW.dSoO^OZoOado. 33 Si? r srf r D s . 
co ' oo Q' tJ to 

3, when they, in the nominative, accompany the subject of a sentence 
and may occasionally be translated 'indeed', 'in fact', etc., e.g. W3oo^i ojj^ 

SJ3" &<!?* ?do?l N a : 5 ! , 3-33* 'aw, for Samskrita (words used in Kannada) 

d TJ-W -D- 

there is with regard to (the euphonic insertion of) o&* and ^ in fact 

no muchness (i. e- o&* and & are always inserted, 33^ referring to 

referring to wo. z3?aiSS^rcSE5o Se)^ S55j?oCo. rissi^ ^.rfo 3e>o. 

4, Instances by which the use of go>o, etc. is shown when these are in 

oblique cases, are: ?5^^o ^ w^^^o. 3oJ3^oij03r) ^, he beats his cow. 

<. t ' 

eJj.^ ^, birds build their nests. 3$ ?OJID^? 

<= ej- ' =* 

^.^? dJ3^d T#3^[ his own joy (is) the world's joy, 

to u 

his own trouble (is) the world's trouble. tfe9F<$Jd%?o t & ^^rtcSo ^dJsri 


^r<^ f3 s w D^oD^oSJS 1 ^, that ruler became famous on earth, when that 


true speech of Karna became his (itfrt) property. ^^AsjddfiJ sJdOn^fii 

\ / OO 

^be),^, who has nothing himself, what should he give to others? 

sidOrl ^^dj Sjjsa a(fjrt e3^?oo djs^ ^J3^oad, to cause evil to others and 

to cause welfare to himself. ^A =5^30^ 3s>5^ S50^J do, sidd ^t)36^ 
c^J3'S3 5030,00, for their own quarrel (there are) they five, for the quarrel 
of others (there are) one hundred and five. 


, he broke his tooth himself, and blamed another 
person (for it). ^^ aorfw 3oJ^6s)^^o, he who nourishes (only) his own 
belly. ^ ^or(^ 3, one's daughter's husband. s^oSo si^o^ie;d ^s3, 
play at which one's own wife is not present. 3$ ^ ^ one's own wife. 

^rf, ', one's own will. ^^ ^d^^CS, he who follows his own likings. 

** t<r ' lo- 

^c^d^) one's state. 3*?}?$, of one's own accord. ^pi>N ooOoio^o, a 

"* ^CJ -^O 

(sister) older than one's self. Srf,rfOfi5p ^^ri Wfosrtorf >P3, fear that 

*- 9 w 

arises in himself (^^jri) even from his very own people. =afidd NO& 

O3o 3#Cjo, ^?2JS,^o s'rf. SJS^rf rt0 9 ^o ^JSrsd ?js)odp, is it not enough, 
t- ^ a 

if one learns (the way to beatitude) in the Kannada language, and 
(thereby) acquires his beatitude in himself? 33 33^5* 


if one knows himself, lie (is) a wise person. &z 
&>, ^Fl 3>r3o sJoCiS'u 3e>?fo 3oJS?C3Srl>, if one knows himself, he is likely 
to succeed; if one forgets himself, he is likely to go (without gain). 
3->?k dori 3o3 ;fcaati 5>iotfo;3s>r\ d?3d.> 3$ft &> rfje>cao<l>, (he 


ought to know that) if he bestows benefits on others, God will certainly 
bestow benefits on him. 

260. To &Jo, (Sao, fJe)rfo, $?o, ?&>, 3>o, 3>rl> and their plural the 
particles o or ( 212, e) are often added in order to give them either 
the meaning of emphasis or also to express the 'self quite distinctly (cf. 282). 

Instances of the first kind are e.g. eAfl&fczSo&a c3e)?S, I (am) the 
ruler of the town! $^ 3rf?tee>, verily, thou (art) Siva! -5? 
5JJe)Sa. it is thou who hast done this business! 3s?3 
rs^o, he (is) a distinguished teacher in the world! 33^ 'S.cSsSf, it is 
we! sio^d^o c^sS?, thou ( art ) Sankara! 33 

Instances of the second kind are e. g. $$$$ 3 ^JS^dol^rS, I shall 
read the letter myself. =>?>? s^Jsad^o, I made (it) myself. 
tSs>$t fSJS^oip^, I shall see to this business myself. esEss, ^j? 
brother, see thou thyself. 3$ ^0=0,^^ ^J3^c3 3a>^? wra^o, she ate (it) 

^- o" ^ 

herself without giving (anything) to her children. g>(3 dj?e3rfoo v c5o, to 


say that one's self (is) superior (to others). ^?1 ^WOri 3;?S sioo^^)^, 
^{1 3s)?5* w&S 9 OJac3, he (the mad elephant) being angry himself at his 
(own) shadow, (and) not knowing himself (any longer). 3"^ ^Orl 3t>& 
?idrao dosa 3oOA; ^JSrs coDrt, (it is) as if one himself gave protection 
to his own feet and blessed himself (this 'himself being expressed some- 
how by the verb =^ja^, see 341). ssok^, woJo^e, ac^oeSo^ ^d? 
(you yourself) w6<36 2^ . 

Occasionally 3o>^ or 3o>c3(j denotes also 'of itself, 'spontaneously', and 
or 3353?, 'of themselves', 'spontaneously', e. g. c&ysd S 

, no thing whatsoever comes of itself into existence. 

3?sS =$d>j qjsrfoort^o, plants which die of thcinsi-lvt-s after 
they have had fruit and have become ripe (k3Srttfo). 

The same meaning- is not unfrequently expressed e. g. by 3"^ 3^c5, 3$f( 
33F3, ^a,rf 3^S?, ^^,r^ sasS?, ^o,^, sad?, as shown by the follow- 

*\. CO C* O G* !yj "^ 

ing instances : ^^OJ^dftV* ^?^ 3D?S &S>6 ^JJrp^lo ^S^^^Nfi' *a^o 

, saying: "of thf-o <tfii) sons oiu> \\ho 



has of himself (i. e. accidentally) been found, a genuine son (is) this one 
to me (s^ri)", he lifted (him) up with joy. s^ri 3e>?3 SoofcJo^cSo, that 

which grows of itself. & ?1&, s'a.rf 3Dr3e wcScS o , this creation is not 

e) ej 4.o o ' 

something that has come into existence of itself, ej s^rttfo )nJ0?S 
^ejOri 3">o,^ 3"d>? ^sScSo, those eggs having opened of themselves (i. e. 
having been hatched) by the heat of the sun. ^o, do?So3J3tftf %> 
dor?! 53ooc3ex.cS Zwddrttfo yurao; s55So s'Oo,^ 3s>s3? whsSoSjs^? in your 

" ** ^j CO *2* O 

house there are cooking vessels, stools and other things; have they all 
come into existence of themselves? ^ododrt^o ^s3o,3l ! 5\ > 3e>53? 
the horses will stop of themselves. 

Further, by suffixing wh ( 166), 'having become', to &$ 
3o)^) } they express 'of one's own accord', 'of their own accord', 'spontaneously', 
e. g. 33e>h (of his own accord) wrf^.ara^A 20^ yB>. g^;3 3^)^^ 

o3J9c^?S r^orfjrf-S-cloJo^* E^o ^JSdojSsd, when he himself of his own 

^ o 

accord at once gave a fee to (his) guru. ^c)^ o&>0?3 ejjs >^ a< 


(of itself, spontaneously) eS^OJood OJo^s^S^. s^jSe)^ (of her 
own accord) L 

Ss)n>h (of their own accord) ol3e)&riJJj enjSJc5,5J 


261. In the modern dialect, when speaking to a superior, SQ)^ and 
its oblique cases are often used as a term of great respect (cf. 
258) being equivalent to 'your honour', 'your lordship', etc., e. g. 

dojo djs^ao? (i e. when did your honour come?). 

262. The declension of the singular of the masculine demonstrative 
pronouns ending in w appears in 117. and that of their plural in 
119. The declension of the singular of the feminine demonstrative 
pronouns ending in ws?* and ?5^o appears in 120. 121, and that of 
their plural in 134; the singular of w^, -d?^, SAJS^ is declined in 
130, and their plural in 131. 132. The declension of the singular 
of the neuter demonstrative pronouns is given in 122, and that of 
their plural in 136. 


The declension of the singular of the masculine interrogative 
pronouns with final e is given in 117, that of the singular of their 
f'eminines in 120. 121, and that of the plural of both masculines and 
feminines in 135; the declension of the singular of the neuter interro- 
gative pronouns appears in 122, and that of their plural in 136. 
&$* (>fl>) is declined in 125. [Regarding >^* the Sabdamanidarpana 
(s. sutra 112) says that its nominative is also >^S3* (sic!), and gives 
a dubious instance.] 

The gender of the demonstrative and interrogative pronouns is 
viseshyudhina ( 102, 8) with the exception of >^* when it is not declined, 
which in that case is added to masculines, feminines and neuters in the 
singular and plural, e. g. 

In the following verse 

Q^O 5 , S3^0d?rJK^OOO 33^00 I 


rtosado* .o^s* wdccbs&^o. n 

according to Kesava 33* means -o^ao^rirv^ (Orf^ 5f ao esartrv*), what persons! 
A translation, therefore, would be: A greatness which speaks of what persons! 
Manu and he (are) virtous men, the celestial tree and he (are) donors, the ocean 
and he (are) deep. (Thus) Udayaditya causes himself to be called (i. e. such is 
Udayaditya's fame). 

263. The demonstrative pronouns are remote, intermediate, and 
proximate, viz. ?5;3o (wsj^j, W5J), that man, he; eAido, this intermediate 
man, he; <a,do ("asSr*), 'asj), this man, he; e5rf<s* (y^tfo), that woman, 
she; ero^s*, this intermediate woman, she; Q^*?* (^rfs^o), this woman, 
she; w^o (w^^o, w3), that man, he; erua^o, this intermediate man, he; 
d?^o (^ffo, -d?^), this man, he; ^^, that woman, she; yv5^, this 
intermediate woman, she; ^^, this woman, she; 55^0* (ss^rfj), those 
men or women; erodo*, these intermediate men or women; 'asJo* ('addJ), 
these men or women; the neuters ejtfo, that, it; vudo, this intermediate; 
^^o, this; and their plurals yj^, VD^, ^. Cf. 262. 

The intermediate forms have mostly disappeared in the mediaeval 
dialect except erorfo for the third person singular of the verb (sec 193); 
the modern one has abandoned them altogether, if one does not consider 
its g^do, which stands for W3oJc3J ( 201). 



Regarding the occasional forms ^3o, a^b, 3j, ^, d>, eru^o etc. see 122. 
272, 2, remark. 

264. When escfo, ^ck, rudo become demonstrative adjective pronouns, 
their forms (without the final <3o and with the demonstrative vowels 
lengthened) are , 3s, ervs (this in the ancient dialect). Such adjective 
vowel-pronouns are used before masculine, feminine and neuter nouns 
in the singular and plural. The following are some instances: y ^?, 

& 3r3, erua ^yS, y\j=> sjjs^^o; w dorfs*, 3s sort's* 
cr o' 

3s 5$s3, ? w^o, 35 eotfo, eru3 &3o; w o^SJOs^o*, 3s 

(see 253, 2, & 

265. Kesava says that the demostrative pronouns ado, 

(see 263) and the interrogative pronouns 
o s ( c / 27 - 271 ) come from c5o, 

This statement is rather unsatisfactory. Let it be said that the 
pronominal forms e3o, he, wp*, she, S3o 5 they, which especially in the 
ancient dialect were used in krillingas ( 177. 185. 254) and only in 
course of time were superseded by the demonstrative pronouns (ssdo, 
etc.) and which appear as the personal terminations of the verb ( 193), 
are, together with the demonstrative vowels =5, 'a, ere and their lengthened 
forms w, 3s, erja, the elements of the remote, proximate and intermediate 
pronouns. Thus 55^0 is $3+ euphonic j3*+S3o, 5>s* 3+ S3* +$<?*, 
a + 

is ?5 + cj s (the primitive sign which in a general way points to 
an object, see 122) + euphonic eru, <az3o 'a+cf+ero, vud 

: (see 137, a under nominative plural), ^5^ ^ + S3* 

is w+^j (or 3*+ euphonic ero) + sso (see 122; 138, d, 3), 

Regarding t*^, 3? ! #, erus^ so much may be stated that they are w, 
3s, eru3 either with the suffix = mention I'd in $ 109, a, 4, or perhaps with 
the suffix 3 in 243, A,. No. 10. 


The interrogative pronouns 

>), wo* (c&sdo, Gsdj), t>44 (os:- 

rest on the interrogative &, that becomes od3e> in the oblique 
cases of the mediaeval and modern dialect, which is another form of y 
(see 41. 125. 138. 209). Thus s;jo is 4. euphonic r/+^o, cc: 

The modern forms with initial CJT> are in so 
far interesting as they show that initial 033* may become tf in Kannada 
(as in Tulu, wherein c5^e?oo occurs as cra?S, and also as Ss>?2, initial o^: 6 
having become 23*; cf. e. g. the Kannada tadbhava terms Cjd?d= oJo^?o, 
z!U>eA=o3j8?r\, and see 141, i, remark under dative). The remark 
may be made that in ,0 where? which comes from >+S3), the & 


has become short (cf. 138, c); <o appears also as ws3) in the ancient 
and mediaeval dialect. 

The forms ad, CJJS^, C3s>d which appear in the so-called gamaka 
compounds ( 253, 2, &, only before consonants in the ancient dialect, as 
it would seem according to the instances given there), are nothing but 
a substitute of a ( 269). Some additional instances are: wsj 

(see 203, remark)? 


Regarding the meaning see 271. 


266. In 102, 8, b; 255 it has been stated that 33j3o, 

and cO^CoJ are classed with the (demonstrative) pronouns by the 
grammarians Kesava and Nagavanna. 

t3o is s2&3 (the being on the outer side or foreign) +S5o, another 
he or another man, 33^3$* 35S3+yp* another she or another woman, 
s!3^j s23+25^J (see remark under jj 2G3) or 353cl) s3t5+ S3oJ, anutln'r 
it or another thing, r^ic" ~'.'i' + S50, other men or women, 3C!f'S3; ~ 


55^, ot her things, e. g. tfdSs&a^o sSeSs* ssOe^ctf wHe^C^o, he who is 
called Arjuna, is no stranger; he (lit. this man) must become (the 
leader?), w^o o3S3$J3 ?^o, that man (is) one who is attached to a 
foreign (or another) woman. bosJ&tfOTS&rfo&sSorittaa, ^3rtF^V&>, 


it (the victory?) will be Rama's who has no equal in the world; will it 
be other persons'? Z3t3 qJrfororttfiS Je^a^o ^o, having mannerly 

Q Q 

introduced even laws of other things. sSt^o (with an initial 53*) is 
ancient; the same form and 5o3o occur in the mediaeval dialect; sC3o 
is the only modern form. 

oiodo (which is classed also with the nouns that express indefinite 
quantity, 90. 278, 3.4) is ^w + esrfi, it all, oiwo* (dw + 530*, they all 

co co co 

(men or women), <0>s3) &}> + S3^, all the things, etc. In o}>53D* 
of the ancient dialect the 53* is euphonic like the 33* in 


etc. (see 278, 4). oi^o (nominative of cO>) is used also 
adverbially (see 212, 7). 

osj all (here without suffixes, see it with suffixes at the close of the 


present paragraph when it stands at the end of nouns), is used in 
karmadharaya compounds wherein it may take also the form 
(247, d, a) 1 *, e.0. <O^^>C&>FO; ^ 


(i.e. oio e3orisjj s . in all ways) < 

V to 

. The modern dialect 


uses also coo^cjo and <oa)do for <o^>do and 

In the modern dialect ,3573 by itself is used for the nominative and 


accusative, and then, at least often, conveys an emphatical meaning, 
e.g. <oejs (*. e. the whole earth) [3edd tert)053c)cS6 ^2 

(the whole body) 


as accusative of oejs), occurs also in that dialect. 

PO (V)' 

Concerning the use of oe; ^(y^ etc. at the end of nouns observe 

01' o- 

the following instances: 

^ The compound-rule regarding >} and o^o^ has been retained only in Kosava's 


, (see 124 after No. 6). 213^3,. S3e>?3o,o fc 

tf v 3 -6 & 

. The Niuligattu has: 

267. In 174 it has been stated that there are no relative pronouns 
in Kiinnada, and their place is somehow supplied by the so-calk-d 
relative participles; from the translation of the instances concerning 
these in 179, 186 and 254 this peculiarity has already become evident. 
Occasionally, however, there occur sentences in the three dialects 
which might suggest the thought as if the interrogative pronouns were used 
as relative ones, e. y. tJd^ 5 tsQv ^r?^^ S5rf?3 ^?^o, who (is) a very 
righteous man, he indeed (is) venerable. But this translation is mis- 
leading; the correct literal translation 'is 'who (is) a very righteous 
man? he indeed is venerable'. 

That the meaning of the above and similar sentences is thus to be 
explained by the interrogative pronoun followed by a demonstrative one 
becomes plainer in instances taken from the modern dialect, in which 
dialect the vowel L of questioning ( 212, 6) is often used, c. //. s?2afc 

rfjjsjjs.rt 0&s>3:3^? *3do CW spsjrf, what (is) the fore-part of an 

elephant('s head)? it (is) the dantabhaga. o^'ssirf^o (* e. 


3 o, who does often march out with the very object of vanquishing an 
enemy? such a one (is) an abhyamitrya. 

, who does work? he shall have a dinner, ., 

Pel , 

wno ( are ) tlie people 

whom thou canst trust? such people choose for thy friends! 


S^fc, in what manner 
do they wish that other people should treat them? in that very manner 
they should treat other people. Cf. 271 (w^j cjGoJo^ etc.). 
In 330 this paragraph will be adverted to again. 



268. In the present dialect of the Southern Mahratta country the singular 
of es>53cfo, 'Sl53ci3, ef>53tfj, 'SSStfj is not used in speaking of grown up persons 
whom one considers respectable; the plural of the pronouns (yd do, 
with the verb in the plural) or the singular of w^o, -&^o, 
being used instead (cf. 354, II, and about ^?fo 258). In writing 
about such persons this custom is generally observed only (as it would 
appear), if they are still alive at the writer's time (see e. g. Bombay 
Fourth Book, Mangalore, Basel Mission Press, 1 884, lessons 2. 4. 36. 38. 105). 

In the modern dialect of the Mysore country (according to the Rev. Th. 
Hodson's Grammar 209) "the singular ysj^o, e3Sj^o is used when 
speaking of an equal or an inferior. The plural esddo is used as an 
honorific singular when speaking of a superior, w^?$o, J^, -ds^o, &$ 
are used of an equal or superior when respect is intended". 

In the ancient dialect the use of the singular of the pronouns ydo, 
r arfo, vo^o, ?s;3s>*, 'ads*, erod's* was apparently not connected in any 
way with disrespect, e. g. ssdo 3doe;s3G3, sssJo &0o3oo, ssdcS* So^do, 
yds* sfos^sSfs*, yds* ^ciod; kni>$o3odo, z3?rfc5' 'ado, 
-ads* d?dd iae^. Regarding a rather disrespectful 
use of sj^o observe the sentence todc^o 2oric3s>^f$oo c^ 



The mediaeval dialect does not seem to differ in this respect from the 
ancient one (see e. g. the use of Q^O in Basavapurana 47, 33 and that 
of essJs* in Jaimini 30, i); a^o, -ds^o may be used therein also with a 
certain degree of disrespect, e. g. 


eo 9 

3jv3^{&. Likewise w^ S5d^o are found promiscuously in passages 

that smell of dishonour, e.g. d^,rfd dxrfdoo sidcjS^. w^odd jjdcsa)'^. 

77 WO 

^F>| Ooioo zJridrf^j. vudri^?2J3^2oSJoo sJdd^^o. When in Basavapurana 

^/ vJ 

5, 48-50 women speak to one another of Basava and use, six times, 
3*3$ (for 'adfS) regarding him, they may or may not do so on account 
of respect; they perhaps thought the term to be more expressive on 
account of the fullness of its sound. 

269. In 265 it has been stated that the origin of tt^tfo is 

Concerning this we remark that the Sabdanusasana says 
that e^rf^F optionally appears as >ir and ij^^r and e^do as 
(sutras 177. 178); (the Sabdamanidarpana derives j>3, ^^^r or 


directly from oj^y, sutras 112. 114). is used usJ, e.g. 
e>o for wd Jesao (&abdamanidarpana); a ~ja3o for tjd rfjs^j (Naga- 
varma's Chandas); ^s^cSjfor wsjdj (AbhinaTapampa); i^jJOoSjav* for wjj 
(see Dictionary). The accusative is used for t?^jdo or o^o, 

e. //. >;3?Cjj3 for ws^rfo or >?3o S^C^o; the dative > for 


or ># e. #. >d?*o for w^rftfr, &3^r or &tf zjpJo. About the 

Q O 

meaning of >;s see 271. 

270. The interrogative pronoun 5O* (wcto, odboxjoj, the plural of 
JsJv* (03ue)^^> O30e)rf^o), has been mentioned in 2G5 wherein 
Kesava derives it from tJ^rio, as does also Bhattakalanka: we have 
stated there that eo* is +53* + yo*. (Cf. 272 under No. 2). 

It is used for the masculine and feminine gender singular and plural, 
e. {). ^iJOfiJSD*", who is a poet? 'arf^s*' Wo*, who (is) this man? 

( 203) 

|| what shall I do 


to people who do not reflect tt will he of the inroad of Kala swallow and 
devour (us) to-morrow or the day after to-morrow? who (will be our) 
preserver?", say "destined life (there is for us)", and are conceited 
and elated? ?&&$? wo* 3$ o*, who brought this? ge>o3c 0* $3ft, who 


is thy mother? ^^ wo*? $$f( rfe;^^' ^O 6 , who (art) thou? who (is) 
thy husband? ^mjScd)?^ 2jy?s* Wo*", who knows Siva's command? 

^i ro 

wd ^^JS^^, whose daughter (art) thou? 3^r ^odorlo (=wda 
of whom (is) this horse (i. e. whose horse is this)? woJJoS* wo* 

wo*, who (is) my father? who (my) mother? 

who (my) grandfather? rfori^, f3i;^o oiJeido, (my) son, who (am) I? 
^&?, ^erfo o33e)0o, 0, who (art) thou? ?i^j O53e)d ^ort^o, whose son 
(art) thou? 'arfdo oirado, who (are) these men (or women)? -d? 

oi3)do ^JS^do, this knife is very nice, who 

. eJ 

gave it to you? &,wrfj w Soe)dorf^ ^rfoO^ w?^, ^erfo oiradoij? i^, 

IJ CJ 7) G 

, somebody met the Brahmana and asked "who (art) thou. rir?" 

, sdo, who made the sun? ?5 oije)dj aoJSertj 

I <r 

, who goes there? 53^; oi3?)0 JjS^eJrtc'O SooeJoX^, i' 1 whose (in what 




people's) gardens do they- (the mangoes) grow? u sjj?5 odJddrfo, of whom 
(is) that house (i. e. whose house is that)? -d? ^orfossloNO o&>dj, who (is) 
this man? vfc &3ddo ><3ri djJ3C3J ;!>$ rt&fttfrt? ^raOo!?? qradorlc&o? 
eoW$3cS roOo3JS, which of (these) three people (is) thy friend (fo^ddo, 
honorific plural)? (is it) woman? (or) land? (or) the beauty of great 
riches? ^s; Dh^ fc^rt o&e>do SoJS^rtodtfo, which (what one) will go faster 
than all? $ 3ojdjrfd> o&sdo oksdo 3s?kvlc5do, which of these boys 

ro - O 

were swimming? gdoqJo* w6JS? arfd/3tffl sjogdora^* wsj&fc, which 
(are) Siva's attendants? (and) which of these (is) my lover? 

From the instances given above it will be seen that the interrogative 
pronoun &O 6 (esbj, odbo>do) means 'who' and occasionally 'which'. 

In a note under No. 8, & of 102 it has been stated that the 
demonstrative pronoun ssrfo is occasionally used in combination with 
masculine terms. This occurs when escfo pleonastically precedes the 
interrogatives essSo and eso* (esdj), e.g. <3ne>^$* ^ri 20^0? a^ar 

In the modern dialect the question 

who is that? (who is there?) is now and then heard. The 
Nudigattu has: ,c&>Fk, fteld sSrs A wcrado ria? 

271. Regarding the interrog-atives e5Si, CXJbo>53, C35)5j in the so-called 
gamaka compounds some instances have been adduced in $ 253, '->, b; 
265. From those instances it appears that their meaning is 'what', 'what 
kind', and 'which' according to circumstances. 

The use of wsSo, e553S7*, es^c^o; odbo>53c&, C3o>53oi3, odbsss^j (odbo>53S^, 
crasstfj), odbo)53c^, C3o>53c5o; 6553)5$, OJbo>5353) (crasSig)) has been alluded 
to in 267 where instances are given that might be supposed to be 
relative ones. Here follows a number of various instances: s^o 
sJoodNO ^J3^o? Wdo Ljtftfo?ft?e3rWt3 S5C3y?3do, who killed Mura? who 
overwhelmed and disgraced Baka, Kaiiisa, (and) KOsi? ^^e>CT?^c5 s 

, except thee, Arhat, who (is) excellent on earth? 

D ricSriJ5s? re^'FTTei^o 00? when a Jaina 


seixes (his) pot-stone pencil, when Arjuna seizes (his) bow, when Indra 
sci/es (his) thunderbolt, when Krishna seizes (his) discus, when Bhima 
seizes (his) club, who will stand to fight? >35x)oo3Je)5jS?< what woman 


(is) free from desire? 'ad&tesr* Sjjclrforafs* ws3?2J3, which of these (is) 

my lover? srasj S^nvsls* ^zb dd3 zorad^ w^)C3o? wdo 
w w ro 

what (is) the colour of sin (and) virtue? who know it? ^ 


, what (is) the business (you) have come (for)? rfo, 

, what (is) the substance of your qualities? 53 
what (is) his profession? ysJjrfj ^o^eJo ^f>, what (is) thy distress? 

|| "if (one) 

considers, those (pearls are) large and these make themselves to be 
called (i. e. are) small; even this (is) the difference. Which do suit you? 
them choose with pleasure", (thus) saying (he exhibited) all the nine 
precious gems. >do) otos^fl) 3oJ3fr(j3) ^, which of you goes? ^^dS 

<Sco ~~^ **) 

(or c&j>rf<i?j) ^^^., which of these (is) your elder sister? 
, on which (person) of these didst thou fix 

(thine) eye? -d? rfo^o^tf OJae)d^J, which of these men? 

<O co 

?S, rfj^ro^ zodo^cS, which of these books doest thou like? 

doest thou even not know which (is) the palace (and) which (is) the 
building erected for the accommodation of travellers? >?! <oc3rto&' 
o&rarfrfo? w^rioi:* o&ssjdj, which (is) thy left hand? (and) which (is 
thy) right hand? -d? ^JSP^orl^ a^^ Oi3e)^c3o. which of these pairs 

CO G^ 

of shoes (is) thine? & do?Sri^C> >?3 S^JN 03Je)5Jdo which of these houses 

PO V < 

(is) thy house? ?^3l3Jc33q$FrW0 ^oosjo ^oJSG5o ^JS^rlv'o oiJDSjSj? 

which (are) the three principal 

V to 

branches of created things? the animal branch, the vegetable branch 
(and) the mineral branch. er\)3 G&&73d tfci wo Osp^rirtv'j, wrf) 

O CD ^ 

in North India (there are) six divisions; what (are) they? 


(are) the chief rules I'm forming the plural of IIOUIH'.-' From tilt- 
instances quoted above it will be seen that the meaning of o3o, etc. 


is 'who', 'what person', < which person', and that of e353)<3J, etc. 'what', 
'which'. About e^o*, etc., the plural of wrfo, etc., see 270. 

(, 269), > , &c& mean 'what', 'what kind or manner of; 'why', 
'how', when they might be taken also as exclamatory words (cf. 262). 
>o ?j?3 oJoo, what doubt (is there)? ^dc5?3 o =5e)dr3o, what (is) the 
reason so that (thou) delayest (i. e. of thy delay), esd^o, what (is) that? 
&3o sjjs&d dJS^sJo 5 o, what (is) the fault he has done? gtitt >o 
SeJdrao, (your) religious austerity (for) what reason (i. e. why are you 
ascetics)? e5sj?S^o, what manner of man (is) he? essjs^o, what manner 
of woman (is) she? a^Otd^eJ^ssJorl^^o, what (do) the discourses of 
those attendants (mean)? oi^dod^ 53 ^rsr^^i 6^0 ^Aris?*, how (could) 
all (be) liberal persons like Karna? ^35e>dsiiO&>Je> airfare >S&* S5c3^ s 


ojroad>FdQ sj^slseia.c&fas*, 0, how that mass of bright fog shines on 

Icr ^ 

the western mountain! >o ^o&oArfordp ^-iOftagtlsv* abort's 6 , 0, how 
the birds crowd on the highest branch ! ao^>^) slraJeo, why many words? 
'acteS ssqJrsS^rfo, what (is) the meaning of this? w ?A^D^ 3o?d6??i>, what 
(is) the name of that town? ^j ^^o dJS^o^e, what doest thou make? 
$3ft ii^J zS^o, what doest thou want? ysjfii >ck ^^03^ ?S, what does 
he ask? 5^^rl ^ort^ri sisJo^sS^o, what (is) his monthly pay? yd y^ 


art >&> Po^k^J, what did he find there? wrf^o ^(dri >Fl> eru^rf 

what answer does he give thee? The genitive of So, &^o (^^S 

is frequently used in the sense of 'of what', 'of what kind', 'of what 

substance, caste, etc.', 'what kind', 'what', e. g. &3&3 sira 

what kind of word on earth! a^GS^^fS^ of what caste (is) he? 

^$ 6 >sd $ofc!or{f3J3, 0, what kind of paramour thou art! 

riorso, what quality of devotion (is) that? y^Sf) 3 rfo.rforttfc 

o^^o, what greatness (is) the excessive killing of beasts? >^ 

what kind of country? >3e3 rfjs^o, what kinti of word? 

G5cSo, of what (is) this pitcher (made)? <s,c3o o3re^&3 Soe)^j, what kind of 

snake (is) this? 'adrfo oS3e)^S355^J, of what caste (or profession is) he? 

The dative 3=r 3$ 33 >3 ora oi3e>^^ o33)^ means 'for 

what', 'wherefore', 'why', e. g. ^^p sl>o>?l>, why passion? 

I do not know why. ^= 3oJ3oJo^o* orf,o, why do you beat me? 

O* O \. 

wherefore these various (high) ranks? 
for what (is) the staying in this man's fort? -d? 
, why this word (or speech)? 'srfo oiJe)^^ z3^o, why (or for 
what) is this required? o&s>3 ^ D, why did you come? 


272. In 102, 8, b, remark possessive pronouns have been mentioned. 
There are no distinct possessive pronouns in Kannada, but their place is 
supplied 1, by the genitive case of the personal pronouns, of the reflexive 
pronoun and of the demonstrative pronouns, and 2, by the addition of the 
demonstrative pronouns to the genitive case of the mentioned ones. 

The first class corresponds to the English possessive pronominal 
adjectives my, thy, his, her, its, our, your, their; the second one 
represents the English possessive pronouns mine, thine, his, hers, its, 
ours, yours, theirs. 

1, The possessive pronominal adjectives are formed by the genitives. 
^N, *^, 33, 33^ oiSU, oirf^, 3&>, 33^, and a following noun, e.g. 

, the house of me, i. e. my house; 
^si^^ocSoS, the horse of us, /'. e. 
our horse; 

tf, $3^, ftsjo, $>rf^, and a following noun, e.g. 3 3j?3, ^rfo?2, 
thy house; ^o tforiod, d^tfoci>5, your horse; 

33, 33^ 3s3o, ^si^ (reflexive) and a following noun, e. g. 3 
, his house; 3s& ^ocioS, 3rfo ^orfod, their horse; 

(demonstrative masculine) and a following noun, e.g. 

o?5, his house; 

^odod, their horse; 

a^s^, -d5=aoio, 

(demonstrative feminine) and a following noun, e.g. 

ht-r house; a^C ^orf^d, etc., their horse; 

JC3e3, ^c3S3, y\)C3S3, sje3, ^^3, ensrf^, S5^rt^, ^rftf (demon- 
strative neuter) and a following noun, e.g. S5d3 rfo^, etc., its house; 
55S3&3 ^ocSod, etc., their horse. 


Occasionally a possessive pronoun of the second class (i.e. one of No. 2) is 
used for the first class, e.g. in the following instance of tin- unou'iit dialect: 
dcScz^do 3rf^ (his) #03 & fc?d^ e^ -3-?rfortoo, tho forester thus scrapinl liis bow 
(cf. No. '2). 


2, The possessive pronouns are formed by the genitives adduced above 
under No. i and a following demonstrative pronoun, e. g. oificoo (<0rl+ 
esd>), NfidJ (F^+^do), of me it, i.e. mine (referring to a neuter 

Sl]lJlHir K ^^ ^ j ( <0r3 -4- 3oJO ) c3r^ o^O 

of me he, i. e. mine (referring to a masculine singular), oOr3.s 
S5oj^), (\jfi.ojs?* (NN.+ y Sj^?*) , <vfj,ojvo f^^~t~ S53vo), ot me she, i. e. mine 
(referring to a feminine singular); ^)fl^) (&i^+S3^)), <$&*$) (r^rl+S5^)), 
f^fWjri^o (r^?l+e5^r(^o), of me they, i.e. mine (referring to a neuter 

mine (referring to a masculine or feminine plural), etc., etc. The following 
instances may show the use: -d? dj?3o3jf3 do, -ds do^S ?3?ldo, this house 
(is) mine; ? sljrlrSf^ sjo, -d? ^orto c^c^ rfo -ds s^orl^o <$!$ ^^o, this son is 
mine; t? Sjjris 5 * ^f^o^S 5 * & ^oris?* F^'^^S?*, 25 sjorts^o r^plois'o, this 
daughter (is) mine; y ^J^D* i?ldD*, t> 
those sons (are) mine; -dso&e)^ s 3 * ^^ 

A - < i *^ 

), these servants (are) mine; t&O&fiAylv* 3f$j$) (reflexive), 
ijrl^o, these oxen (are) his; 
), those horses (are) theirs. 
), that ornament (is) hers. f s v d& ( S* ^^?3* oidja^o, of these men 

this man (is) ours. F3^cSe3s) ?o,c3e, a ^ m i ne (i- e - a ^ tnat ^ 
thine indeed. 

The possessive pronouns <o?|cl>, rifirio, mine, ^?^do, thine, 
his, appear, in the ancient dialect, also as <o^j 

or as 

when (he) said 

"Firmness of character (is) thine, valour (is) mine, to the king (belongs) 
his great courage" (cf. No. i, remark), 


passion (is) thine, patience (is) mine, to the female companion (belongs) 
her conciliatory appearance. 

Also oj^ (}$+&, see 122), mine, $&> (^?s+^o), thine, ^^ 
j), his, are occasional, though undesirable, forms in that dialect, 


as iu the modern one $$& may appear as j^, jtfd) as ?> , 

as 3F& . The plural of }#&, >3^->, c$3j, 33j is o 

si>^o or oirf^4i <^i?A S^^ii ^^fe- 
There is, however, the rule in the ancient dialect that 
o^o, 3rf^J may take the forms of ,0^00^0 

and ^sjoo 3j before the appellative nouns of number (see 278, 
4, except, of course, joWFo, etc.) and before the numerals from two to 
nine, e. g. 

and .irfo^ES^ ^0^5*, ^^OJ^3e)^o AOrts?*, ^d^ojjo rfo^rlv*. The 
affix vo^j is the intermediate demonstrative pronoun used for ?roc5j 
(cf. 173). The meaning of the instances is 'we five (persons)', 'we 
seven (persons)', etc., and 'us eight children', etc. The same meaning 
may be expressed by the genitive, e.g. ois^oioo* (<0^+S5o3o c*) fci|si, 
we five came, ^sJo^oio.D* ^Je>>o*, you five went, or by the nominative, e.g, 

Instances with the suffixes e^o and ero^o do not seem to occur in 
the mediaeval dialect in which the forms with the genitive and nominative 
prevail, e. g. ^s^z^o* (^e^-fa^D 6 "), 3D3^o', 3s>4 doJS^o*, ^^~- 
do. Regarding the declension we find therein e.g. >&? ^sord^o, 

rt. In the modern dialect we 

have e. g. <3e>)2o do, > -* v--, v-\ 4 - 

10 Si tJ 10 .- 

It may be remarked that regarding the appellative nouns of indefinite 
quantity e5>soo*, ^200* ( ^78, *) a similar practice is observed; we 
find e. g. in the mediaeval dialect 
(^^+^5)200*); $aoji&)do, Jirf^c 

'Whose', in questions like 'whose horse is this', 'whose ripe fruits 
are those', is expressed by adcSo 

), 6. n. & ^ocSodoiisdcio, & Troches oi3>dcio? 


O33e)d5^rt^o? In tin- ancient dialect e?dd> becomes also 
>.(j. t>^?r ^odo/lo? (See 270.) 

Remark with regard to ^ (see 263, remark): 

'Of what, or in what, direction (is) it?' 'where (is) itr' may be rendered 
by oj^racij (lO^rs-j. s3cio), which appears also as ^^^^ (*J^B5 y + ^) & g- 3^-^f, 
H^rtolSJ 6 oO^^^ra^sr^Jr)*, rfSFdoio ^3oo, " in what direction (are) the points 
of the compass? where (is) the sky? where (is) the earth?" (thus) making 



(people) say (i. e. in such a manner that people uttered the above questions) 
darkness spread about, "i^ra is the genitive of &,, a declinable adverb of place 
(212,25 123). 

XIV, On adjectives, 

273. In 90 adjectives or attributive nouns (gunavacanas) are intro- 
duced as declinable bases, and their gender has been stated, in 102, 
8, c, to be vacya or viseshyadhina, in which place it has also been 
remarked that they are formed from nouns by means of pronominal 
suffixes (see 276). 

In ancient Kannada and other books thirty-three attributive nouns 
are usually employed; they are, in their singular neuter forms, the 

or e5>>, en;>3o or eroa&y, to$.o or &$,&., ^0,^0 or 
-' o Q - V %' -" e 

or itfJ30j rtordaJ or rorj, 3) so or 

-*' <a ca -' da 

or ;S?.o JOo or j3DsJ do or dx j3&3o or 

or ?loc^) n , O^j or ^o^j,, w.j or w.3o , zoOo or 

to eo eo M 

or ^r^o o , z^o or z.^j n , soJ or so)o o , o or 

c _o' J eJ _s' PD ro -o' TO 

(see their declension in 122); y^odo, s^cfc, 

, eoS5 9 rfj, Wrjrfo, 2S^do (see their declension in 122), of which 
four are tadbhavas (8 370), viz. eroa^o, wUso, sSoO^o, ^rl 3o. 

co d co ra 

As will be seen, they form two classes according to their finals. 

The neuter plural of the first class is e. g. , , 

, , , , (see 136); 

that of the second class is e.g. S3rco&rf), 

( see 136 )- 
The masculine singular of the first class is e. g. fco^ 

Sc3o, 2323rfo, sSoScio (see 117); 
that of the second class e. g. $s?oa3oo, ^crioo, oi^ojoo, ^SoJoo, ^DoJoo, 

S-e^aioo, ^aai)o, 5J^ 3 OJoo, ^OoJoo, ^s^riao (cf. the formation of the 


appellative nouns of number in 278, 4 and the modern 3o02o), 
or ^e3orfo, 20rOOJoo, a^crfoo (see 117). 

The feminine singular of the first class is e. g. 

(see 120); that of the second class 


(sec 120). 

The epicene plural of the first class is e. g. to^cicr, f3?OCo*, 
(see 119); that of the second class e.g. "aao&o*, ^oioo* 
SiOoioo', 318*3^0*, wWjrfo*, aSaJjtfo* (see 119. 134). 

Some instances regarding- their use in the ancient and mediaeval dialect 
arc the following (cf. 276): 

tSU^ortj^ (t3!3^o Aorta's?), a severe disease of the uvula, 
;3je>e3 (for s&sdrtv', see 354, I, s, 6), round breasts. a ado 
sweet milk. ^Orfo ^^O, black musk. ftScSo slxj^, a white pearl. 
great desire. &0&) 25;r(c, great liberality. ^jOcioO, a large 

flame. e3 9 do ^JStio, a small quantity. &>0do si4o, great vigour. 


, big buttocks. ?2?QCo^) zSdej* (for 

straight fingers. 'a^oJov* ^DCid, a sweet paramour. 'S.^oJos 
siosjo (for 3Slal>?ooJor^) ^023^ ?oOs3p^, the sweet pleasures of the 
objects of sense (are) like the sweetness of poison. 

But though such instances in which the so-called adjectives are 
immediately connected with nouns, not unfrequently occur in the 
mentioned two dialects, there is also another more common way of 
doing so, viz. by putting 595} , esao, e53o and esd between them, essi , 
53o, tJ3o are the present relative participles of wrfo ( 183, remark 
after No. 7. 184. 223), 'becoming', 'being' (literally 'of the becoming 
or being', 186), and tJd is the past relative participle of tJ/io ( 176), 
'having become', 'being' (literally 'of the having become or being'; 
about the possibility of wd being used also for the present tense see 
169). The translation of the participles into English is, according 
to circumstances, 'that is', 'who is', 'which are', l who are', 
instead of which (the so-called Kannada) adjectives alone may be used in 

Instances in the ancient and mediaeval dialect are: s3e3.3zi qJ , a 

U ) \9 

sound that is harsh or a harsh sound. 

, soft soles of the feet and very rough hands, 

qj a, a melodious tone. ^d>^ sJsij, a young cow. 3oOdsJ 3&\, great 

supremacy. ooOcrfjrfsJ >^ 9 . large fishes. os?o3jtf 3o30, a young 

oj oJ 

daughter. wOdosJ C^zdo"", powerful demons. o^^3o b^,o a precious 

M V 



pearl. ^$.330 sd^o, a good cow. >orf5o i s^. great desire, 

V 6) 

e5 3o qjDF^od 3oS, the small and sharp point of corn. 
, an excellent gift. ^sOg^cS rlfd o, a sharp smell. 


extreme astonishment. ?j^js?jo oaOcisd 3o5;^) 3jc3rt<j, various verses 
in which compounds are extensive. 

It is to be remarked that also words which do not belong to the 
above-mentioned thirty-three so-called adjectives (as Samskrita adjectives, 
etc.), may be made such in Kaunada by the addition of ssj , 530, wrf, 


}J ' 1) oo ^ oO 


Instead of 53i, ya6 and wrf also eA, 'having become', together with 
a form of 'ao*, to be, is used, e. g. FS^o^^j^hcSordj (*. e. jd^o^sjoo^ wh 
that is brown; s3??rrsr>3;FCJo, that is excellent; 3dtf cxjooo 
, she who is shrewd and clever; jscS33ft36 

wL a long desolate road. Sss^tt A3o o^taqx^^o^wo, the cele- 

brated capital of Kuntala. rfUdjsA ^o^orfjsA 'ac3e)^^o, he who is 
stout and fine. 

Also erutf., 'being', 'possessing' (literally 'of the being', etc., 186), 
the present relative participle of yx>^ ( 180, remark after No. 6), 
which has been mentioned as one of the taddhita suffixes ( 243, B, 
No. 20), may be introduced here again, as similar adjectives or attributive 
nouns are formed by means of it, in which it signifies 'who has', etc., 

e. g. qStfs&otf.o, a man who has riches or a rich man; Lrfj^o, a studying 

man; rtoradjo^o, a man endowed with good qualities; 
a man well supplied with grain; ZoJSwrta'^s?*, a charming woman; 
sses^'r'o*, wise men (see 316 under i; eni^ in combination with the 
accusative see ibid.). The contrary may be expressed by *ae>c5, 'not 
being' ( 175, 3), 'not having', e. g. ia^do, a man in whom there is no 
studying, i. e. a not-studying man; 22)^^jsjdo, a stupid man; 

fSp co 

a crook-armed man; di36o3oe;c3 22o7Te>3o, worthless gold. 

ro * 

CSorfo, that which has no terminations (see 316 under i). 

eaotfo s^o^^^rf do^odoo *5^,e5 9 ^<3 ^4& 'acl) sJwderfo. 

t -rf- n tf ro O 

though there be a village in which there are no tenants, a house in 
which there are no children, one's own people who have no love, what 
(is their) worth? (see 275). 


Prominently in the mediaeval dialect *aao, 'being', present rol 
participle of -so* ( 184), is used like P A>V> when it is suffixed to one of 
the original forms of the thirty-three attributive nouns which will be 

adduced presently, e. y. dJSftao <o^,, a large ox; cSjsa 3o tf^jrttfo large 
stones; 2oS?,3o rfoa. good speech; ^j3PD3o =8^3*, swelling udders; zoliao 

V U '- 

&& round leprosy. 

It remains to be stated that the above-mentioned thirty-three adjectives 
or attributive nouns possess what we may call original forms. Those of 
the first class are 

(for yriO^o), A)d (for eroa^o), 2uV* (for 2s?;^j), ^six (for 
cf. 102, 9), ^JSD* (for ^jao^o), (rtarso , for riorS^o), ^f5* (for 
Jv* (for jls?.^)), JjSi^d (for Jj?)0^j), dfcj (for 
(for z3j3&^j), j3op* (for foorS^o), ?2?o* (for ^O^o), wkj. (for 
(for &^o), )?* (for t^r^^o), )&3o (for iS^^o), does* (for 
(for ?or$^j). (2^^ is also ancient, though it would seem, as if its longer 
form did no longer exist.) 

Those of the second class are 

S5^o (for 5A)C3o), Qftf, <.$ (for ^)Ck), ( adj ff (Qttf, for 
<otf (for <o^di), ^^o, ^c^j (for ^arfj), ^D* (for ^Oc3o), 

Eci \ ^t^ of f* /TOT* Q O-O.Q y^ x \ ^\ o ^ \ *\ ft \T^ \ / Tr4T *\ ^^ T^ \ \ -r^ & Q /tV^I* 

oJo , v/LL/. ( i\JL ^f^fj Cjvj I , j&jO., fJ^ rJCoO I Ifl rOCaC-JO I &j\jj I IvJl 
JJrO (for COrOClj), ^1^, 23^ (f r )$rfj). 

We have already met with these original forms in karmadharaya 
compounds, in 247, d, 5 seg., where they are regarded as substitutes 
by native grammarians. Cf. also 244 (doo*, ^03*). 

Regarding 55^0, &, 5^0, ^i^ there is the ancient rule ( 253, 2, c) 
that where they form so-called consecutive compounds 
they insert ojj, viz. wAooioNd-), >ao3j$e>t>rt, obOo5orforio(o. r. 
ft^crio^s^F, to which Kesava adds also sjrocdosors o, though there is 


apparently no 3J2oc3o (but sj^j). It has been remarked already in 
253 that this oJo is o&*4-S5, i. e. the genitive. Instead of y^ooijpi^o 
the Jaimiui Bharata and the modern dialect have yAo^cl); the Jaimini 
])harata has also esAjsSder 1 ' for 55A}OJo z33ej*. The same Bharata uses 
for )&0oj ^oCo^r*, and jrjcSj?)ojo* for 3JAjodo ^vJ)^o*. For 5jO 
the modern dialect uses 3ui3Sjort. and 1'or t^tfcrfo'S'diF it has ;l 


. or 


would be regular karmadharaya compounds like the ancient 
3$^o*'; cf. 'CTOOC^ in the Nacirajia. 

<>}$, tiQ (both mediaeval and modern) and aot^S (ancient?, mediaeval 
and modern) often follow the ancient rule regarding e$2o, etc., that is to 
say suffix the & of the genitive by means of a euphonic o& ( 130, b, c), 
e. #. t^cdo (or o^e) &ao&e>F2, a young she-elephant; 2o#0co (or &&?) 
Sr^Zo, a good business; ade^ctfo (or so&S 3 ?) A.^6, the old garment of a 

274. If attributive nouns do not precede the nouns or pronouns with 
which they are connected, but follow them, they appear e.g. as follows: 
tfu^sfo* fcftseXrij^, the poetry became good. PJSJ^ ao$,cSo, he (is a) good 
(man). ysj<s* a^dv', she (is a) good (woman). 54 &0o3os3), they 
(the pearls are) large. e3s3o* toQcoo*, they (are) able (persons). 

It will be observed that in such a case the attributive noun agrees 
in gender with the nominative to which it is added. 

Samskrita adjectives are used similarly, e. g. ^20 o f> ^ o, 

tJ O Q ' 

tirfo^o, , 

275. Grammars and other books of the modern dialect adduce various 
adjectives or attributive nouns, e. g. esowowjdo^, vucS, <o^.<3, *}$, &,, ^3o, 


(Nudigattu p. 58; Anglo-Kanarese Translation Series I, pp. 39/41. 42: 
etc.), of which several are known to be ordinary nouns (cf. 277). 

Their use may be learned from the following instances (cf. 316, 2): 

^o) rtoa, a large bunch. 
rid. =^c 


eruado. eS^sl. sl^osj sSjae&S 3 . ^^JJ cra^o. c3^ rfort. 




dorio. to^ oi&i. a* t3)0. ?^ra F*i6ri^o. ados^o 

(The instances are taken from South-Mahratta school-books 
that were composed by natives.) 

, that is necessary, ey do^ssle^ oi^,d 


Wtfo 'ad si. aorwrttfo 3Sx> 'add). 

ra o C9 00419 

U ws3. oi^rt . 


^ 9 



nre? aora^a a6ro^ aoo^ wra 43 
?jrs^) '^sS. w^)^^) ^dej (cloudless) 


CO Csi 

dr3do. ^oA?^ <^^rr)o2J3^r\fi Ji^do zosotf sID 'ado 


(see 355, s). 3oJ3rt^o ao^do wd. ^J3?fe3 aoodowdo^o 'adosjdo. 
3o0^oijc3 (Instances from S.-Mhr. school-books. It is to be 
remarked that there are instances among them in which other authors 
would perhaps prefer to use wft and a form of ^do, instead of <aoj 
alone, after the attributive nouns, e. g. wgn^s^ dCjj3>ftt3; see further 
on in this paragraph, and cf. the forms with ^20 suffixed to the original 
forms of attributive nouns in 273. In the mediaeval Basavapurfma 
there occurs once zo^^OdrsS^), 29, 28.) 

broad walls, 




. , . , 

De)rfo^o. 36^3 d 3ar35^. (Instances from S.-Mlir. school- 


a false friend, d^^tf, r^3o?5rij. 
sS. ^jaoioo^. 

9 %* 

treeless deserts. zjo>5L>d dodrftfo. 

ro Q co co 

d?3e>odorf. (Instances from the same.) 

Instead of esd also &f\^ 'having become', together with a relative 
participle of <s,do, to be, is used, e.g. W3atf e^^sftdoddo (for w^tfna 
ddJ), (it is) excessive. ^dcssssAdod ^o/rsd, ornamental gold. ^s3o 
r^osftdodddo, illustrious persons. (Instances from the same and from 
a Mysore book.) 

With reference to the remark made above in this paragraph that 
some authors would perhaps prefer to use yA and a form of ^do, instead 
of -sdj alone, after attributive nouns, the following instances, taken from 
S.-Mhr. school-books, may be given: 
ero&? 9 ro 




Occasionally <& (i. e. e^+^ao, 223) is suffixed to t?rf and 
e. g. ?^jNds3e)d^ (beautiful) i^sjsj^ tc^Sjrt^o. (Instance from a 
S.-Mhr. school-book.) 

Frequently this &$ appears as $ (cf. 223. 224) and 55^ without 

Cp v 

in the formation of so-called adjectives, e. g. erodfl 

longhair, ^ra rf ?A)S)OWJ, ^rtdo. QeJ.?4 2osS, rfs5,fi S5t5 9 sS, z3tf,? 




sl>3 rf, ^osieOJ: or sn;c3^ ^JSctoo, etc. (Instances from S.-Mhr. 

- <- O^ O 

school-books.) 3^ occurs also as 5^, e. g. d {5 20^3,, and t>?3, e. ^. 


Lastly also forms with yri ( 212, remark 2) have been used as so- 
called adjectives, e. g. ^^rttfo 3t3f\ 'adj^sS, mineral coals are 
black. 3oort^ ^JSd^o ^&3rtd. sia crfoo 

. h^rttfo w^o ^ds)A 53^ fi ^do^ Q ^. (Instances from 


S.-Mhr. school-books.) 

Also so-called relative participles have been called adjectives in 
modern grammars, e. g. 3oJ3s?ol>J53 ^^rl^j, bright stars, ^ej 

sA ^ 


bad servants (Anglo-Kanarese Translation Series, Book I, pp. 39. 40), 
and even plain genitives, us A;IJ, &>3\rj, SosS^oSo (Nudigattu, p. 58). 

To express 'very' before an adjective, 833, zj^o, toootf and 10260 
may be used, e.g. 833 c3si , very thick; eo^j Z3)F3, very clever; W3ctf 
dJ3^, very great; 20360 ^od, very clean. About another way of render- 

Cd Q 

ing 'very' see 305, a. In the case of inferiority also ^^d is used for 
'very', e. g. o^tf ?dre, very small, which 3?d is employed also to express 
'quite', 'wholly', e.g. sjjortritfo 3eoe> do^o^^ 35=>tf ^rco^sS, monkeys 
appear quite like men. 

On comparison see ^ 343. 348, 7. 349, 8. 

276. Looking back at 273 we find that the so-called adjectives in 
the ancient and mediaeval dialect consist of original forms (as eo<^. 3J3O*, 
etc., 83 A), <3, etc.) combined with certain suffixes. What are these? 

They are the pronominal forms &>, 3b , d> of the neuter singular intro- 
duced in S 122, so that e. a. ^$.^0 or Zu&^o would be the original form 

V V "^ 

aoV*+'a+^o or ^j^ the ^ being a euphonic addition (cf. 168), and the 
primitive form being a^tfc . To assume that the <&. is not euphonic, and 
^o, 'S.s^ (for ^cjo_) are the suffixes added to ^v*, seems to be excluded 
on account of the absence of analogy, as ss^j, 83^, would have been the 
proper suffixes, and the neuter plural Lo^dj^ and the masculine 
singular ^^rfo would raise insuperable difficulties. 

in $3?o&>, 'SX^rfj, etc. there is no euphonic letter, but the pronominal 
suffix d) is immediately joined to the original forms 83 A), 'a^, etc. 

In the masculine form z^do (originally, we believe, Sotfo) the a 
and cs* are euphonic (about the euphonic n* see 119, a, $Jj 132. l-'J-l. 
136, and cf. 2^rfo^) further on in the present paragraph); to^cSo, 
therefore, is E^ + 'a+c^ + eSo (or 53), the yo (or 83) meaning 'he' (see 
115. 177. 193, under remarks). The feminine form Eu^rfv is t*v* + 'a 
+ C3*-f 83V'*, the 85V* meaning 'she' (see e.g. 177). (830 Co in i 
might be explained similarly as 83 + ^+c3* + 85o, but the given cxpia- 


nation seems to recommend itself.) 

In the masculines 83A)OJJo, 'a^oijo, etc. the neuter suffix Co has beeu 
dropped, and 85o has been joined, by means of the genitivr 130), 

to the original forms eJc, ^^, etc. (see jj 1K>). The feminine forms 85 Aj 
etc. are 83AiOoOt5v etc. 


The neuter plural e. g. of &,$,& or &,.^ is a^do;^, anc * tnis consists 
of 20^ + euphonic ^+ euphonic n*+sro^j (see 136, a); the neuter plural 
e. g. of e5^odo is e3roo3o;J, i. e. ej^oojo (the genitive of ss?o) + e34 ( see ibid-)' 
S5SJ) having taken the place of vos^) (cf. eros^) and ys^) in 209. 210). 

The epicene plural is e. g. a^do*, i. e. ao^+'Si+^+^o* an(i ^odotf, 
. e, 'S.^ol) (the genitive of '3i) + e3&*, the S5o meaning 'they' (see e.g. 

Thus the pronominal suffixes of the mentioned so-called adjectives in 
the ancient and partly in the mediaeval dialect are ^o, ^_J C , do, e5o, 

, , . 

In the modern dialect the suffixes are partly the pronouns ydo, 
(or sss^rttfo), ssddo, e. g. dJSddo (dJ3d + s3do), dJS 

for d^dj/^j), djs^sjdj: rirado f^ra+^do), etc.; 

V ^ V ' 

zSjarirftfo, djs^d) for d^dj/^j), djs^sjdj: rirado f^ra+^do), etc.; 

a> a>^ V <a ^ a ra V TO ' 

2^=^, do (2^^+S5do), etc. (see 124, 4), the pronouns being added to the 

short original forms (see 273); partly the pronominal forms do, es^o 
(=o), estfo (=S5^), wdo (=S5c), e. f $r. -S-ef) 9 do, ^e^oio^o, -&&3 9 oJo^o, 

277. The so-called adjectives or attributive nouns in Kannada are 
partly ordinary nouns and partly pronominal nouns. 

The first are represented by their short original forms ( 273), e. g. 
*3r(>; 3ro. At least some of the forms of the first class mentioned in 
273 are declined, e. g. yrlw^, esrtad, ssrl^d; erucS^,, srodd, ewddO: 

co' Q & Q Q ro 7 

ijs^dd, Jj3^ddJSs^; rS^rlFS?*; and some of the second class too, for 
instance e5A)OJo, e3 9 odo, 3odo, iD^odo. 

The pronominal nouns are represented by the forms composed of the 
short original forms and the suffixes ^o, alo^, etc. They are used also 
just like ordinary nouns, as will be seen from the following instances: 
bdo3dr3o^ (for loOdoddFcrt^) o&3 9 3^ ^wtt 
, he who brings about to make known great things even in 
short (^CO'cSC^JS^, i. e. in a few words, is) wiser than that man. 

to make right. z%.3o doDCO 5Jo, a man who causes welfare. 
a man who utters pleasantness (i. e. pleasing words). 

d^o good (and) bad. >Do3oo, a Brahmana. 
eminent persons who have (or wear) the jate. SoOoJoQri 
rising (from a sitting posture) before elders. &e3 9 do &0do 
to make a small thing an extensive one. ( a>0oos> e 

a paramour (is) indeed a man sweeter than jaggory. ^f\ zo)c3o* art 


*, can rustics become persons of (greater) ability than IV 

Such compounds as totfo^;&, s?i^fo ( 247, d, n), 

(ibid. 8) are, therefore, to be translated literally: a goodness-food 
(i. e. a good food), a sweetness-meal (i.e. a sweet meal), a largeness-bunch 
(i.e. a large bunch), the sweetness-sea (i.e. the sweet or milk sea); 

and such as zSlUortoS, &OcTO?3, &3?0cfcs3) fc^rfo ( 273), a severity- 


it-disease (2. e. a severe disease) of the eyes, a greatness-it-desire (i. e. 
a great desire), bigness-they-buttocks (i. e. big buttocks). All these 
instances bear the character of karniadharaya compounds, as do also 

the compounds of the three dialects: 2$3,2J3Pz3rt, c3jscs)?3 Zorsrretf 

u ca ' ro 

a littleness-wonder, a greatness-elephant, a smallness-fishing hook. 

In 275 it has been remarked that modern Kannada grammars and 
other books adduce and use several ordinary nouns as adjectives, e.g. 

ssofciozjodo^, timid, o^d, ^&, &dca, $^od, 3s3oj , ^oodj^, A)?, 360230 . 

OJ fcy 

Occasionally a so-called adjective in its neutral form is used as 
an adverb, e.g. >Oc3oO, to burn greatly; 3oOdo e> zfo, to be greatly 
disturbed in thought. 

XV, On numerals, 

278. Numerals are declinable bases, and comprise also appellative 
nouns of number and words that express indefinite quantity ( 90). 
Their declension is given in 122. 131 (cf. 354, 1, &), their gender is 
indicated in 102, , #, and their figures appear in 44. 

1, The not compounded cardinal numbers up to ten are: e^o 1, 
2, rfoJSCflo 3, ira wo, 4, *3o3oo (yoSod), also mediaeval) 5, 3o 6, 
7, ojcso. 8, s^ (2%, a l so mediaeval) 10. 0^%, 9, is a 
compounded cardinal number, consisting of ^^" (another form of ^pjo) 
and si^ or ad^ (see further on in the present paragraph). 

When, up to nineteen, the mentioned cardinal numbers are compounded 
with a preceding 30^ or So^ 10, this jj^ or aosfo^ takes the forms 
5jc3* or 3053*, 55Q or a6Q, SjQ^* or 3oSc^ ( 248 > 10 )> except before 
Thus we get 3J&f?\?fc (c/. 215, 7, d; 3of3jB.rfo, also mediaeval) 11, 

v. Ci C O 

, also mediaeval) 12, nasJoJS^o (Soa^oJseSo) 13, ria^ 

;) The numberu in parent lu\-i> an such as occur, partly as additional forms, in the 
modern dialect alono, if 'also mediaeval' is not added, 


14, sja^ojoo (soa^crfoj, also mediseval) 15, sja^-gtSo (5o> 
; also mediseval) 16, sJa^eW- (^a^?i3o, also mediaeval) 17, a 
soacfcw,, also mediaeval) 18, sJl^sS^a^ (^Jjs^o^) 19. 

From twenty up to twenty-nine the compounds (a kind of gamaka 
compounds or tatpurushas, 253, 2, a) have as their first member 
( 248, 2) or 'as*, which are other forms of ^dz^o. Thus: ^SJF^ 
30, also mediaeval) 20, ^sjrjjs ?k f'a^Jjs^o) 21, 'asJr^Srfj 

-* ' -* CO ^ t>0 - Q' * 

22, asJFSf^rfoJaedo ( < atf > ^,djJ8C5o, ^scl^J^o, occasionally 
23, 'asjr 

24, -asJFc&o "aroSoo 25, ^sJFeSo -aso 26, 

27, ft . ., 

OJ B / o gj V oJ s 6J/ 

( r 5-^^^^A%,; South-Mahratta also ' Jj? s3^^, r a3i.^ 

t - -' 

From thirty up to ninety-nine the compounds have as their first members 
( 248, 3), stoJ (cf. 248, 3, other forms of ^jjse3o), &?>& ( 248, 4), 
(other forms of $e>e;o,), wodb* ( 248, 5), esofo (other forms of 
S30JOJ), es!5o ( 24.8, e), esss, <>5>9 (other forms of w&3o), t3* ( 248, 7), 
oi!^ , oi5* (other forms of iiSJo), <0ra* ( 248, 8), oioi5* (other forms 
of <ora:>.), and ^jas^J* ( 248, 9, about which see further on); their 
second member is sj^ or 36^, joined according to the rules of euphony 
(see 215, 7, a. &). The forms produced are the following: sjjjs^j 
(dojrfsl^) 30, ^e)t^% (c^ewrf'^i,) 40 > ^crfj^, (esoaod^,, also mediaeval^ 

o3 o^* o^ 

50, S5e5j^% (^^3^%, a l so mediaeval, edrs^) 60, ^C^s^, 0^% 
(i^^,) 70 > ^^^A (^^^i,* a ^ so mediaeval) 80, gjssjot^ 90, to which 
the cardinal numbers from one to nine are added in the same way as to 

f a ^J , e. q. doJSd^^cfo 31, 

- oo o' ^ o 

39, ijs^j, Jjs rfj v ^j cijsdo.^ 3>\&> , ijs^j,^ e^sjssii^ , the J 

^_B^_oV O>^9tO ' "J c 

being the genitive, see further on under ?$j?C3j) 99. 

100 is ^J3C5o, to which the other cardinal numbers are suffixed in 
the manner indicated above, e. g. ^JSe^JS^o 101, ^J5CS 3 d^o 102, 

sj^ 110, fjjsesorfo ^ 150; but this manner has been generally given 
up in the modern dialect, wherein ^JSC5J becomes fl&3^) (the short 

genitive of rfJSCSo, 120, a, 6, instead of fteCSSS+a), e. g 

101, tfjat3*e> ^D^O, 104, fiJSS^S 3o?l%^0 111, <tetZ<rd KZ ^0 120, 

rf- t o >-)" 


134, FlOCS^e) S3O}j & 150, .. . 

oJ *~ * ~ 

or &J8G533 |J8SkXed s .5ix& 190. 

O-o O -o 

If ^JSSOo is preceded by not compounded numbers, these numbers 
for the greatest part appear in another form. The other forms are 
( 248, 2), TJ^ (for ,}ack), 5>J3 ( 248, 3), &>$< (for jJ#3j), 
( 248,4), <3o> (for traew,), esodb* (for ^crfjo, 248,5), os&> (248, e), 
(for eOo), b$3< (for ^>, 248, 7), fcsto odb< ( 248, 9), ZoSS^oSj 
(for Zorfo^s^), e. g. ^^o ^J3e3o, one 100, oiOCJ^eao (-a^^&3o) 200, 
(rfjo^J^CSo, also mediaeval) 300, ( 

400, eoijjspo 500, ?5e5j^jse5o (erfjareao) GOO, 

, also mediaeval) 700, ^rao^^jse^o 800, 
900, sj^^jsefij 10,00. Observe also e. g. 
248, ^oo^J^&3 (for ^oo^J^&S^e), Basavapurana) y^firf^ 360, 
estarfa^ 56 - 

The Kannada language has no own special word for 1,000; the ancient 
dialect uses prorod and zroOSod, the mediaeval one 753^3 and ?j3>d, and 
the modern one ?^Od, ?jD^C3 and ^Sdo. All these terms are corrupted 
from Sariiskrita ?J3d?o . When not compounded numbers precede it, 


these numbers (mostly) change their form in the ancient dialect, viz. 
(for &,&>), oi8C#, 'ao* (for ^ddo), ^oo (for rfjj&&3o, see 248, 3), 
(for t3e>ew,), ssoi^ (for woJoo), (wCS*, only mediaeval), ^i3* (for 
(for ^>ra^), to^o^ (for e^^^), 3JoSo^ (for SJ^OB)' ^5* 
(for ^J5&3o, 248, n). Thus we have, together with J,he (mediaeval and) 
modern forms, the following: tw^rarAid (see 215,7, c), (&?& ?3e)Od) 
one 1000, a^rAjb ( 215, 7, c), odO)rod (<^d^o?jaiC)d, also mediaeval) 

2000, Soo^^Aid (c/. 215, 7, c; sSjJSCSosraOd) 3,000, ^ejs^j 
4,000, wo&ed (yodoo^-s^d 5,000, (tJTrorSd, mediaeval, 

6,000, i^O^^d (>tfo7ra3d) 7,000, oiRAod ( 215,7, c; oireoatf) 8,000, 

Od, also mediaeval) 9,000, 

10,000, (JjS^^^Dd, also mediaeval) 90,000, tfJS^F^d ( 215, 7, c; 
riJSeSo^raSd) 100,000. Some instances of the modern dialect regarding 
the use of the genitive of 75Dd will prove useful: 
1,001; 20^0 ?ro^Jdc5 to^o^JSii^ ao?Sj?.^ 1,111; 

Q C3 < O 

'S.wo, 3,234; ^-3^!.^^ JWOdol-WOJAe3l t5e>i^cso 42,548. 



100,000 is very frequently expressed in Kannada by Samskrita w& , 
. &!^owtf d S50JJJ ?ro3dera skJSsJs^SSo 7,05,036, or by its tadbhava 
-, e. g. (3e>&w,wtf,c3 s3o^s3 &>>o.3;?> G3o?3e>>tf Aborts? 4 , 4,96,000 songs; 

7 XJ TJ W ~ 

sjooo &s3o N 3J ;!je>3rfc3z3s;33)ortorV, 


As shown above, the short forms for 

^sjooo &s3o N 3J ;!je>3rfc3z3s;33)ortorV, 4,90,000 immoveable sivalingas. 

TT tj 

, and JSCfr are 

before a vowel gets its vowel lengthened, e. g. Ld>?k, each, 

, each man, as does 'ao*, e.g. -dsdoJoa 10, -SSD^J 12, 
14, -dsdrso 16; 53JJ9C3J before a vowel becomes 


, 6, sjooo3o<,^* 21 (see 248, i. 2. 3). Such compounds do 

not occur in the modern dialect. 

9, literally means 'one-ten', ^. e. one to ten or one before 

ten. Regarding Jj3s3o 3.x ancient grammars state that Jjsrfj* is a 

2J ^ y 

substitute (adesa) of ttzStf (Sabdmanidarpana sutra 190; Sabdanusasana 
siitras 90. 361; Nagavarma sutra 166, formed in order to distinguish 90 
from 9; see 248, 9); according to them Jjsjij* probably signifies 'the 

ninth', and Jjs^o 3o 'the ninth ten'. But one may think that 

ij -* 
is another form of 3o& or ^o^ ( 253, 3, which appears also as 

meaning 'point 1 , 'upper', 'first', 'prior', so that Ijgsjo ^ would signify 
'the upper ten', or 'the ten that is foregoing' (one hundred). 

The compounded numbers from 11 to 19, having si^ (ao^) at their 
beginning, might be called dvandva compounds ( 250), as they are 
formed by means of addition, requiring an 'and' between; but Kesava 
terms them dvigu compounds ( 248, 10). In those from 20 to 100,000 the 
first member of the compounds denotes that the second member is to be 
added to itself as many times as it (the first member) indicates. This 
too is a sort of addition which in course of time was called multiplication. 
Kesava classes the numerals from 20 to 100,000 also with the dvigu 

The mentioned multiplication is used likewise e. g. in ^Ccid^j 4, otf 
o (=3sdo3jy) 10, oJ3i s dc^ 6, yoJjddo 10, io^% f&vj, 36 (see 
, etc. above); odc^oJoo, however, in an additional way, means also 
7 (2 + 5) and sso&eOo 11 (5 + 6), Further when the meaning of 'or' 

- ^0 O ~ 

is expressed, ojdw^J^CflJ denotes also 2 or 3, <odcsd>o 2 or 5, 


4 or 8, tJ^f 3 ^^ or 7; ;j| rso 10 or 8. Besides, compounds like 


ao,, mean also 'one and one' 


'two and two', 'three and three', 'ten and ten' in a distributive sense: 
each one, etc. ( 306 a; cf. 303, 8). 

If a number is added to f&3j, it may be done by means of the 
genitive in the ancient dialect too, as would appear from Kesava's instance 
?ta>33 3^ (HO) that forms the compound jlfcOosJaj ($244), a 
gamakasamasa ( 253, 2, a); instead of this full form of the genitive its 
abbreviated form ^J3M 3 > (i- e. ^JSS5 + tJ) came into use, as we have seen 
above under ^J33j. The genitive ?je)>dc$ or j^Ddcra of ^Sd is 
similarly used; see above under ?jgid. That the genitive may be used 
also when a number is added to 3^ (ao^oj follows from the instances 
of the modern dialect quoted above: <&3 

oi- 5 

29, isfidaXedSjasJiak,, ^do x ij?) ^O N ^O , 99. 

That cardinal numbers were optionally used in the singular and 
plural ( 131) in the ancient dialect appears from the following 
instances: ^rk^j or 2<& ?5e)^riv* <^ddo5jj or 

o # o x -6 o 

or oJs^f&s&Sorl*?*. 

In connection with nouns of any gender the cardinal numbers 
remain unchanged, e.g. ?je>o5jd rtr3D% zraoSjd 33c3o*, jsjsofod 

(cf. 102, s 9 ,. 7). 

Concerning the occasional place of cardinal numbers observe e. g. 
for one day, (daily, cf. 303, i, a, foot-note), 

w (J 

in one day, sjdj3^ c&S9>), a hundred years. 

The modes of expressing 'times' in the multiplication-table 
3l^, rfohrl^ ^JS?3S[^) nowadays are two. The first mode, used in 

CO f\ ftj ' 

Mysore, is done by putting the multiplicand in the" nominative and the 
multiplier in the locative formed from the short genitive (without the 
augment wW) by means of y^>J (see e.g. 109, a, 7), for instance: 

iddj, 2X1= 2 
330$, 2X2= 4 
2X4= 8 
>, 6X7 = 42. 


The second mode, used in South-Mahratta, is done by giving a final 
& (i. e. the form of the short genitive instead of 53^3) to the multiplicand 
and putting the multiplier in the locative formed by ys3 or & t I. e. 
S5^>o+<o, 00 + <o, exceptionally in its fuller form of 55&3s3, i. e. $$ 
For instance: 




It is to be remarked that in South-Mahratta also such forms as 

are used. 

2, The ordinal numbers are formed by suffixing e>^cx> to the cardinal 
numbers in the three dialects, e. g. &o?3;3o3o, first, ^d^ofo, second, 
, third, 

.. In the modern dialect ^jsctoFScrfj, of the noun ^ 
is frequently used instead of ^?3 fSoio. Instances are: 


SoJj SJ^F 

In the ancient dialect l he', 'she', 'it', 'they', expressed by suffixing 
, e.g. 115), v& (e. ff. 177), ydo (e. g. 122), oo< (e..?. 177), 
( 134), es$ ( 13G), e.^r. lorf ?Soijo, the first man, .oc^^oioo, the 
second man; ^^fSodo 1 ^, the first woman, oOCc^OJo^ the second woman, 
Si^^ajo^; 2oF3^0Jodo, the first thing, etc., <odta^OJoc5j ; 
, the second persons, sS^crfoo*; oirf^?So2o^ o*, the second 
women, 3oJSe3f2o3oS?tf, si^^odj^D*; &ON ?2oio4, the first things, etc. 


In the (mediaeval and) modern dialect the pronouns 

S55J3J, 53SJ) arc used as suffixes, e.g. 
the third man; 

The modern dialect often changes the suffix eSFjOJj into 
130, c, genitive), e. g. 

Examining the meaning of e5F2o& we come to the conclusion that the 

original form was 3?j ? i.e. &3 (of esrta 176) and the formative taddhita 
syllable .<>} ( 243, A, 2), originally meaning 'a state of having become 
or being', to which 3, the sign of the genitive ( 130), was suffixed. 

3, The declension, in the singular, of the nouns 
o>3o which express indefinite quantity or are drao z. 

<*J w 

(to which ai^d) also belongs, see 90. 266), appears in 122. See the 
epicene plural of the appellative nouns of indefinite quantity derived 
from them, under No. 4. 

S5)^o, that much, so much as that (srads*), ( 3 > ^)^, this much, so 
much as this (^ojos*), SAJ^^O, so much as this (in an intermediate 
sense, ^^ds*), <o>3o, how much (&o3o3*) occur in the ancient and 
mediaeval dialect; in the mediaeval one e53S[j., ^3Slo, oi^o, are often 

W fiJ So 

substituted for them, as is generally done in the modern one ( 122, 
b, c). The substitutional forms S5oJoo, J?5o; -s?fo; >?!) are also fre- 
quently used in the two last mentioned dialects. In the modern one 
there are likewise yeJ, S5eJo, eseJo , tJ^Jo; ^AJ, -dskta; >fc3o. The Sabdauu- 
sasana introduces (under its sutras 238. 441) S5^j, 'SvSlo^ w>3^o i3^o ; 
esojoo, ^nlo, erii'Srio, ^>^ as belonging to the ancient dialect. Some 
instances are: ?5^J i5e>oo, so much time as that; ^^^o s&3o, how 

much land; ^3^0 3oJ5^o , so much time as this; esssU ^aoorls?*, so many 

terms as those; oj&j ^o?2 or o^3^o. ^o^rftfo, how many houses. 

&J SO 

, etc., like the cardinal numbers (see No. '->), also suffix 

, e. g. e5>gf3ak, "a^^fSoJo, ^^^f5ooJ, S53i?3oij, and to this (besides 


any noun) the same pronominal forms and pronouns in the singular and 
plural, e. g. S5^^?2crfoo, a- man of that or such a place, or state, or 
degree; < a>3?2o3oo, a man of this or such a place, or state, or degree; 
vu)3?2cdoo, a man of this intermediate place, etc.; }>^a3jo, a man of 
what place, or state, or degree; es^FSoiov*; S2a?3ol)0*; S5 




4, Ancient appellative nouns of number of which a few instances in 
their epicene nominative plural have been given in 119, are e. g. 

or &JFO, one man; SoZOFs* or 
, two men or women; dojado* or 
or <y<j)e;, : g i F<S'*, four men or women; 


six men or women; >3 o* or 

, f ; SJarfo^O* Or 

to 1^ 

one woman; oazoFo' or 
three men or women: 
, five men or women; 
seven men or women; 

The mediaeval dialect uses e. g. &C#JFO, 

and <SlW s ; ^OJ3do s 

The modern dialect has ao 

(c/. 272, 2). 
and also 



See also 

, ssodido or S5cdAdo, 
310, i; 311, remark. 

Frequently the modern dialect, and occasionally also the mediseval 
one, express such appellative nouns of number by adding s3o (or 
persons, to cardinal numbers, e. g. doJ3&3o do> , three persons 

Other ancient appellative nouns of number are =^200*, 

(of T?ws3j), some men or women; SJ^SOD^, siwdo o*, ri^o* (of 
cf. 90; 248, 12, and as to form s^djo* in 273), many or several 
men or women. In the mediaeval dialect they are =^200*, ^dao*, 
o*, ads;wo*, So^o*, and in the modern one 
In the modern dialect =^^dj sjj^ or 
or 5o>s td^dj may be used instead of 


The ancient appellative nouns of indefinite quantity in their epicene 
plural, derived from 55 $3 j, 'S^o, eA)^^o, ^^^o, oio rfj (see under No. 3), 
are 5)20D*, s many men or women as those, r s^&jo s , so many men or 
women as these, (ero^eocf), <>}>2JO S , how many men or women, o^do s 
(the ;3 being euphonic, see 266), <os>o*, all men or women, all of 
which are found also in the mediaeval dialect with the exception of 
.o^do* (cf. 272 under No. 2). Only <>j^o s , in the forms of 

ro <n 

and c055) do, appears in the modern one. 


The epicene nominative plural of $53^0 and 'agio (see above under 
No. 3) in the modern dialect is, so many men or women as those. 

and 's.ssl do so many men or women as these. Instead of j3iCo how 

eJ tj 

many persons, 03fo ^o^ or ^^ fcifStfo is used. 

279. By suffixing sSj to the short form of a cardinal number ( 278, i) 
words are formed in the ancient dialect that express 'time' or 'times', e. g. 
, one time or turn, once; -ador, two times, twice; doJ3s3jF, 
, three times, thrice; 

For instance 


for the letter s3j once the letter ^ is used. 

In the medisoval dialect we find ZwsSoF, ao>j (for EodJjF) and 
(for a.55oF), and in the modern one ^s5o (See 212, i; cf. 306, b.) 

In the ancient dialect there are formed also ^S&F (from 3^c* f 
w^), see 278, 4), some times, and SJO^OF (from SJSJD* of sj^sj), many 
or several times, e. g. 

n (See translation in 258.) 
The ^o is one of the taddhita suffixes ( 243, A, 10), and only in 
course of time got the meaning of time or turn. 

In the ancient and mediaeval dialect 'time' or 'times' used to be 
expressed also by ?jjs&,3 (j&aejj) or wsO, e. g. a^^j ^JSSo*, oidrfo sJJ3^3*, 
Zof^o w)0 oidc^o zj>0: in the modern one the terms used are 

, etc., e. g. 

280. To form words expressing 'fold' the ancient dialect frequently 
used 53JI, a fold, suffixed to the short forms of cardinal numbers 
( 278, i), e. g. 'S.doFa, two-fold, twice as much, s^jJSdoFa or 
(i.e. sfoJS+s&a), three-fold, three times as much, fjs^a (i.e. 
, wok a (i. e. eso&'-f 30&), eC?oda (i.e. eCSo+aoa, 215, 

Instances are: 


oio^Q 3rtc:oJodfcJd zp^Soo || a terrible man of the heroes 



of fame on earth (be was): twice as much as Arjuna of eminent valour, thrice 
as much as Bhima, four times as much as Karna, five times as much as Krishna. 
(Qf. 343, 3.) 

Nripatunga (was) in 

liberality on earth surpassing Bali two times, Dadhfei three times, also Indra, if 
one considers, a hundred times, (and) indeed also Sibi a thousand times. (Cf. 

In the mediaeval and modern dialect we find ^^0,^ (for 
(for doJa^orS), in the mediaeval one 
, and in the modern one 30^0 

To form multiplication numbers in the modern dialect y^j and . 
(278,3) are frequently used, e.g. do^^o (S&aS^-f 533^0.), again so 
much as that, sjo.1 ;&},, again so much as this, or ' 

>- So 

twice as much as that, ^a^&o., four 


times as much as that; e.g. dj^s^o ?rta or 'S^^yssrta, as broad again, 

si)Je>&f)3ao erurf. thrice as long (cf. 8 310, i). 
d o' 

XVI, On adverbs, 

281. In 212 lists of adverbs (particles, avyaya and nipata) have 
been given, and in 102, 9 their so-called gender has been adverted to. 
Kesava calls such as are particularly used to modify the action of a verb 
' kriyaviseshanas ', and gives the instance 32o.o djs&rfo, explaining it by 


3 20 do Sort ado do essrl djeJ&do. In 277 it has been remarked that some 
adjectives or attributive nouns in their neuter forms are used as adverbs. 
It remains to be stated that in the ancient, mediaeval and modern 
dialect adverbs are frequently formed by adding- esh, 'having become 51) , 
e.g. S3o3o<3Jo5)h or ^dJS^FS^oiraA, faultlessly; ^tfo&dft ^sd 533>W 

O *v , oO 

*) The author thinks that this fc?ft originally was, at least often, wrt, 'so that it becomes 
or became or is' (cf. 212, remark 2). This, certainly, is the case in our present Sabda- 
manidarpana's i3^C3vjJe>A SjsacSo, he made (a thing) level (by crushing), and 
3JG3>rio, he trampled (a thing) into a moss of small particles, wherein the forms 
and sSrs sJjsrt only give the required meaning. Observe also the modern instance 
S3 O 1 * sins' pi), WJoJ ?S & syaft 'aWj, ^J8V*\ tJp^o, in which onlv X & ^3r1 can srive the meanincr 

"i-ojV WV oofif) 

intended, viz. it is proper to keep the books and clothes so that they be (or remain) very 


sjfk, one who loves constantly; rio^Eejft rkScfoot^oJoneJ^, one who 
cannot speak distinctly; SoOcraft &fQ?oJ53)CiJ, to distress greatly; 
, the trees bear fruit abundantly; #3^ w4<&>i& 
S^osejpfS, our master fosters us very well; i$3vr 
), to speak properly; sssjrf^ k$3>r> ^?A)d?i>, he beat him soundly; 
he cried out loudly; erfo ^edft tfzSotfjj^?, thou 

walkcst quickly; d^ 3oo3orf?l> 2>od S33ft 2060^003^ ?3, your boy writes 
correctly; ri sissft kd z3^o, (you) must read distinctly; 

she walked becomingly. Others are doC^Cd^A, covertly; 
, chieily; s3r5 steft, exceedingly; s^^sidraSeJA, generally; a5d^ash, 
abundantly; etc. 

From the foot-note of 166 it appears that in the ancient dialect esoir 
(=e5r\) and ?o& s (=WA) were once suffixed to nouns of direction, e. g. 
Jo^o and s3oJ5(3o, in order to make them adverbs, became 
o53, meaning 'southward, toward the south', and slxfccsoi 
'eastward, toward the east'. 

Adverbs are expressed in the three dialects also by the instrumental, 
e. g. a^ao, optionally; ^^^ao, ^J^^SN, gladly, willingly: zS^rlao, 
quickly; vwdti&ti, merrily; six^^a^, foolishly; ?iosjarf, happily. 

To express 'very', 'in a hig-h degree' before adverbs 3, 20^0, 
may be used (cf. % 275), e. g. 33 dJSCteh, very far; 
, in a very formidable manner; sjsotf ^JS.ds^A, very cruelly; 


very nimbly. About the use of repetition of adverbs to 
express 'very' see 307, a. 

Kesava calls adverbs also avyayalingas ( 90, likewise avyayapadas), 
adverbial declinable bases, his reason for doing so beipg the circumstance 
that in a few instances adverbs show case-terminations, as sjo3 j3 (genitive 
of sjoJj, e5^e5 9 o (ablative of ss^ee^). 

When adverbs are in connection with verbs, they generally precede the 
verb immediately or the subject and its predicate, undergoing no change of 
gender and number, e. //. olo o SJJS^cSo; de^3oo3o ^t3 o (see 327); 



^ ^jse^rf'?*, ^o^ rloearfodo; ^jseo^^^ro w 

?l>arfo*; f3eiri^>doo ^^cSo*. If something is put between 
the subject and predicate, it is to be done so that the adverb stands where 
it clearly modifies the sense of the predicate, as in the following instance: 


In a stanza, 

, , 

however, the position may be sometimes chosen at the convenience of its 

author, as ^rbtfoo slsfcsfca okortorttfjss* grfoOtfsfc* wri>oJooo 

A a <r> 

j, homogeneousness takes place faultlessly everywhere in those 
well-known couples (of vowels, e.g. es S3). 7$$ sj^d'gr, ad^sdo 

=&J3^oo S^e; >o, instead of the generally known letter 
A J ' 

may be optionally used. 

282. Regarding the adverbs which have been called postpositions by 
us and regarding the adverbs of place and time ( 212, 2. 3. e) the following 
instances may be given in which they govern the genitive: rfjdd^rlo 
^e$o), from the tree; ^do,^^ (^^j, ^fo^*)j ^ their side; 
(^rsrfi &$ d), like Karna; AOoJo?^ (A0o3o 5^,), like a hill; 
SrSj, like young shoots; 3>&$ , like me; zosDofor^o^fae^, 
like Bali; ycSrdo*, i n ^ ne meaning; rfodd, in the tree; e3^>, in him; 

I CO " CO 

i, like (one's) words; eruaOo (erusd 'So), from the village; 3$ 
in front of him; s;jc&>d ($o3od <^Y from fear; A^o3j3^^, with a 
parrot; ^^J3^?S, with thee; s^o?So3J3^, in the house; ^dJS>^r?, in the 
water; 33po>^d =^^r5, under a large banyan tree; 553^ 5j?S, after him- 


\ } outside the village; esddo?3o3j 5^oo?5, before the palace; 
\ on an elephant; fcs^aoi) ^p?e^, like the ocean; e3d?S ao^ri, 
like him; JjaSiSo^^ on the other side of a stream; aor^ ^ ^^ 5 round 
a ripe fruit; ^sjj^) s^do^rt^ doocsl, some years ago; r3jic3j&J} r^, with 
the army; e3d3 ^o^o^, on account of that; s3SJf3 ^JSd, with him; 
^rS cdo roortd with the father; dp^d ZO^P, concerning God; 'a.dCS 3oJ3^oF, 

o "u 

except this; ^jd, 5o^ d, near me, about me; zxdftv ^o^d, near the door; 

^ n _,_s_s A -ii x i _> i-ii * 

: s : Dr3 FJ 33^ d near a lover; <^^> ti sJdn till to-day; <,) rf SrS^, till to- 
-* o o 

day; ^^>^ a^^rls^ ^^3os3)OJo, after some days. 

Instances in which some of them govern the dative, are: )jdo DoA 
f , in front of a bindu; SoOokQrt 'saDDft, before elder people; ^ 
yzloJo d^, the country beyond his country; 
in front of the theme of the negative; ^^>s; 


some years ago; -dsoJoosJd^ doooz, before bringing forth; 
e^rijSProorl. on account of washing the feet; B r e>$rtl&&P?id, on account 

o" TJ 

of battle; ed>%??oorid, on account of that; ^F3'& ^o^d, near the 


Instances in which some of them govern the instrumental (i. e. ablative). 

are: >o3 dors ^>a?S CftSctfo S&C9 t>o. a province beyond the province of 

-> a o a 

anally; <*roao5j;3 tftfrt, below the waist; wd^ri doj<S, from that (time), 
more remote than that; yrfWo rfootf , from that (time); w^)o six>?i 
before that time; ^sjJeJajSp^O^^rttfo &?3, behind the noun- and verb- 
suffixes. See 352, 4 . 

Instances in which one 'of them is used with the dative of verbal 
nouns combined with 'a^ (another form of 7*^, the termination of the 
instrumental i. e. ablative; cf. 343, 2), are: SS>NO wdo^Ci-S-,^ six)oz, 
(lit. he of the coming-to it-from before), before he comes. SD^J e>t^j 
3dti\r^ doooz, (lit. he of the jumping-to it-from before), before he 
jumps. oiradJS v^rfrf-Skr^ ^oooz, (lit. any one of the having known or 
knowing-to it-from before), before anybody knew or knows. 5>?1} 
ZJe>d<3-v3 riooosS, (lit. he of the not having come or not coming-to it- 

C-J Tf 

from before), as long as he did not or does not come. 

Instances in which they are used immediately in connection with nouns, 
pronouns, so-called adjectives, adverbs, inflected forms of the verb, imperatives, 
infinitives ( 187. 188), past participles ( 154 seg.), and the so-called 
relative participles ( 175-186), are: 

a) *a# 53J3 V 5J*, like Indra. 'a&ddo, up to this time. d^JSeSoa^ 

OJ 7/J v. 

^^, for three days. oe>^rdoofe3, as far as the sea. c3?5rts?d, directions 


of the compass! D^^J^), Rama! ^^., grandeur indeed! y^ole, 
(is it) an elephant? 53 sJ^dsSf, even that manner. See 287, 3 


regarding numerals. 

b) W^?3, even he. ^?d?, even you! y^NOSj, even of him. S3c3?, 
that very thiug. ^c3?FSJ5?, what (could) this (be)? ^^ oSja^^JS?, why 
sorrowful thoughts? Cf. 260. 283. 312. About 50, ewo, en), wa 
see 284. 285. 

c) =3^ , (is it) black? &$z3, (it is) even white! ^Srs^?. difficult 


indeed! yu25^de, (could it be) proper V 

d) goe)r\, just so; (or could it be) thus? SofrioSo?, in this very 
manner; (or could it be) thus? S3r3.?=ooe>r^. =^^3^dJS, am not I ruined? 

Cf. 299, 1.2. 3; 300, 3.4. 

e) ^jA?o3oz3S33s)COj;3, could this poverty have befallen you ? =^es?3, 
do you not ask? oi^S3 9 u>?3JS, did he behave dishonestly? Srff2-9f, did ho 
fall? 3oJ5iic3?3j??, did I beat? jj> crs, have you come (in questioning 


politely)? aoJe^rto^os, do you go? doq^soCj 3cp ^^orfdopS., would 


(one) ask for a tale at the time of churning? 

o3o, does a fool know the firm devotion of wisdom? tiQ>f( 

dJ3d SA)^3 9 o5o^o, should I go to the fold? that remained far behind. 
f) ?3j&?rf zo^d, come to see! aS^&sA?, shall I say? 3390&, ztr( 
protect, lord of the universe! ^s?j?>, ^s?J3, do?dj^?3e, hear, hear, 
man! e5=s7>, 3$fcJtfo2?io3o3J3 ^jssi?, elder sister, give me a drop of 

"O" oO 

honey (the > being here used in addressing a female, cf. 283). ooft?, 
'3,0 zj?6?, younger sister, come here! 


#) SJsri (33e>z3o+j), when (he, she, it) sings or sang, when (they) 
sing or sang. ^o&c&3, when (he, she, it) speaks or spoke, when (they) 
speak or spoke, sruras:* (erufsf + ss^), when (he, she, it) eats or ate, 
when (they) eat or ate. t?^s3^ We>dd), it is not allowed to speak at all. 
when (it) was destroyed ; ^o^oJoe3jido, when (he) spoke ; 
3, directly when (he) came (see 365). 
fi) j3So.?oo3j, having even caused to confide. wAoSo?, having indeed 


become. >oc3?, not standing (or waiting) at all. ^Jd^ddd?, not seeing 
at all (about the && see the end of this paragraph). About TO O an( l 
er\> see 286. 287, 5. 

i) siws^o sSoCOrfopAfifCiei 6, (lit. pearls and pepper corns of the 
having been threaded thus) as if pearls and pepper corns were threaded 
(together), rta wic; 9 ^, (lit. of the having won or of the winning after), 
after having won or after winning. eseSrAoao (esz&Frod+'ao) So^5 9 ?, 
(lit. of the having worshipped-from after), after (he, etc.) had worshipped. 
do3A)fl Wri 5oe>ri, (Ht. of the having been or of the being fit thus), as 
was or is fit (about oo^fi, cf. 298, 5; 300, 2). ^ 3^4 (lit. of the 
having come or of the coining after), after coming. 3oJSd s3j?s3, after 
going; ^resrf, (lit. of the having seen then), when (he, etc.) saw. 


ecofl), (lit. of the having become or of the coming then), when (he, etc.) 


became or when (he, etc.) becomes. 5Jj3&c3 e$??Gf, as if (he, etc.) made 
or makes. 3j6^Cbo, when (it, etc.) dispersed (see 3G5). s^rta^o, 
when (he, etc.) enters or when (we, you, they) enter (see 3G5). 
S?SjfSrlo, till (or so that he, etc.) might give (see 365). ^johoJjo^ejrt, 
when (it) is finished. W3ir?)j =eorfo;3e>rt. wdo;3e>rt, when (he, etc.) 
comes or when (we, you, they) come. ^eJo. aoJSfrfosS aosr^ 'a 6033^, 
he is likely to be ruined. rfj^doo N rijS3^, so that (it) enters the mind. 
till (he, she, it) obtains or till (we, you, they) obtain, 


till (ho, etc.) becomes or till (we, etc.) become. 

in order to drink. era^Ttorf ^?o% so that (he, etc.) listens OF so that 
(they) listen. Ai^d 35>ri, (lit. of the not having found or of the not 
finding thus), so that (he, etc.) was not found or so that (we, etc.) were 
not found. c3J3?o30rodf5 , so that (it) did not or does not pain. ssfcj aoO 
fc}>nju^, at the time that Aja and Hari had not been born. Ws>d 
dooosl, as long as (he, etc.) does not come or (we, etc.) do not come or 
as long as (he, etc., we, etc.) did not come. ero&/s,d, if (he, etc.) is (or 
be), if (we, etc.) are (or be). S5^d6, if (he, etc.) measures (or measure), 
if (we, etc.) measure, z3^Sd 3oJ5^or, unless (he, etc.) prays (or pray), 
unless (we, etc.) pray, sjjsrfrf dU)^or, unless (he, etc.) does or makes 
(or do or make), unless (we, etc.) do or make. Cf. 363. 364. 
Regarding the subjunctive see 287, 5; 314. 

About the different meanings of the adverbs of question as specified 
in ancient grammars see Dictionary, and also 283. 

Occasionally a euphonic ej* is used in the medieval and modern 
dialect to suffix the ,0 or > of emphasis, e. g. zjCO 9 ^, 3o^s3, &3 io3j?3 e3, 
ojck3d, ^J3^s3, tfj9ri?3? (cf. the & before y\J3 in 285. 286> In "he 
negative participle of the modern dialect this & appears also as eso*, 
e.g. &>edcjd ('. e. fSj^rf+eseS), tfJ3^rf$3? (i. e- tfJ5ric$-fed?). The ,>:> 
of emphasis in combination with euphonic eso* may take the form of *a in 
modern poetry, e. g. &joa<&)3>, fcdsixrk^ (cf. 109, l,c, instr.; 362, 
after c). 

283. Some peculiar instances of the modern dialect regarding the use of 
the adverbial suffixes and 1>, added to the interrogative pronouns ^o, 
Ofos^cl), oiisd^o, o&s^tfo and the interrogative noun of indefinite 
quantity oi3^o ( 278, s), are: >$?, what? eh? (used in calling to a 
female or asking a female, e. g. ^e, esra? ?2e, 3oA?? cf. 282, /); 


what, eh? i. e. whatsoever (e. g. sJuSJ^ra, >(3? 'atiO) ; 

>?3J5e, what? (used in asking males contemptuously); 0! (used in 
addressing males, e. g. SfSj^, tfj^df^?); what? what could it be? (e. g. 

. a 

what? I do not know (e.g. question: 3o?&3 9 d tfwrisaO&iisfctf answer: 
>$&$ or question: ^js^z^ Sj^oSj^JSe? answer: >&&??); what? one 
does not know what? i.e. something one does not know (e. g. 



, what? i. e. something one does not know, a certain (object, 
with or without 2*^0, e.g. o&>rfdJ3 W^J, a certain play; o&>^c3J5? Swfii 

O O 

c3?^res;oJo); oira^JS?, ojjsd&o?, who? i. e. a certain man, a certain 
woman (generally with &ZJv<fc, *Wv^o, e - # o&e>d&? ^^ J , ctfrarf&a? 
2w2o.^j; see remark under 292); 


oirsdJS?, who? i. e. a certain person, somebody (with or without 
touti), e.g. 

3,^, how many? how very many! very many! (e.g. 


3.? tf 


); how 


much or many! one does not know how much or many (e.g. tf 

Concerning questions in general in the same dialect it may be stated 
here that in such questions as 'ado ^dLo?, is this thine? 'ado ^?lcS^o 
may be used. The suffixed )fo may also become >&?, e. g. ^ejsxf! 
to&lci&ec, did he give four Annas? z3^ri c &$$&?, && she rise early 

1j Q 

in the morning? At the same time, in common conversation, the sign of 
question is sometimes entirely omitted and the question shown by the 
tone of the voice, e. g. Jj^tJ^ goJS^rtos^rS, does he go to the garden? 
SQFS ^JS^os^d, does he give the (promised) money? ^e>^ wdosjdo, will 
they come to-morrow? If there is an interrogative in the question, the 
question simply is e.g. 3oj^?>, ^ si>^fl 03J353 wU wdo3 o z3. Huccu, 


what play do you like? See cOScio in 243, remark; regarding wrf 


, etc. 265. 271; regarding questions in general 356, II, 12. 

284. Of the conjunctions mentioned in 212, 5, four, viz. eso, eA)o, 
eru, en/a, are postpositions ( 212, G). 

First they serve to unite words, which uniting is called samuccaya. 
The way of doing so is called also umuvidhi (i. e. urn + vidhi, the u after 
urn being euphonic), 'the copulative method or rule'. 

In this respect ?9o and en^o are suffixed to case-terminations of words 
except in .the genitive (see 351, remark). In the nominative and 
instrumental en} alone is used; and again sroo alone is suffixed to the 
accusative, in which case it is inserted before the case-termination. In 


the locative $o is generally preferred to voo. These rules about eo 
and QTUO apply to the ancient and mediaeval dialect. 

eso and snio express 'and', the first yo or eruo being not translated 
into English. 

Instances regarding the nominative are: ^d^oo 3333t$&o rtados^o, 
Arjuna and Abliimanyu and Drona. sdOc&oo 3od^oo, Hari and Hara. 
Jinendras and Ganendras, 

c Kevalis and Srutakevalis. ^cjosfo* 'sdoo that and this. 

a pleasure ground where king and 

queen are together. tJ0drf^^j^j s izti tfjs?3Jdojo ;%J32oci^^ao, hail- 
stones and fire-flies showered from the sky. s3j^s3cdooo ^tffio3ooo, above 

and below. 

siOdodjS^ rteo ^^(S^Di)^Oc3e), on the elephants and on the soldiers 

and on the horses rushed the one elephant of Bhuvanaikarama. 

Instances regarding the accusative are: ^rSclol^^ ^kfos^cS &0d> 

O 2j 

S^dodJ-i^oo ^^dOuOjrfoo, must one tie a largo tiger and a brown cow in 
the same place? esrfjiirforfj* w^odoorfoo, him and her. 

fruit and flower, esd&dosfo* tf^ri^odoo, them (the males) and 
them (the females). Occasionally the first $o is omitted, as in wt;^^ 
2^23cdodoo d^oJo^ioodoo $0?l)rf ^3^*, like the ocean containing a 
mass of water and a mass of pearls. 

Instances regarding the instrumental are: =5e>?3 oJooo ^oSOr^ 


he struck with his feet and hands. srfoD^ si>oo 3j)35l 

O oJ 

, he worshipped with fruits and flowers. 

Instances regarding the dative are: 

are Drona and you quite equal in the skill of archery? (cf. 321). 
i^orlo3joo ^j^rioJooo ?o2otdo, cheating naturally belongs to him 
and you. fcJ^ortd/ e5d?orto ^.sj^c^oJo^o sS^,rfo ^j^^o z&v^o <^JS^^> 
dJ3s?* wrtrsi^ wp^o, Vikhyatiyasa was born to him and the queen, 
superior to all in the world as to family and firmness of character 
(cf. 343, i, &). =g^^o 3o?l^,o ^do^^Oo^, (generally there) is no 
composition for (i. e. of) Kannada and Samskrita words. 

An instance regarding the ablative is: ts^aak^rcrSclJoo ^rfrtofo^ 
fragrance proceeded from the great-flowered 

Q oO O 

jasiuino and the screw-pine. 



Instances regarding the locative* are : 

, in firmness of character, and in good behaviour, and in valour. 
e; d^rfoodjTS* <oe3do3^)^dj* <OPJ Jtsdja^o ^odorido, 0, in 

< PO T en ro 

every wise may he give (us) all kinds of riches in all places and every 
manner. To 55 (also when case-termination in the locative), <s>, ^ 

CO V ' 0V ^ tO 

eA)o uses to be suffixed, as S5oj^oo, ^oiojo, o>oi)Jo. The Sabdanu- 

co oo ' ro 

sasana has sd&0^oo and 

is sometimes omitted in the nominative of the ancient dialect 
(see 348, 8; 354, u, 4 foot-note; 357, 2, d) and in its instrumental or 
ablative (see the verse quoted in 352, 4, a sjo^ao^rt^ etc.); and (ac- 
cording to Nudigattu, p. 185) likewise erua in the locative of the modern 

(according to the same), at the end of past participles, e. g. siod Se>ft ?o 3^ 
S3DA ^^rjjrf^, kadi (cf. 286), and in the nominative, when a series 
of nouns is introduced, which last practice appears also in the other two 
dialects (see 354, n, remarks a. 6). 

285. Wo and eroo appear, as stated in 284, only in the ancient 
and mediaeval dialect. 

In addition to them the mediaeval dialect uses en) and en/a, e. g. 


when embarrassment and shame were arising, 
they have nothing to eat and to put on. ?os>s;3 
=^J5do,d^JS) a lender of money and- a borrower of 


money. See the close of this paragraph. 

In the modern dialect ea/a alone is generally used. As the two other 
dialects it does not suffix it to the genitive; to the other cases it 
immediately (sometimes with the application of euphonic elision, 215) 
adds it, except to the instrumental and ablative in which it puts a 
euphonic G 6 between (cf. the close of 282, and or^ex in 286). 
Instances are: o"9^o^ ^^^J3 sorfosD 6 Rama and Krishna come. 

e; pa 

>& ^OrfoddclO 5c^ ^JddodSj^ ^sldJatfr^ s>o3jjds3&Q, he who 

teaches knowledge, and he who gives food, and he who saves from 
trouble. 3J3^rlosJc5J3 zjdosjtfja, going and coming. a^ sk&SMtfri do?3 
2ori &o?S?3 n 30rrad)^cSJ3 55e>5 J az3os3c3J3 e3e^o, to walk and jump about 

fv O ~ 

at pleasure is the desire of young goats. c3J3^ciJ3 ^r^^rfja, that (is) 
large and powerful. Sorf^JS 'Sido^JS, day and night, y^j^ *&&&,, =5\> 5 
in that way and in this way the children of Kunti do 


not get a kingdom, d^& aJSz3dcia 

^* ^- 

cattle know when they are beaten and know when they are treated 
kindly. g^oto 3?3rte d>ee3akJ3 wrfo 3^ skedafoft ^ ^.?s$j waotf, 

Q O *^ ^^ 

on (my) parents and relatives my love (is) abundant (i- e. I love them 

abundantly). 3&3d 3o?e3 J^crfo?!^ "AiSJ^adsteJ^ djsrf 5^o, (we) 
must show love and kindness to others. 


, wolves use to carry off pigs and dogs. 2x(&<A>?( CX0 
?3e>?oJ, serve God with love and devotion. a6tf 


Wfido zond do, (there) came people from villages 


and towns. 2o^o ^73 ^^j^ ts ^^sd^JS, ?ido^, between Hindusthan and 
that island, ^ortsi^rtjs &3$ sSo^rlj3 zjj3?torf steasodtfo, he gave 
Ningappa and his children to eat. ZodoJo^ s5J3^S5 3 oio ^cSr(J3 ^J)3^ 
3$r\& f3e)OSor(^ v3 n^idj^ z3, the attention of dogs is (directed) towards 
the face and towards the words of (their) master. sJofSrt'&Q^ri zodO^JS, 
3oJ3C3ri 3oJ3ert^J5, We>ne;jri^^s), So^o^do, doors are put for coming 

O ^ if 

into a house and for going out. t^eSriOokJa TTaQ&ticdod Q&Xfl 

jg. ro v O ro 

cif^, ^e)Oioo3^?S, God preserves thee in waking and deep sleep. d 
(= rfr^rf crioJa) Ls^cJ^JS, in the teeth and lips. ?3s^q5ris?JS^riJ3 siwe)?^ 
rt^jatfrtJS ^3do^d3e)ft ?o^d 3oe)^03^d, they frequently put sugar into 
medicines and dishes. 

Instances of the conjunction ero being exceptionally used also in. the 
modern dialect will be drawn attention to in 295. 

286. en)o and eA/3 are in a copulative sense suffixed, also to past 
participles, the first 'and' disappearing in an English translation, e. g- 
ajScrahodwsfr o^ao&Dfto&j;!/ Jj^sAoJooo 3>?fo o, he is a fish and a 


crab and all (whatever it may be). ^S3oS75>c>oo ?oo3o?i>o 

o o 

09 Q ^ O ~ Q 

.,, n 

o o s3 fl V 

successive order there arc eight topics in the Sabdamanidarpana (r/:.) 

sandhi (literally 'and sandhi a having said'), and nama (lit. 'and uanut 
a having said'), [and samasa, and taddhita, and akhyata, and dhatu and 
apabhramsa, and avyaya. ^o^rf rf 

sioo sJzSdorf^ vti od/sesjoo s3o^ zo^rfoo o 

3 ^ - B '0 o 

Saihskrita nominal themes ending in consonants become declinable bases 
(in Kannada) when they receive an 55, and when they receive an yv> 


with doubling of the final consonant, and, further, when they receive 
end-dropping (i. e. when their final is dropped). d$d 5e>rforf>d 3?odo 

erorao, the names of the guards of champions 


3 C3 

are savyeshtha and dakshinastha. y^si? we->c3oJOJ3, thus and further. 

?o 33i s3>Ao&JS T^tfroosdjS kdj, read so that thou canst be 


heard in a pure manner and in an intelligible manner. 

, that paper is thick and rough. 

aa?. thou art very little and 

u O 

stupid. rre$ol> rfewsraftolxfl zStfatf staosDhodoja do^ri fratriifcx a^o 

<* -o 

rfdo, they use to furnish a house with windows on account of air and 
on account of light. & 2o^riori^0 rres?c&>^ ?jsrio^ so^rfo oiflwJS vuh 

ro o u 

oSo?i ?je>riod Sodrfo ^^SJJS (in the modern dialect enJ3 is suffixed to ^^ 
by means of a euphonic o<, c/. the gj* of the instrumental and ablative 
in 285 and the & in 362 after c; about ^ see 198, remark i) 

oid^o ^drl^orao,, of these vessels there are two kinds (viz.] vessels that 

move forwards by wind and vessels that move forwards by steam. 3v 

w aoodortrf^ enjgd ^^ro 3oJ3S5^ soe)^ zS^^sx ^^>ddj erf^^ 

some said "it is necessary to 

remove the boy from the village and cast (him) out", and some "it is 
good, if one puts him into prison". sSfao z3&,r{ =ff5^)o o^J3 rir^ri Ws)^ 


o?^JS 55^3*^6, they call a female cat kami and a male one bavuga. 

In the ancient dialect this copulative sense holds good also when e/Do 
is added to the infinitive with final oi ( 187, 4), e. g. gq^rfjsqiro iJS^CS 3 

crfooo a -?ore$Fo ^JSe^ 3 OJoosJ^ S5 3S[&i C3J36 ^JSrao 'avo^o, when the 
j ro Q ca 

sense of the nominative appears and when the sense of the accusative 
appears, the genitive may be used there (instead; see 352, i a. i b). 
^dorir^sl^ 'adoioodo* ^^^ 'adofooo oJojrtsJdo-S^ri ero^rfo^do^lo sjdo, 
when (in a sentence) they (the three pronouns) are enumerated together 
in their order (as ts^o, >o, Wo) and when they are (enumerated together) 
ad libitum (as ^o, w^c, e?o) , the first person follows (them, see 355, n, i). 

The same meaning obtains also when eso is suffixed to the postposition 
Zod, 'if, this being at the end of a relative participle, e. g. s^sira^r 

3$ Wdftdrij* 3^cOJO^ WzSJSdrfj* 55fS??re>^ ddy WCSJS^O a^sl3* "SO, 
" "4 j^ M 

if there is a preceding long (letter), and if the word is an avyaya, and 
if it is polysyllabic, there is no doubling (of the final consonant), si 3 


rs w ojo , 

^* j w 

slv^ ^PO, if in the very sense of the negative a personal termination 

follows the verbal theme, and if wd> which in the past participle expresses 
negation, follows, (the letters) $ rs v OoJ tf are always doubled. A 
similar way of expression we meet with in the modern dialect when ea^ 
is suffixed to ef>3 (=tzS, yd) and this stands at the end of a relative 
participle, e. g. ^soBooiw rfo^s^rt rfa^rtofo J3?s3tf{3rf tfja t^rfd tftfctfo 
33 dJ3 ?ie;o dcSo, dogs are well known as faithful servants and as true 

Q M 

friends of man. 

It may be remarked here that if 50 in the last-mentioned connection 
occurs but once, it may occasionally be translated 'furthermore', 'and', 

e. g. dfl^dtf oariea^s?* a^atforfj 6 ero$JS,rio ^oJoao ^rfor^cio, further- 
more if (there) is any mistake in this (Sabdamanidarpana), correct (it) 
with friendly disposition. The same takes place sometimes when in the 
modern dialect esdJS (yd+erus) is added to a relative participle and 
occurs but once, the meaning being 'and', 'also', e.g. t3ez&3c3e ^^ 


iStAtida tte^bfjcb ^^sl, begging (is) affliction indeed; and if 
(somebody) begs, to say "no (I do or can not give you anything" is) an 
excessive affliction. j^rreddJS escS^ z3^o, also I want the very same 
thing. esd<!? 5oe>>o sarscldJS ^)^e wrsCo^), cotton (and) milk also these 


(are) of a white colour, -d? ^sdw'S^rrarfdJS wwrf lAflJrlcb 3otirf zoo^^, 

M ,1 

5^0C90 iXfPA) S^o?j8)de 008)^03^6, also in this district intelligent gardeners 

lift up the soil at the bottom of mango trees and put seasoning drugs. 
tfociodrts^ tf^rtvxS&fl ^o?fo >d ^J^i^j^d, like horses also donkeys 
sleep (but) little. (About the general meaning of a^o and wdJS in the 
mentioned combination see 287, 5, b; cf. also 287, 6. 7. 8). 

Also when in such a case eo is suffixed to ?$, by the insertion of 
S5o (e523* + Soi^o) to the verbal theme, the moaning of 'and' seems to 
remain in force, e. g. 33e>3?3 ^ddo^o ?o< 3s?d)&> (o. r. 3cSJdo), and 
if the duck-weed is destroyed (lit. and if the duck-weed a being destroyed), 
the water becomes clear, though Kesava says that essSJStio is a substitute 
of the o of satisaptami and means 'when' ( 187, 4; 188; see 365). 

The conjunction erucfoo which Kesava adduces as a suHix with the 
meaning of tho above 3&c3o, 'at the time that', is in fact the personal 
termination of the present-future in the neuter singular and eroo, 'and'. 


This third person neuter singular, as we have seen in 200, i, is used 
as a krillinga or bhavavacana. Kesava's instances are the following (see 
365): sod^eo 4 ttirio^dosk* Vott&ySiVti 3p& 3cl^ ^siFdoa^J^d 
d<3o, and a saying (i. e. and when he said) "tell Vishnu to come (him) 
who appears and is coming (there) like the Anjanacala!" io^rio 3^8^) 
&>SJ3 S t?s3J5^^^ ^i5-,o, and the assembly a dispersing (i. e. and when 

the assembly dispersed), he began to consider. a> >cdo^ &3 3 ,o3J3<$* 

V ^ 

^do! oic^o ?3jO ^JS^>rio^)C5oo, and the fejnale companion a going away 


(i.e. and when the female companion went away) having said "remain 
near thy sweatheart". Similar instances are frequently met with in 
ancient narration. 

287. If 9o, en)o, en) and eo/a do not join two or more words, they have 
the following meanings: 

1, 'also', 'likewise', 'too', 'and', e.g. ysjdodo^ esr^c^ eo^oroSo 
when Yama all at once tasted also them. A) ^OorldJ^^o 


?dsJ $ rfsfo o ^> rioo, all the seven case-terminations 

D I D (v) O 

are joined also in the feminine gender in the same manner as in the 
masculine gender, rtod c^o^OortoOoJoJo ?34,$^rt^o djarloo, 

C^ ro "~ ~^ co 

also in (originally) neuter terms when they are used as masculines, all 
the seven case-terminations join (in the same manner as in the masculine 
gender). 6?j3 ustf o^JSii rfy^arW TS>^ s3oqkd^J3 eirfido, rekhe and 

O W v*\ w O w 

raji denote likewise the middle of a row of trees and other things. 
2o fi>, also he came, yrfjs ^^ri sSf^o, I want that too. 


, are you also fit to go? ^ ssoSori^ 5J 

, it is also written therein (in the book) "one must not 
transgress the words of one's parents". rtadorf^JS sssjs^o&arfd 53&>tfo 
3oe)ori Wowo^do, if religious teachers too do not fear sin, how shall (their) 
disciples fear it? oid^FSododdo $z>if{ ?3edac56 ^e>s&> oi<3d;3ol>3ori ^^do 
, if others are not agreeable to us, we too are not agreeable t3 rthers. 


2ooz3 3e>^J3 ^=3 ! ) . when all without exception laughed, the 

Zy -0 

fool too laughed. 22>3o3oe;rf0alx>o, also where (there) are no collective 
nouns. ^3&(5lol>e)rtdC&Oo l also where (there) is no negative sense, 
o, and thus. <3?i) sij* wocS. in this manner and further. e$FS ^>c3 

' CO ' CO 

thus and further, ^jo^^, and besides, e. g. do^JS^ aired O33>d 
3J f S3e)0?o zS^o, and besides whose commands have (we) to obey? 
, also other, e. g. Q&d&3dC3&0(b sine)qJrrf) 


, if anything 
becomes too much for one ant, also some other ants join, drag it, etc. 

sii^J^, and still, e. g. ^j^ sjjses 9 , do^^ tfoz3, he sold even (his) oxen, 
and still (there was only) rice gruel. 35-3 rtJS, and likewise. 'Sif^o, also 
up to the present time, e. g. e3^6j3<p < a^o.o ^3Cl)3 ,FO, he is fighting 

v "** oO 

with them also up to the present time. essjdo / 3,^J3, tod)>, they did 
not come also up to the present time. e>?$j ess3>fl 0dc$o ^rt^f^ 
tfo3o?oc3r$o, wd6 'a^Ja, <3f3ri ero^dsS? jd^>, I sent him two letters, 
but up to the present time indeed no answer was received by me. 
a tfja., and yet, e. g. ^JS, fitifi tJAaej, (they had made various 

^ C ftj Ci CO 

endeavours), and yet he had not become better. Occasionally the 
meaning of 'and' disappears, and <&$& may be translated 'still', e. g. 
wd<3o ao^ 9 c3-S\^ Q sssJ^ri a?i% 3o^ ft ftJSAab., he knew still more than 

Q 'CT "^ IT 

what he said. d^o wd^, ^fiJS, rte^rH oiddo rtCsS 9 ^ e5SJi5)^^c3, there 

or <- 
is still (one) galige, or two galiges, of time till he comes. >??& 'S^A 

?oo?jsd^do, Soso)?Je)r(ddJ3^h?5 ne>U SoJS^rt ^^,^^0, thou hast still to 

U Q & 

get over the ocean of mundane affairs, oirssj^ ^djsrsrt^j ^aS^FSJS?? 
We>, r a^J3 ) ^e;^) erorso, are these all the arguments? No, there are still 
some (or some more). 

2, 'even', 'indeed', e. g. s3jsris3d&> 0$^c3J3^o 
even in the two first cases eso is used (doja^e?*, etc.). 

), even regarding these two compound words (i. e- 


and ^r|oiowe)do, there) is no option (allowed). ^^. \^ 
oddessjatfo rfdsS^ 'sad^v* 'ad ^spS^^d^o ^J^d^o 

<^ - B -o J o > ^'a)jir 

, when even in both, Samskrita and Karnataka, a vowel 

follows, elision takes place regarding the vowels of the case-terminations 
and regarding the vowels of uninflected words. ? ^C^rao,^ w^ddJ* 

Q SO "O" 

eA)doS-)3J SDCS^j 6 wcio^ij, (the throat, the palate, etc., 33) even these 
mentioned eight are the places where the letters originate. o^a.^sij* 
, even nine (letters are) not classified. escSo oraeAo 2^Cj$'" 
, it (the karma or objective noun) is (first) even of four kinds 

(see 346). &W c3>eMo ^dsk" o?5a^OFo ^clfseddort, even four 


arms appear nicely on Vishnu, wsir vudo* (OC)o N sSo^J^ e3^or(oro 
nJrfoj^ oiSejdrzSjav* S3o eroo even these two are used in the sense of 


conjunction, srorf d^d Cto,W ^ dOsJ3C3oo 33^d tfaQ&O^O ^tJS^^fSo, 


pada, deva, bhattilraka, even these three, are titles of respect at the end 



of names. eSSjJa&S 9 ^' (=9ri?oJ3&3 9 rfs3p, mediaeval) 

do^oo ^JSS ^ct^os^cSr^scod), bow is it possible to perform together a 

king's service and devotion (to a deity), thus even two? 

baving taken even the two (cadjan leaves). 

(= SwSSojQJooo, mediaeval) ^^ FSjs^ado, do not even once look on 
the wife of another. tfo^rao SJOEO sJdnafcrttf 3* tzh&x ?loe>?l>d 
2pe)3, the oath of even at once defeating controversialists who show 
(their) enmity by sophistry, o};^ dje)*3 9 , sjo^, rfoZo, he sold even 
(his) oxen, and still (there was only) rice gruel. s^orfrrtrsSri.) s3j3?^ 

CS *"^A 

djarirtjaad q$oF tfs^o e3q$Frttfo jraexf#J5, a$e 3?odo, caturvarga is the 

T3 IT C5 

one name for moksha, dharma, kama and artha, even (these) four. 
Bala (and) Narayana, even both. S^O&iS^aQ 
,o*, if (one) compares (them), even both (are) good men. 

even both of them. essJSuOrU), even to both of them. 

w ' 

even both of us. ^^2J v dJ3, even both of you. ao^j^da 

iJS^ri^ ^oSjSo^ri roriosjdorso., sometimes it happens that 
even men get into the power of wolves, ^drl, to the very end. 
^JSpraa s3?acS6 =jaddOf&5 doOo3o?k., if (one) praises and solicits 

C3 <d 

(them), they do not give even one ruvvi. cSf^do vs 


(there) is not even one thing that God does not know. ^ 

3J3^^o, Wrfd S30 2w dJ3 ^a^, I entered the house, but (there) was 

TJ- 00 O O co' 

not even one person inside. #3o,ud kW^Ja ^^)3e)dOs;, not even 

6 U oo iJ W 1 

one of us two spoke. 

3, the meaning of a peculiar emphasis, namely emphasis to express 
that the whole of a definite number of things which either naturally belong 
together or are considered to belong together, is understood, e. g. ao^orts? 
, both arms, the two arms (that a person has; if we say ad^orf^ 

, it means 'two arms', 'two of the arms', for instance of Caturbhuja 
or Vishnu who is considered to have four arms). cOdd)o ^ras*, both 
eyes, the two eyes (that a man or animal has; if we say ^d^o ^r?^*, 
it means 'two eyes', for instance of Caturanana or Brahma who is 
considered to have eight eyes). e5&ri$ddodoo 38> ^&d>, having cut off 
the two feet (he had), ao^oio ^e3ctfjjdoo ?3?c3s>Fr(v~, when (he) cut off 
the tenth head (of Dasasira or Ravana, who is considered to have had 
ten heads), ^e^nsaodflr^o &> 3os3r3* <odci> sSooioo, I shall utter 

oo A ' 

instances of them (of tadbhavas and their compounds) with regard to 
the two forms (Sariiskrita and Kannada). sjoJ?C5o ^^rfori^oo, the three 

vedas (omitting the atharva veda). s3oJ39oo d^e^ortv*, the three worlds 
(heaven, earth and the lower region). ejftSoo do^oris?*, the six seasons 
(which Hindus accept). }r3o d^rt^j* todododo, the guardians for the 
eight cardinal points of the compass. <odrfo ^ytf (for <odzl/3 tfofc*, 
medieval), the two hands (he had), w Bjaohodorfo, <od&J3 ^oto rlU 
3oc3o ^JSCQJ, having firmly seized the branch with both (his) hands. 

3s), bring the two oxen (which are in the shed, etc.; 
o, 3> would mean 'bring two oxen'). c3>xf3, 3d, the four 
directions (north, south, east, west) or the four sides (of a thing). 
), to or on the four sides (of a country, etc.). 

4, 'together', 'without exception', 'in concert', e.g. 

&^rU)^ o, how much soever, Dharmaja gave (it) altogether 
away (cf. 321). tfjB&ortrtv^ !53os3oo 3d a?Wo, tell to bring all 
the boilers without exception. sJoJo. x3d zp-asJs&^orttftS* woii^tfFsfc* arfo 
3^,pCdo^o?S sd^ ro, having chosen Samskrita abstract verbal nouns (e.g. 

\*^s ^j * 

spe)rf, ejiort, 2pe>r!) and having added even the suffix ^^j to all (of them) 

without exception, rf 9 ^ ^sJro^^o y^i^j (for 5^1^00, mediaeval) rtjrlo^s^o 

do?ir!e3j3^^, when the Gaula religious mendicants put away all the 

frankincense without exception, ss^todo^j 

let us altogether in union attack Phalguna! 

all of you without exception tell! FSdddJojrts^zjdorfoo ?fs>a 


33e>q$Fo, Arjuna overcame alone all the gathered kings w. e. in fight. 

?rarfFo ^j?>^dro . . . oi&o^o 3e>O?)^oo rfjdJ3si$, furthermore 


?j)rfFo 3j8dFo ... all these w. e. have a long penultimate. ^ 
), all you here w. e. esssl ^FO^OO, to all (of the abstract verbal 

nouns) without exception, ^o^j^osi S53^J3 ?j> e5?3, all honey w. e. is 
sweet. 3&> y^Jii sSe^o, all that w. e. is wanted. ?33^ dJ3 ZJ^ do, they 

d MO 

came all w. e. wdc^ 6 i^dooo ?2e;?oOOJo^ ^o, till the whole forest 

together became level with the ground, ^ozj 

f o 

ghee, curds, and all the other things (made of milk) w. e. 
Jds'o^cl), a moving forward of the whole army together. <0e> doo 
cio 8 ", all of them w. e. went, .oodoslr w ^rerrf^Sfo issftrtv, are all 

ro ** 

w. e. liberal persons like that Karna? <o^dJ3 srao*? ^J3^d 3oJ 


do otosdo, if all w. e. sit in a palanquin, who will be the bearers? 

o dJ3, all of you w. e. 333 jJ3, wotarfrfdo ow OrU> eofcjJ37>.6, who are not 

00 -Q- PO 

afraid of sin (i. e. to commit sin) are afraid of all persons w. e. 



), health indeed (is) happiness that exceeds all 
w. e. ,aw 'S'zirteOcriojs, on all sides w. e. 

00 CO 

5, 'though', 'although' ( 314), when they are suffixed 

a, to past participles, e.g. eri^^ws^uortv* A^sraa^sk 6 whodooo 

sStfo, though the terms 

are feminine nouns (and) the terms &^, eSja^ are masculine 
nouns, (they are used as) neuters, sj^o ?$f( . . . eJ5e)d^, 3^)11 ofooo 

"u" W 

tfo^crfs?* wdosj, though 3J$^o, 33?$tf . . . have arisen of the letter fcj, 
they are terms with the ^otf ( 15, 229). ^adwrtF^rfot 
^ftofojo 3$5J5f fcJOSo^o, though the initial of the term 
is long, 'slackness' occurs ( 240, i). o^oo ^>ojjjo z3^,eo* 

Q v 

though hot water gets however so hot, a house does not take fire (on 
account of it). 3\3jo z3>o.C3oo cSJ3rf!3.cdx>o w)do, although the king 
followed and the female messenger pursued, he did not come. =5^0 d^3* 


S5&3rOOJoj (=?5&3r003ooo, mediaeval) ^^racS, not seeing the tuck, though he 
sought (it). 2>o?di3 &&A{rt)e>az3d ^^d ^sj.rl^j ^rfJ3 's^d sosri 

?o ttroo -O oro 

?oD, if (there) is no health in the body, though (there) are other comforts, 
it is in fact so as if they did not exist. 

b, to relative past participles in connection with 3od, ssci and 556, 

e- g- e3fl *&$& iSaddodo^ o^j djsa ^eoSjsdo ^^dj^djsessl^ 

"^ Zw O O *~"^ 

'aej, though the very two (words) w^ (and) ^350* are uttered together, 
(there) is not the fault of tautology. skqJo53(3* coS3de3dJ3^o t3?GcSJ8^ 
cSeidj ^df( 3e>^ 'S.^daood, though (one) repeatedly drops (or drop) 
honey (thereon), could the fibres in the neem become sweet at last? 
$?to3ekc3jsclo3oo (='S 1 3^cSj3doJoJ5, mediaeval) &g$&?tic&f&>Rd d&l! 
oioo, though (he) gives (or gave) riches and eats (or ate) together (with 
you). ^drWd tfzij ^Jis)rf6oioo ( = wd6oioJS, mediaeval) ^oSo^cS? 
, though the middle of a saw is weak, does it not cut a tree? =&df{ 
35e>ftridJS D-srtdQ 23erf^i^s3?, though the crow is like the 

O co * ro 

cuckoo, is there no difference in (their) sound? ^rfo^ rforfo^dj j5JS?rf 

, though men do not 

see us, God sees us always. s3en> 3$ri3^sc3dJS $&$ fiU?3?, though 

he knows the vedas, does pain leave him? 

?$ IJS^OJoarf 6 cJe)5j3e 'a a ?i?, though it is (or be) a Brahmana's face, 

O O O 

does it not stink, if it is not washed with water. 

- 277 
3eX&j, though diluted, (it is) buttermilk, though stupid, (it is) 

the mother. 3r3 zdofcJ.dJS does TkrfOw, though the corpse is burned, 

eo <*> 

debts are not burned. 

Regarding the meaning of 'furthermore', 'and', 'also' which , n>o, CAfl 
may have in the same combination, see 286. 

6, 'at least', 'at any rate' in combination with Sod, $5c3 and wd added 
to a relative past participle, e. g. i*>& i3tf sJorl^scSj^do z3^o, (of the 


ten kinds of sons) at least a son of one kind is required, rfs&rraddo&o 
(= CJd6a&J3, mediseval) ^csod rfcScrio ^etfo, at least us (you) must tell 
what you have seen (i. e. the truth), 'a^ra.rfclaku (= r a^cizloioJS, 
mediaeval) )i3o s^3, hence at any rate give up (your) obstinacy, e 

w wadarid (>3si>ds-3ridJ?> So^sk-ri , it is as if (somebody) said to one 

o ti- 6 ' 

who does not know a a (the first letters of the alphabet), "repeat at 
least the Amarakosa" (as you certainly know still more). ^s>cSdJ?) 
^N^Cdo^jcl) e3ert, 3oOo3o^, thou at least be merciful quickly, Hari! 

7, 'even', 'so much as', 'as was not to be expected' in connection with 
Ewd, ezl, wd suffixed to a relative past participle, e. g. zj^s^ffo &>SCcl 


SeiejcS? 3J?oo3rreddo (=wrfziJ3, mediaeval) ^^ cSjSd^ortj, is it not enough' 
if one utters "Basava"? even a beast will (thereby) obtain devotion. 

Jesi/ wrlrfo 


do, it is impossible in the world to remove by scorn what is called pre- 
destination, even for a king (or a god), "watert^ oosrt sss3e>cidJ3 Sosj^ 
0?3o&irf Zjacirt^ WMKJoSjsert^, -&^3 d, like' plants even they (stones, 

CJ ** ' ^5 ~^ 

earth, water, etc.) are useful in various ways to living beings. 

, even 

at that time, just as nowadays, it was necessary to cross the river in a 
boat, wdftfj $3ft Eo^o 'sa^sddJS ^J3^e;, he did not give me even one 

C3 CO 

farthing (see remark under No. 8). 

8, 'whether or' in combination with kd^ 5cS, yd suffixed to a relative 
past participle, e. g. a sj^^tforttfjas* ^ddd^do ^sSJ^y* e3^odfe?do 
zlav*" 'acSjsr^o OdA^slidAV 'sid^r^o ^sjcsr^o^oioo ^ztrtoo, those 
ten letters (ww'si-^eroerus^j s>jJ3 ^ ^), whether they two by two 
among themselves are in regular order or out of the usual order, bear 
the sign of the same class (is 21). wrasJ\ eruaSfiS ^ddJS zto, drJfSO 

re sJ no a 

'Sid djs AjD, (it is) the same whether a useless man is in a town or in 


an army, tfm ^js?3o5j^ ^oddjs zoodapi 3oe$dfc ?jS ti5e, whether 

W O CJ CO .^ CJ 


(one) eats sugar-cane from the top or eats (it) from the bottom, (its) 
sweetness is the very same. rfjsdo^teddJS ^Oo3o?, &do3c3>c;dJ3 ?dOo3oe 
(it will) be right whether you do it or let it alone (Hodson). Cf. 319. 


It seems to be a grammatical anomaly, if wdfcdo, e33c3o, e3c3dai>:>, 
553C^J, WCSb/d, literally 'a having become or a being if and', are combined 
with the accusative; but there are sentences like the following: ^odosQdj 
3rJ3dJ~oJj^ ^doDO'Jd 30^3 s3g srftS* yjS-iscio, (one) has to give whatsover to a 
woman whom (one) respects deceitlessly (Sabdamanidarpana Mdb. Ms.), ssrt^s 5 
yddo s'tfdo ^J3<^d, (he) taking not even a haga (from the devotees; in a sasana 
of about A. D. 1200). arf^ddoiw (=arf;33dcioi>J3) six)^ rfocfcdsS, 23?ct>, hereafter 
we shall give (thee) whatsoever; pray! (Basavapurana). <o3 i ?s 6 ' 3O cS *i3so, zoc^ 
^c^ oddaakcS* w&ess^o ^t^ skrf&etfo (StSo^Q^, except always upon me, he does 
not think even upon (my) high rank (Bp.). W$J ^oi^ 
I must burn up even Poona (South-Mahratta schoolbook). 
o^o8dc5^drfe Lde^^, I have not read either Veda or Purana (Hodson's Grammar; 
about either or see 292. 317). (A similar seeming anomaly is found in the 
use of eo, 300, 1, remark b, in that of wrtD, 317, and in that of ew cS, 338 
under * 5 ^, { 3). 

In Ko. 7 of the present paragraph there is, however, the instance 933o c3rftf 
z-rf^ =?3Ai3ddJ3 ^J3t3o, he did not give me even one farthing, and a similar 
instance is- 23o 3v$ assddo ^rfo,3 es3^ otedd d;2dj rf^ ac^^oi) sojs^r\ 

& "I *A 

^cifl^ ^Jorttf c^j^ oisSrts?^ rfd^O^cdroft ^js^n?^, though at times the desire arises 
to eat whatsoever, God has abundantly given me roots and fruits and leaves of 
the jungle. The first instance no doubt requires the accusative, which may be 
53?io or ^^ (see 122, C); the second instance one might translate 'though at 
times the desire arises to eat whatsoever it may , God etc., the 'whatsoever 
it may be' being not governed by 'to eat', but being an insertion standing by 
itself. But 3?3dtfJ3 may be, and most probably is, arfo or a3 (accusative, see 
125, <j) + *Hto*. 

One is, therefore, constrained to think that when w&orio, etc. are preceded 
by an accusative, they have lost their original meaning and become mere adverbs. 

288. When in the modern dialect e$^, then, receives the sufllx eo/o and 
is added to a relative past participle, it gets the meaning of 'though', 
'although', e. g. kt3j3,^ N dj 3do, si&ra^oo 3o$ ^JooO^ o&4 3^acra 

U Id <S 2^7 Q <* 

rtJS tJ 3J3C 3 ;3oo53 9 o3o>^ , though they one by one put their kuee to 
(the bundle of sticks) and with (all their) strength made effort, that 
bundle did not break. 


, though there be a pearl in the hood of the cobra, nobody goes 
near. ^sijOcJs rt% tfOarto&id 3{tf o, though the sectarian (Vaishuava) 
mark be (put to the forehead), faithfulness is necessary (i. e. is not to 
be put away by the bearer). Cf. 314. 

289. If e5C3a>rt./a<, and eJGidJS are used by themselves at the beginning 
of a sentence, they mean 'however', 'but', 'notwithstanding', 'yet', e.g. 
tftftf SoOJjjj &?*}, c3e>rtJ3o 2J3oJ wajsert,;^, the milk of cows is little, but 
very wholesome. rfoiio3a<5<& 3d3d sJeraEje-rttftfja. &3rttf(&% sJjsrf uv^j. 

ft , O t co 

tddJ3 J jslrts?ri eSe^sktfjtfo, 353^ 3W 2J& t o3oo ed^nw, man can make 

C u Cp ~^ ^ 

various things and (draw various) pictures, but he has not the power of 
giving them life. W3ci> tftfftN. rfJJSSSo 33 wo, d3$F& z3tf,;3<& -aero 3, 

w TT TT <j> 

tJrtdJS essj^o 2036^ to^OwO^^o, he is three or four years younger than I, 
notwithstanding he is very good. 3ojjijrt^o & 

^rfCJJS 3^f\ 'Sl^A V 5JJ^ W 

cp 1 

), that boy is learning English these two years, yet he 


cannot pronounce v and w well. Cf. 296. 314. 

290. eso, eruo, eara and eru, when summed to the interrogatives 'who', 
'what', 'where', 'whither', 'when', 'how', express 'soever', and are used 
so to say to form also indefinite pronouns (see 102, s, b, remark). 

The translation into English of such pronouns, etc. in the instances 
of this paragraph and the next four paragraphs is quite literal, but the 
student will be able to turn it into proper English for himself. The 
instances of this paragraph are: 

tocSs'saD*, *3d?o? ^7>e3jsv* tfzld&o*, Zwd^dj^j* ( a^>, have you 
become poor, king? you walk on foot, whosoever is not with you (/. e. 
none is with you), edo^oo s^rto* -dscrfocS 

if it does not allow whomsoever to 


enter and is fit to be the gynecaeum, that garden is called pramadavana. 
rird^ yp^o, (he is) superior to whomsoever in the world. 

SAJSOri yrWd SjJ3^o3je ^JO^oSo, for a village in which 

- o' 

whosoever is not (i. e. nobody is), the washermen's Male is the respectable 

woman. ^d^o. o&e>dJ3 S5 9 oiodo, whosoever does not know this. 

OiJeido ^t3?)6? o3J)dJ3 'S^, who is in the room? (there) is 

o nr 

not whosoever (/. e. none at all), ^ysffo COndflQ ?5J3?d)t>, I have not 

J. CO 

seen whomsoever (i. e. I have seen nobody). 


, do not entertain malice against whomsoever. , , 

tf&Sktf 'S sJJsStfoao. king, your queen hasTcommitted 


here no fault whatsoever. >fij?> S3&3 9 afcc3s3ffo, one who does not know 
whatsoever, pjsj^fi S3d3 S^odo^ >&> rU)^^, he has no knowledge 
whatsoever regarding that, -d? ^JSdcdoo >?! ^rjrf<y, this umbrella is 


of no use whatsoever. 5^>tf -ds 3J3&> >c3J3 rforsC)^, in his health 


there is to-day no improvement whatever. ^J3?l> 
e3vejd>, the child will not eat whatsoever to-day. 


^5>0&o o&ei^Je), 23^d, pickles absent at dinner are not good for whatso- 


ever, gora^ ftdrt&stffl 'assL*. zS^rt cjto wOorfs^ ^->^A otorfrfp &), 

ro 20 "~"^ f 1 ! 

among fruit-trees there are none whatsoever which bear fruits so quickly 

(as plantain trees). >(&& ^e)rfsj o&SjC^JS, 3oP?3, he who has nothing 
whatsoever, does not feel aversion to whatsoever. 

<o>3oo xfsoioo o 23a,^o s ^o?S njjddo, though hot water gets hot how 

O *v 

much soever, a house does not take fire (on account of it). 

o, there is no disaster in what manner soever to a poet. 

5pdo, we have not seen whensoever such a wonderful thing. 
3 rioiOod 2pJSo, a piece of land that is not cultivated at what time 
soever. oi^JB >S3c3 D>4^ ^obod^ 3o&> doa^A dC^rf, a horseman 

Cj O O 

who did not mount (a horse) at what time soever, mounted the horse in 
a reversed way. <>}> rU> 3$ ssoSorl^ dj)^j ^)J)S3 eradcSo, one must not 

O O 

transgress the word of (one's) parents at what time soever, w^rio rio3o, 
CJ r as?. a piece of land that is not cultivated at what time soever. 

whensoever. >&; ^^ aSort?^) ^{i r!re?^J3, slJ^ciA 03J?)SD 
u <. ca =<- rf' ">- 

^SSi Sj^roJ^^o, a female who has learned science, will at what 
time soever make her husband and children happy, to^j^ s3o^?io o&e)57S> 


?, a miser's mind is whensoever base. aoe)rlJ3 3oU cSjS^ri S3o3jj 
orfa^), howsoever on the feast there will be no school for five 


days. s3s3$J3drs?o (i. e. essJs^+ero mediseval + ^dr^o) 2^^^ s5ojc3oT&- 
oiraA =5)>o3o ^?6crfo?5* eroy,^ 8 ^o ^33e)gaJo^ o^^siorto, whatsoever a 
female is somewhat old and has put on a cloth dyed with red ochre, is 
called katyayani. ^Oofcosi^ 'aQakosij* <o>odooo ^^o, there and here 

oo <r> co 

(and) wheresoever (is) Arjuna. 55c3oioo (=<o)oJoJS, medieval) 
it does not stand wheresoever. a?i Sdje)?i So^ dssari sJ^oiJci 

"> < C5 <M 

<a?i rf sJdrtJS tO>o3uJ?> xfeiraOo, wheresoever I have not seen such a 

V O c*> co' 

beautiful bird as thee up to this very time, oi^ 


WS &> 3 3 o ?3e>dro* SN.SO^^FV*, with lifted hands he attacked, there 

. - _ O^ 

(and) here (and) in the intermediate places wheresoever the enemies 
not waiting approached. 

291. 'Soever' is likewise expressed by suffixing o and erus to the 
past relative participle ed (of esrta) combined with w3> and es6, and 
adding the thus obtained forms yc3.s>c$o and wc3dJ3 to interrogatives. 
e. g. WD)dj53o, whosoever. ^^cSjs^o, in what manner soever. assort 
O33s>:3j3:$o, howsoever. e^SrraQCJS s^sdr^dor c$c5j, actions done in a 
former state of existence do not leave whomsoever (Dasapada). oi3e)Ce> 
CSdJS, whosoever. ottsOrrecidJe), to whomsoever. o33e>s3c3>ddJ3, whoso- 
ever, whichsoever. o33->5jC5->c3dJS, whatsoever, whichsoever. 

whatsoever. }35->,c3CJ3, however so much. (0;ys Qdjji, whensoever. 
aJ ^ 

rr)dCJS, up to what time soever, at what time soever. 

whensoever. 3oe> Q rrec3dJS!, howsoever. o}>o&e>c3dJe>, <^27scJdJ5. where- 

co PO 

soever. *)rrsc30J3, whithersoever. oi){3-> CdJ3, whencesoever. 

co " O 

^JS^^sciCJS, whatsoever, or to whatsoever, extent, o& 
in whatsoever manner. 

The same meaning is obtained also by adding any past relative 
participle combined with e6 and ?AJ3 (i- e. ssdJS), aozl and eo (i- e. w^o), 
5^ and ?3o (. e. yc^o), wd and erua or x> (i. e. escifc or $$&;), to 
interrogatives, e. g. =5^ fraoajrts^o W3oo 3?^^e>h io^jds^), ^>fio ^Jsa^dJS 
>, jungle dogs run very fast; whatsoever one does, they 

cannot be caught, ^sslo 3je>acjdJ3 f^srsrtcj? ^c^cio, how much soever 

(he) does, loss will never fail. ^Q c$j^Sc3dJ3 ! ffe)i^o, wheresoever one 
sees, (is) a wilderness. <o^ ^JS^cSdJ3 do^o* t^ddo, whithersoever (he) 
goes, death does not leave (him). >jk slrearidJS siort aoDoSa^o^sJdji^ 
Oz^, whatsoever (they) may do, (their) son does not leave to say 'Hari'. 
>ff ^tfdj (medisevalj jsss,cteo ^^ ^lrf rf ??* 3>o, whatsoever one 

O &J x O 

says (and) however so much, a vile man does not give up his ways. 
howsoever one reads. l) 

l) Instances in which the conjunction &o is not suffixed in such u case, occur in the 
following verse of the Jaimini Bharata (16, 43): 

oiO^ &a&a:3 



Also if sroo is suffixed to the infinitive with <o and this form is added 
to an interrogative, the meaning of 'soever' is produced, e. g. 
>s3o3ooo, when whatsoever vowels stand in front. 

292. Another way of expressing 'soever' is to suffix e5cfoo r 
to interrogatives. This suffix is composed of tJ^ (see 176) and 
src (=eroo), and literally means i having become though', 'though having 
become'. E. g. wos^oo, whosoever. ^^3^00, whatsoever. ^^-s^o^JS^J 
o, whatsoever a state. iD^-s^o (=>{Se>c&o, mediaeval), whatsoever. 
oo, in what place soever, occasionally, oi^s^oo, howsoever. 
whensoever. <oo3ra^oo, wheresoever. w^jcje)^j, whatsoever, e. 

os^)c5o, the removal from whatsoever a thing; 
, on whatsoever a (piece of) wood, ws^cjs^o, whosoever. 

e. g. ws5(3e)f3J3Ucfo whosoever a. man. 

When fcjffoo, e?f^w are not suffixed to interrogatives, they signify 'a 
little', 'moderate', e. g. ^^?je)^jo c3^ric3J3s?*, in this much little or 
moderate haste; or 'a certain', e.g. 2w),^o, a certain one, in 2oM?).fSJ3 
&\f$o, a certain one man (i.e. some one man, some man); &t3a. 
a certain woman; lowi) ?J3Eo. &oT5\)rt?i), a certain husbandman; 

a certain one (neuter), in 2;3)F2J3rfo sSe^odoO, at a certain one time 

Q CJ f 

(e. e. at some time or other); in repetition 'either or' (cf. 317), e. g. 
doJS^sjej^oo ^rtejSf&o, either east or north; ?s) oSrerforfj 


either there or here; ^^^^f ( 3 1 <|3>ffoo, either then or now; 
idse)^o, either one or two; sjg^rfoo ^JSCS^^o, either ten or hundred; 
'about' in oj^jSreOj (oif5|j^o+iraOj), about eight. 


In the modern dialect ' a certain ' is expressed also by the interrogative suffix 
k (see 283), e. g. w^ odnd&ac &> ea^rtrf ^ra^ ? she (is) the wife of a certain 
boatman. Cf. also 310, 2 at the end. 

293. The y^oo of 292 appears also as esrao, i. e. fcjf (for w 
and this t?C3o again appears with a short y (see 176) as esrao, i. e. 
5ra (for ?5^)4-e5o. wrao, S5C3o mean 'soever', 'whatsoever', elliptically 
for io^rarao, ^jdrcio, e. g. rtara^ wra^j *ae;, (there) is no merit whatso- 


ever. ^ejoJord^ sscadj* <ae>, (there) is no business whatsoever. 

CO 1 

, (there) is no doubt whatsoever. 


294. If the interrogatives w3, odJsrf, <03^, etc. are connected with 
a following noun, roo, wxo are suffixed to this noun in order to express 
'soever', e. y. wd d?5oio>ofojo, in whatsoever direction. sSof^N &>e*3 


o&e>s3 a^^^^ 'S^, (there) is not whatsoever book (i. e. there is no book 
at all) on the table, ^f^o oJJ5>3 ede$dbr&a ) XSoX 23 55 e>rt &,<, you 
will not have to suffer whatsoever distress. 3s?tf?a3oOti)rtdj otos^j 3^ 

foolish boys are not good for whatsoever business. 

>JS S5^, not in whatsoever manner (i.e. in noway). 


,, to whatsoever extent. Also if the genitive oiJSd (&&} 
*- J 

stands before a noun, o\a (sroo) is suffixed to this noun in the same 
sense, e. g. 3o, do?e3 o&>d ffskJo^P *3e>rtck, annoyance of whomsoever 
will not come upon you. 'arf^o. djsSoSck oSistf sl)^?ortj3 wdd^k^ . 

t. "jy ro 

to do this will not suit the mind of whomsoever. (About QV see 298. 
about &< 300). 

If &?3o is used instead of oirsrf, the eru5 is commonly suffixed to ajfo, 
e. a. & ^JSjiodoo ^?iJ3 ^?odej this umbrella is of no use whatsoever. 

Q ro' 

o , (there) was no money whatsoever about him. 


But on the other hand there is e. cr. 

your queen has committed here no fault whatsoever. 
about this there is no doubt whatsoever. 

295. In 285 it has been stated that besides in the medieval dialect 
also in the modern one en> is used instead of erua. Thus we find e.g. 

(for oD{3s)C3dJe>), 0&'e)Os)C3dO (tor 0&e)0'3C3dJ3) 

(for oSi^OrracSd.), O3j3s3z3e>t3do (for 

CJdJ (for o^SJS CJdJS), (03oi3)t3dj (for <>}0&e>J3dvO), 033s)3>rtaj (for 

296. In 289 escdbJS) (' e. wd+wd+axe) appears in the meaning 
of 'but'. It may get also that of 'also', e.g. 3 w &5s>d djsa ?5J)?aa6 
^NrrscSdJS S5)^o3o^ sL&eeS 9 ^, if (thou) reflectest a little, it is likely to 
appear also to thee in that very manner. (5t)^c$dv> '3t?>(3 rfuri wrf?l> 
5Jje)Qrf ^e rt^fio, ^^)OrotSf^J, till now also I put up with the faults 
committed by him. 



A remark is here to be made regarding ejc3i3 (i. e. JcS+ss6), which 
literally means 'if becomes or is', 'if become or are', e.g. ?o3o3oj tsrfd aS-^, 
sJSo&o oa^aC) 3?^, if (there is) a wife, (there is) sorrowful thought', 
when (there is) no wife, (there is) sorrowful thought. eS^ 
, if it is silver, is it not agreeable to the thief? 

3Sl., if (there) are children, (it is) trouble; when (there) 


are no children, (it is) trouble, e*^sk ^S3^> ri6 35e>wo ^53 ?, if the cow 
is black, (is its) milk black? goe>7Te>c36, if (it) is so. 23^e>c36, if (it) is 

e?c36, however, is often used somewhat like ejrfdJS, 'but', if it stands 
at the head of a sentence, e.g. $e53odfi> sicfoeieSoSJS^rt SoJ^AQ, wrfd 


y >^J3 rtrf^> 5&3<3 z3?&0, go all of you into the veranda, but you 


must not make any noise there. irvz$ ft^rt<& ^033* a5e)aJc3 ^J3r3e3 dOoSJ 





plants, as soon as they are touched, close, but do not experience joy and 
sorrow like living beings. & cS^cSO =^dj ?j<^rte> ssei^^soSJa h^rl^o 

ro <p oo 

C3o,. wrf6 S5oio So3?^ ^6)030 wrtodas;, in this country there are in some 

6J' M n* 

places nutmeg trees, but (their) nuts do not become like (those) of that 
place. Cf. 314 and see the use of tjtfd in 334. 

297. The conjunctions w^, wW 9 , (fceO'tfo, etc. 212, a), 

, again, further, and, are used in adducing something additional, 
e.g. sii^ (>c3* .o^o^cSo) ^333d 4>0&ft^ &e?3o ^3oosj^^e)qJr^o^ w^^ 

5rfj^)?d (. 6. e50e)rt5JOC5j dj?s3 = VD fi Sl> 3-> =5*0,0. 

, sjoi sS^rfo, cSjsc^ rfods^rtosa^drap? sjj^ o 


is composed of 530^+ S5o, so that it originally means 'and further' like 


O, iJ3?e3'3o5* 


, etc. 


An instance in which ;5or3* means 'or' is the following: 

In the modern dialect do^) (which we met with already in multipli- 
cative and additional numbers at the close of 280) is used like 
(ef. 310), e. g. 

. See an instance in 289 

(v &>&* w )- 

In the same dialect 3o"srtJ3 (35e5orlJ<)), so also, likewise also, has been 
used in the sense of 'and', e. g. ^d) (=#^d^) toSotf tS^oiwrfa^, 35e>rU> 

298. The Sabdamanidarpana states that QV ("of ao* = '3vD') is a 
kriyatmakavyaya, i. e. a particle (avyaya) that partakes of the nature 
of a verb. Its formation has been shown in 209, note i (see also 
210). 's.ej appears also with a final euphonic sonne as 'S^o, e. g, 
^dc3^, ^F^ri^osis* 'S^o, and in the modern dialect with a euphonic 
$ (i. e. o+w) as -ao^ ( 209, note i; 212, 7). 

When followed by a vowel, the final letter of 'Sie; either disappears, 


e. g. ^573 rta, 'SsSpS* (cf. 215, i), or a euphonic 53* is inserted, e. g. 


> 2 15, 3). 

is used either by itself, or in combination with nouns, pronouns, 
etc. In combination with bhavavacanas, i. e. verbal nouns ending e. g- 
in y\)c5o and yrfo ( 200, i. 3, once also in 3o, see 194, remark i) or 
in 55^0 ( 187, i; 188. 209, s), it forms so to say a third person in the 
conjugation of the negative. 

In the modern dialect bhavava&anas with wwo (the nominative) and 
w conventionally convey the meaning of the past ( 209, s). If ess;o 
is changed into the dative (=#,, >) and 'at* is suffixed, the meaning 
of the past disappears. 

In the same dialect ^^ is joined also to past participles. 

1, 'aw by itself. 


'so, and is (king) Nilagriva able (to gain 

the victory)? (No), he is not. ${& (3e>cSOJ& tf^ortSe sorro 

, ever having seen a ripe water-melon art thou? I am not 


(i.e. hast thou ever seen a ripe water-melon? No, I have not), 
^)0?3 3Ds3? t5h^o3J3e ? 'aw having become (i.e. have become andi 

<S,Q ro' 

are all those (things in the house) of themselves? (No), they are not. 
Wri^rt $?ck >^>Cj& 3eJ sira^o w<aae? aw, 733,033, having spoken 

CO oJ 

whatever bad words to him wast thou? I was not, sir (i.e. hadst thou 

abused him in any way? No, I had not, sir). zScfSoflftrarttfo s3oo3o <oejs> 

r\ f 

rfdJS ^^dsS^o? 'at), did the bees sting (you) anywhere on the body? 


They were not (i. e. no, they did not). JoFic3 sdodri s3j?s3 adow.) 

" is (there) grass upon the cocoa-nut tree?'' asked the gardener. " (There) 
is not, (thus) saying indeed (to myself), I come down", replied he (i. e. 
no, there is not; and for that very reason I come down, replied he). 

2, *aw in combination with nouns and pronouns (cf. 316, i). 
^ric^o rjo?o, N ^,o AjS^Je)?oDow. (generally there) is not a composition 

l -rf- tJO T7 CO' V 

(i. e. generally there is no composition) of Kannada and Samskrita words. 
^sJCJo ^d^v%dds3J3^o z3J5^3SlOjw, also if a Samskrita word follows 


(the terms ^s; and das), a fault it is not (i. e. it is no fault). 

(V) / * 

0, doubt (there) is not (i. e. 0, there is no doubt). 

rtotio)r3 ;3ori>w Drona is not (present), Karna is not (present), 


the son of Drona is not (present). 2c^)C,))OW, (there) is not whosoever 


with (you, i.e. nobody is with you). s^kJDow, (there) is not a pot (i.e. 

* CO 

there is no pot). vurswoc^wo ^sl)hw an eating and a putting on (there) 


is not for them (i. e. they have nothing to eat and to put on). ^$f( &Q 
^cdozosfo* r a?Xw for me great trouble still (there 1 ) is not (i. e. there is 

Lco' ^ 

no longer great trouble for me), dorf^f^ 5$j?s3 ^& w, (there) is not a 

oj oo" 

fault on Madana (i. e. there is no fault on Madana). 53^^ &>30fi 
&o$^j cSoJo^w. in Yama's messengers whatever mercy (there) is not 

* oo' 

(i. e. Yama's messengers have no mercy at all). ^ ^j)o, d s3oee3 s3rs 

co tO 

S$J3^ 'adOw, after the period (of life) has expired, for a moment a stay 
(there) is not (i. e. there is no stay for a moment). f$j$ ^^^ o&>si 
Sj)?o 33$ *aw near me whatsoever book (there) is not (i. e. I have no 

VJB or,' 

book at all with me), -ds 3J3^J tJa^S3e>d ?ros3 'aw to-day (is) Sunday, 

' -* -0 co' 

school (there) is not (i. e. there is no school). ta3 'awc^Stf rt3 'aw, 
\. / \ j ^ 

for those who have no understanding, fortune (there) is not (i. e. there 
is no fortune). ^f( draosS? 'aw, for me (the sun, there) is not fatigue 


indeed (i. e. I never suffer fatigue), esck N?$rt rtJSaO,, 'aw, that to me 
knowledge is not (i. e. I do not know that). $jl> >:& 3&?COjd ^w?tow, 


thou whatever saying a business (there) is not (i. e. thou doest not want 
to say anything). aDoBjftrf 3o^dO^, J^dhji 3o5jW, greater than a 

** ro ^ co 

mother benefactors (there) are not, greater than sugar sweetness (there) 
is not (i. e. there are no greater benefactors than a mother, there is no 
greater sweetness than that of sugar). 3^3 f> sSo^wo wcrrsdOw, 

*~* * PO 

5Jo^?r?$ sSo^wj ^jacSOw better than pure gold (there) is not, better 

*3" "~^ ^ 

than cliildren lisping (there) is not (i. e. there is no gold better than 
pure gold, there is no lisping better than that of children), 'a^w, ^rt? 

Q oo 

oi3e>c$dJ?> ej ^Wn)^ ^OJOJ? & wdosjdo, to-day it is not, but to-morrow that 
work will be accomplished (i. e. to-day it is not likely to be accomplished, 
but to-morrow that work will be accomplished). $3f{ 33 SDOforttfoflJS?? 

Q cj 

oiiscSJS 'aw/to thee father and mother are (there)? Whosoever (there) 
are not (i. e. hast thou still thy parents? No, I have nobody). $f( -d? 
oirstfo ^js^do? o3:s)dJ?) aw; ^^ 'arffi^ c^c^oj^rs^ rtc^ 
, who gave thee this knife? Whosoever not (i.e. nobod 

O" W 

having opened the bundle of Narayana I took it to myself. ^^ adf^S 
^Oo^dcS? ii^J5 'aw, is (there) ghee near you (i. e. have you some ghee)? 
(there) is not any (i. e. I have none). 

3, ste; in combination with verbal nouns (cf. 316,2.12) and past 
participles (which are finally also verbal nouns, see 169). 

'Sc^do rta^o&^rfoao Tjsj^J^d^doJ^WDrssdsSri, till now (he) is not 
a having become an object of aim to a stroke of an arrow discharged by 
the hand of Kama (I. e. till now he has not become an object etc.). 

11 the young cuckoo 
in a mango troe among a flock of crows in the wood a having been able 
not (i. e. was not able) to rise and go away, and also at night to cry, 
and to open and shut (its) eyelids, (in short) to do anything on account 
of fear. 

<as? gtliidofcd&tte&o > 


slrafl dj3^ ^^,s3^Ds?o3j3^* || the month Mage 
grandly made its appearance so that in the covering cold the points of 
the compass, the sky, the earth, mountains (and) forests, howsoever, a 
having been able not to be seen (i. e. could not be seen) on the earth 
which is known for (its) misty heat when fruits are growing fully ripe. 

, the queen a having made 
not any fault here (i. e. the queen has not committed any fault here). 

to some monkeys a tail a being 

(there) is not (i. e. some monkeys have no tail). 23^ 

if (there) is no knowledge, honour a coming (there) is not 

(i. e. -honour is not obtained). , 

stupid boys a coming (there) is not for whatsoever work (i. e. stupid 

boys are good for nothing). <>} 'ans&oe? =f>rajda^, where is she? 

co 9 co' 

(she) an appearing is not (i. e. she does not appear). <s?se) 3orco 3o^> & 

9 pa <w 

rtv^ ioU^e =3^^) 3^3 35e>tf N^ri Jrio5J>o, so that (I) having sat 
down eat such (good) ripe fruits alone is not a being pleasant to me 
(i. e. to sit down and eat such good ripe fruits alone is not pleasant to 
me). tfsikj ^e>ssl ^odoO^, ^e>>033q$r do3o>^, (he) a having 
abandoned not deceit (and other) sin, (and) a having obtained not the 
desired object (i. e. he has not abandoned deceit and other sin, and has 
not obtained the desired object). tJ^^ 3e)03o z3^-sd3SL> o^ro So^C^rfdJa 

^tfOw, though his mother having made clear (and) told (him) so 


much as was necessary, (he) a hearing was not (i. e. though his mother 
clearly told him all that was necessary, he did not hear). =3^0 sJoo^rt 
tftfo^ 3o&3 9 rio 23??i^^o, wddO CTSO ^ri%, ^ e having trodden on 
stones (and) thorns grew fatigued, but the way a being found was 
not (i. e. he trod on stones and thorns and grew fatigued, but the 
way was not found). ss^^ SoJ3?rt ; t>, he to a going is not (i. e. 

~y CO 

he does not intend to go or probably will not go). &>?ri 3jQc3d 
e^tf ?oUo. atfofcostej. ^^rtJ5 wl >etf*,t>, if (you) do so, his 

U " -3- (T) 

anger will be assuaged, and blows to a falling on thee are not 
(i.e. and blows will not fall on thee). ^,^, attack c^ wd^JS^^^, 

7 v =L < -55-00' 

whosoever are not to an allowing thee to come near (i. e. nobody will 
allow thee to come near). ^j^ ^ 3o>rte s3o?>tf zodad 3?0w^se, 
yet writing on thy board a having been finished (see 168. 169) is not? 


(i.e. has writing on thy board not yet been finished Vj. 

cks&tfj dJ3Q^, men a having made the sun are not (i. e. man has not 

*U ( "**> 

mado the sun), d^sjrf^j, G33e>&> ?5J3^ao, whosoever a having seen God 

is not (i. e. nobody has seen God), & cra.3 ok aorso rttfo aootf e3, eci 

^"\ ra 

SS 9 ^ "SSJ) ?tetf z3^e)Au , these grapes are sour, therefore these a 

C5 _ f> 

requiring for me having become are not (i.e. therefore these are not 
required for me, that is to say: I do not want these). t;rf 

^, then Gurupada was beaten (by his schoolmaster). 

Why? In his inkstand ink a having been was not (i.e. there was no 
ink ), (and) in his bundle a pen and paper a having been were not 
(i. e. there was not a pen or paper). 

4, about 'ae) 53). 


si>Oc3e>rtsJ3 ri&ft ?JS$f3)>s3j, a means (there) is not for (obtaining) 
future happiness (i. e. there is no means for obtaining future happiness). 
j3Sls> z3ftzrartJ^ W303ort ^os'O^ke; ;$, however so much (the fox) jumped 
(the bunches of grapes) a coming in reach for (his) mouth were not 
(i. e. could not be reached with his mouth). See also Dasapadas 
23, i; 48, 2; 148, 7. 

5, about the combination of 'ae) with 


wile; z3^o; orlo jsdo! r 3,35lo 

W W 

? rfooosl wy,o) ^J3^o! dJS3)do^ SiwosJ Soe)At>, mother, mother, 

6j ro co 

a basin is required; give (it) quickly! Why so much hurry, Rama? 
(Mother) give (me) first a basin! a staying thus (quite literally: of the 
staying in this wise, see 186) talking (there) is not (i. e. there is no 
time for me to stay and talk now), ^ra^ ^fl =$ol> ^tx^o^ aoSAo , 
the millet-stalks a reaching thus for my hands (there) is not (i. e. the 
millet-stalks cannot be reached with my hands), ftffi s3oio?j?c$dJ3 
>J>3 9 3oJ3?03oJ^J.d So^rS 'ao, "also my prime of life has passed'' 
a saying thus (there) is not (i. e. you cannot say that also my prime 
of life has passed). 

299. About the combination of <0, , &>, i, with 'ae^. 
1, 'aej> s5 or ^t> 5. 

n n 

In these two forms 'at> is combined with ,0 and ), two particles of 


interrogation ( 212, e), suffixed by means of a euphonic zf. The 
meaning of ^o^S and <at)s3^ is first "is (there) not?" "are (there) not?", 



e.g. &i&Atf fteft (&)> Se, is there no oil in the gingely-oil seed? (answer: 


yes, there is). 5^5^ sSj3^j zXS^xs* Slori^ 3j>>o ;3, if one flower fades, 

CW Q ) 7J 1 CO 

are there no flowers for the black humble bee? (answer: yes, there 

This meaning, however, often changes into 'or', literally l; is it not 
(this)?", i. e. if this is not the case, then it may be also this, e.g. $ft 

when thou getst any pain, is it not (this? is it not pain? then also 
i. e. or) when sickness happens (to thee), thy parents will grieve. 
s&cte^tf rfj^Sjj wsjrf tfoaoBotf ^^s3 rSdc&J^ 3$oi>o;lc3, man's mind is 

1) rO G> co O 

known by his words, is it not (this? is it not by his words? then also 
i. e. or) by (his) conduct. rreokdfl^ftrf S^ca 3rtdd 

? w rreokrf&i. ^JsS.oao^ ?ioej.6 O^^ ^C5orfay, if (one) removes 

c*. V Q 6J f 

the blood out of the wound (made by the teeth of a snake), the poison 
will take no effect, is it not (this? is it not the removal of the blood? 
then also i. e. or) if that wound is cauterised, the poison will take no 

2, 'aoE^p or 

CO ^ 

When the interrogative particles ^ and t, ( 212, e) are suffixed to 
by means of a euphonic 53* , it conveys first the meaning of a question, 
occasionally one of more or less displeasure, e.g. ttft z$3t%f\ r5{Cb55De> 

23 M 

5^, does buttermilk not agree with thee? S3d3 wi^oJo efte>3t> $8{, 
is there no sack near him? w ooe)OO wCS 9 ?;^^, has that milk not got 
cool? wdrfo ZJd0tk)dpe, will he not come? ^3^ $$^ aoOri^ do^S^ 
eodao 3^0o ^p^, has writing on thy board not been finished yet (i.e. 
doest thou still write on thy board)? ssd^o r a^J3 SoJ^riOodx, nas ue 
not yet gone? ^o WtiirfOw 3(Jf , wilt thou not come? 

But then ^^)d(5, 'aw^? frequently mean l is it not? 1 , 'will it not 


be?', 'was it not?', i.e. 'or not?', e.g. 

a having strained the water of Siva, or not? (i. e. Siva's water was 

strained, or not?). =3^ siraSd dod^ eSA^o, do 

aiora drt sS8CSF?rarl)rfGw 


O O) C 

a pruned tree will sprout and grow, (and) become a large tree, or not? 
The moon that lost its splendour on the day of new moon, will become 
full on the day of full moon, or not? &tf skozd ^JS^cdoo 3od^dcSo2J8e? 

^ CO 

&$?: sS^f^j, ^cs ^rsrfF2^> ^QoJo so^dtfo, he (the boy) said, 


"is my (literally: his) new axe sharp? or not? let (me) see", and began 
to cut down all he saw. 

To <ao the L> may also bo added without a euphonic L and then 


its form is 'a&fce.. 


3, 'aorfe 'ao or 'aeBe 'ao. 

r*"> ro n ro 

In r at>>P 'aw an > of emphasis has been suffixed to aw by means 


of a euphonic & and *aw has been repeated; its literal meaning is 


'certainly it is not, it is not' (or 'certainly it will not be, it will not be', 

or 'certainly it was not, it was not'), by which 'not at all' is expressed. 

In <%&t aw the & of emphasis has been joined to the first <aw 


without a euphonic 53*, e. a. drado 'aao&D? 'aeSe < aw , art thou tired? 

(fi ro w' 

Not at all. XK&,OJJ> tto3jdPrl;3dC$&rtd) 'asSe, *aw, in the universe 

SJ &j co <0 co co 

there are unsuitable things not at all (i. e. in the universe there are 
no unsuitable things, none at all). 

300. In 212, 7 est> is introduced as an avyaya. In 209, note i 
and in 210 we have seen that it is a form of the negative of the verbal 
theme e5^, meaning 'fits not', 'is not fit', 'are not fit', 'was not fit', 
etc., 'is not corresponding to', 'is not becoming', 'does not answer to', 
'is not equivalent', 'is not according to facts', 'is opposite to', etc. It 
takes also the form of eso (cf. 'awo in 298), e. g. zo^ae.rtv* ^&3^wo 

n * PO C 

riofcpoko tfddtfctfctoei{tfOofcJdo ^S&riwio, now came Bhimasena, a 
stranger he did not answer to (i. e. he was no stranger), invincible, 
pre-eminent in the lotus-pond of the Kaurava race. (^cSo) 
(this) does not correspond to justice (i. e. this is no justice), 
3Jk3;l5* eswo, (this) does not answer to silk (i. e. this is no silk). 

For the existence of y^ d) in the modern dialect (cf. 'a.wrfj in 298, 4) 

ro V ro 

the author is unable to cite an instance. 

When followed immediately by a vowel, the final of ww either dis- 
appears, e. (j. e3^*, or a euphonic zf is put after it, e.g. wwsjsrfo. 

Instances are: 

1, regarding wo. 

, Arjuna a stranger does not answer 


to (i. e. Arjuna is no stranger), he to become is required (i. e. he must 
become . . .). ('ad)) ^kJdow, (this) does not correspond to a pot (/. t\ 
this is no pot), ('ado) eruarfw, wdSoJoaooaj, (this) does not correspond 
to a town (/. c. is no town), it is a wild. drfordwC)CSo, this is opposite 


to virtue (i. e. this is no virtue). iotejSjawu, 3oJSt3 

a teacher is not corres- 
ponding to a farmer (i. e. is no farmer), a goglet is not fit (to be ranked) 
in the class of pots (i. e. is no pot), glass is not fit amongst metals (i. e. 
is no metal), indeed porridge is not fit (for) a dinner (i. e. certainly is 
no proper dinner). a^ rt?lra?z3o, E3^o> SomCo&w. oS&ok A<3d) WN 

rf" ^ o M o" 

do 5 *a3) ^OJ3C3o sS^cSJSs'rtw, a peasant's reading is not proper, a cat 
is not corresponding to a royal tiger (i. e. is no royal tiger), a swallow- 
wort shrub is not corresponding to a garden (i.e. is no garden); these 
three are not fit in account (i. e. are unworthy of much notice). 3otK 


wherein there are no birds, is not 



answering to a garden; wherein there are no children, is not answering 
to a house (i. e. a garden wherein there are no birds, is no garden; a 
house wherein there are no children, is no house). rfodo)^> sJoddo. 

J PO C*>' 

coOo3oQs;z3 dofSoJoo, wherein there is no guru, is not answering to a 

ro ro 

matha; wherein there are no elders, is not answering to a house (i. e. a 
matha without a guru is no matha, a house without elders is no house). 
ri&oSJeJtfTtoUo. sfos&3odcto . . Otf^rS ^ra^orf). Vithala's name .... in 

s oo gj ro 

a fair wheresover a putting and selling is not equal to (i. e. Vithala's 
name is not such a thing as is put and sold somewhere in a fair), ^ffo 
^flcto, (man's) body his is not according to facts (i. e- man's body is 
not his own), 'asj^o, e5sj^j z3^o, this man is not fit (i. e. not this 

man, but) that man is wanted. 3o^SP tora d> 3J3$o3oodc3o Wo/r)drfe), 

TO c> f n* 

all that shines (with) yellow colour gold does not answer to (i. e. is not 
gold). ac3;| L {(& ^odirto djsSac&Q?? ^o^orio? ese^ , hast thou perhaps 
stolen this? Stolen property? certainly it is not answering to (i. e. cer- 

tainly it is not). oi^j,oJo So>^ WS^ 55e))^3Slo. wd^rUrfw, buffalo's 
milk so much wholesome as cow's milk is not fit (i. e. buffalo's milk is 
not so wholesome as cow's milk). O323Do5)0 sJeJ.fQ 3oo?Se> n c$ si ^rts^O ro^, 

6J -" 9 M IT 

6oJo^ sjjsdos^d, d6 wcJo to^^ se3JSeci^, they manufacture sugar 
(also) at Rajapura, Pattana and other places, but its great goodness is 
not according to facts (i.e. but it is not very good). 

addiction to opium is a very bad thing; on account of it they do harm 
to (their) property, this much is not corresponding (i. e. not only this, 
but) also to (their) life. 'S,3l e5o, this much is not corresponding to 



facts (i. e. this is not all). o3rasteo 

v ' ^ . 

^e>^) erorsj , are these all the arguments? (this much) is not fit (i. e. no, 


it is not so), there are still some others. 'adiqJ^oFSDe3oio^, ?3drfj?3aJoJ, 
this a poor-asylum is not corresponding to facts (i. e. this is not a poor- 
asylum, but) a palace, -dj rloc3c3> Jo^e;, oiOca^, si>JrlJ3,e3o ^c$rttf?k, 

CJ **> Qf W L *t 

Whack g e^ 6, one is not fit, two are not fit (i. e. not only one, not only 
two, but) three hundred mines they have dug in this hill. e?l> 3ofrt 
rf3e>J&s3&i ^cto, thou in this way a making a proper thing it is not 

rf- or>> 

corresponding to (i. e. it is not right for thee to do so; cf. 316, 9). 
d? T?J8zSoko )tfJ3 =t>?jC$^, (is) this umbrella of any use (see remark 6)? 
it is not fit (i. e. this umbrella is good for nothing). o&e>3 ^5e>rfa?j e>> 
*5sj in whatever manner it is not fit (i. e. in no way). Other instances 


are: -acio doo&3<y, dtfaorttfo. asjjij 5&<&&cto, 


a) Regarding the practical difference in the use of 'Ssj ( 298) and w it 
may be said that ^^ expresses positive non-existence and positive denial, and 
^ w relative negation and negation of quality, nature or character. 

4) It is not impossible that ^^ when following a noun, etc., originally 
formed an answer to a question. Let us take a few of the above-mentioned 
instances to show this. S>d33J3^o sSesrfy might be translated '(is) Arjuna a 
stranger? No (he is not)'. Likewise C9&>) 3^3o< '(is this) a pot? No (it is 
not)'. C9ck) A/3du, wctooJjsdod) '(is this) a town? No, it is a wilderness'. 

To give this meaning to ww, would recommend itself, when ^J is sometimes 
put after an accusative, e.g. ^^\ &&,, jfcJ^isiyJf^ aSjaddrfj (Bombay school- 
book 3, 6), 'me (i. e.. did I beat me)? No, I beat my younger brother'. 'Sd^y, 
e3rfc^ ^3 (Rev. F. Ziegler in his Practical Key, page 27), '(shall I call) this 
man? No, call that roan'. Cf. the accusative after W %c3 in 338, and see 
287, remark. 

Sutra 47 of the Sabdamanidarpana teaches that e5 % c 3, when it denotes 
emphasis (nirdharamirtha, and is composed of y ^,^, = au i> + *>i or is the so- 
called negative participle, see 171 and O( 3 in 338), occasionally drops its 
3, and gives the instance rt-cddrfy $2Prtc: s o which stands for rlad3rf<u d 4P^*'-. 
A translation would be 'Oorava a being not fit indeed (or a being not meant 
indeed) I do not praise (t. e. I do not praise anybody but Gorava)'. Thus the 
instance appears in Lingayta manuscripts; a Jaina manuscript of Mudabidaru 
has w3?53dw ^pnc*o which stands for c3?3d?ie;d s&rfc^o, putting the accusative 
c3?3do before " d, but cS^do*, the nominative, before w- The Mudabidaru 


MS.'s writing in this case may be wrong, or may be not, so far as the accusative 
is concerned. 

2, regarding ese> in combination with 35 o>^ (or es^,). 
35>rio, thus (as you think) it is not fit (i. e. thus it is not), 

ododoJo tfjatfftrf cosrto, A^Sdo^d, the hoof of cows so as the 
hoof of horses is not corresponding to facts (i. e. the hoof of cows is 
unlike the hoof of horses), it is split. 3Js!or1$J3^ri ^orfo^cdo 5oe>ri v3 
ds r!l3oJoJ3 wo, amongst beasts like the horse beautiful and strong 

iO ^ 

(any) are not fit (i. e. amongst beasts there are none so beautiful and 
strong as the horse). Ojs^orl^o ?d &L aB^fl wrfj^ejejess&e, assflecfc 
^^ (=^33 ri^o) wo, as fishes cannot leave water and live, so anyhow 
these (frogs) are not according to facts (i. e. so these frogs are in no 

3, regarding ese; o5, eso s5 or esd 5. 

f*> C"> f*l 

These forms bear the suffixes of question <^ and >, expecting an 
answer in the affirmative; the first two insert a euphonic 53*, the last 
one adds immediately to wo. E. g. Strsrtrfo >0e>rtdoort$ rf$>e>rl;&o 


S'S'o B?S tJrlodjrfo, e3>s3, instead of the augments 'So* and Oo f the 

oJ Q CO 

augment ris* is used ad libitum, is it not fit? (i. e. is it not so? or 

not?). ?o doocte sSsk, 5es t3e)?icioos3? ^d^odorf doead fcjrirftsaa 

9 f> li ^p v co r=r> v 

ojoo^? a living being that says "this (life) is unstable", (is) a wise 

person, or not? an apathetic man that forgets the fear of hell, (is) an 

unwise person, or not? ^ rt C3o a^^S a?rf*^ 3oU, wosS?? to-day 
six days (or six days hence is) the illumination-festival, or not? >?ic3J3 
sscS? SoDS, wwsSf? and thine (is) the same road, or not? 3^0 rta> N , S5e3e, 

PO Q 1 en ' 

that (is) a sparrow, or not? 

4, regarding e$odp, esosfo?, or 3e3j3 5. 


In these three forms the suffixes of question ?, ig appear, the answer 
being in the affirmative; in es&o? the to is joined immediately to 50. 
E. g. s^P^rfo 25^dj^D^^^S3? Vyoma (is) a well-behaved man, is it not 
fit? (i. e. is it not so? or not?). ^3^) ^jdf^a^dosS^? we are 
mortals, or not? 

301. woo we3 . wod. 'sod and t3erf which are classed under the 

- 3BI fo ' PO 

avyayas by the Sabdanusasana ( 212, 7), will be treated of in another 
place ( 338. 316, 5). 


In the Sabdanusasana's AVO ( 212, 7) the nominative of oio (266) 


has been used adverbially (see the verse quoted under No. 17 in 348); 
in its >* the same has happened regarding this interrogative pronoun 
( 255). Its ortosSo and >;3o are compounds of , what? (the accusative, 

see 125) and curtailed flo3o,o, I shall do. 


302. Here follow some peculiarities (chiefly) of the modern dialect 
regarding the way of expressing certain English adverbs: 
1, Since (with regard to time). 
This is expressed by means of the instrumental (i. e. ablative, 352, 4 a), 

e.g. & Stiitf >?jo DC&C& C9 DtfFtrfftA{, since how many days has this 

o ro 

Siva not dined? &,<& rftxtfj skr$rCr3J3tfrt adotf ?oOo&s>rt 



since many days there existed in the mind of a fox 

the haughty desire to become like a tiger. esSSorf^ rf^Fatf, since 
sixty years. jfo^sjo^da^ ^ra^o $$ ^dirf^x r3ja?S^, I have not seen 

my brother since Monday. ss> %$ w^do a^zo. d s3o?dJ3U do 

O Ci 1J VJ 

since (or from) that time they began to love each other. 23\3 
>?$, since (my or thy or his or her or its or their) youth (or from my, 
etc. youth)-. 

But there is another way of expressing 'since' (in the modern dialect), 
namely by means of the verb yrto in combination with a so-called past 

participle, e. g. & oxoOrt dodrftfo 20^0 <03SU &tt wo5j^>, literally: to 
this town the gentleman a having come ( 169) how many days have 
passed, i. e. how many days is it since the gentleman came to this town? 
srfffo r3^ ' 3 > 3 t>% 3do3Sls3303j3.>, it is twenty years since he died (or he 
died twenty years ago). ??& 336^ 3oJa?rt^, 3o3 D o^o, 

v "^ W 

how many months is it since you began to go to school? 

sr> ^o^^do crawj^eoo ^djsSrtv)C5^), it is 
now about 400 years since the art of printing became known. 

3o JS 3 ^ o3o^o, much time has passed since he got up (or he 
got up long ago). 

Also tha past participle of s5;S)ciejo^ja^ may be used in a similar 
manner, e.g. $ ^ a^j^ sSJSci^o^J3o^o, since that day. 

The Samskrita wdde is used so too, e. g. y^ rf yd^, since that time. 
2, Hence (with regard to time). 

This may be rendered in the following manner: *a fl S3J arf^ }?$ 
zo^, to-day six days (will be) the illumination festival, or six days 


hence (will be) the illumination festival. & 3ort$rl WC3j vlorftfo, six 
months this month. Cf. 348, 29. 

3, Before (previous to). 

In 282, as will be seen, some instances in which this adverb is 
expressed by fojo, have been given. It is to be remarked here that 
it is rendered also by siodew, e.g. ^doftr^ s3J3dew <ag o&e>d> ^do^ 
ddo before you who were living here? esd-ck?$ s3J3doo prior to that. 

Q <3 

si>F2 ^kk sJdtK;?^ sSjBcSwo e3^h 3<?s> &?j ^s^rto^d, before building 
a house it is necessary to clear the foundation properly. 

Thus also: zted3>f\ slod^j rred, eaokJ^, slQd^o en)& ?tee)05o. previous 

TO* oj 

to words a proverb (is fit), previous to dinner pickles (are fit). 

In connection with rfoo?lo, SJOOF^ , before, previous to, the negative 
participle is also used, e.g. &$dF riJS^e^oJo d> &>rUirid S&OF^O, before 
the neighing sound of the mares entered the ear; ^^1 ^jsd^fi 3*$ zjsrfd 


sjoo?4, before the black colour came to thy throat. The same is done 
in connection with rfooos, e.g. s$s3do wsdrf s&oosS, before they came (cf. 
sdrf^i?! ^ooosl, etc. in 282). 

O O *" 

4, As. 

'As usual', 'as on previous occasions' may be expressed by a^d^ or 
3oe>ri, e. g. 335^0 

as usual Sama may have annoyed thee somehow. 

3J3^o Wrie;o S5e)^d^o W^^j, as usual the servant came at dinner-time- 


Also: sSjsd^, as before; and in the mediaeval dialect: <>j) ^, 0?> 3 

'As to', 'as for' may be rendered by means of wd6, if becomes, if 
become, e. g. ^3e>534>d6 sjoe)^ ^JSc^do (Hodson's grammar), as for us we 
cannot do (so), essj^add aJa?rto3^,?S (Ziegler's Practical Key), as to 
him he will go; or, as in the South- Mahratta country, by means of 
w^ (^rkfi), e - ff- ^kto 2o^s3rl^o e^ 33ft 23^, as for toys they are 
not required for me; or by means of Samskrita 3s!odj, regard, concern, 
e. g. 3o3j d ^s^odo^, cradci ^A o^^o, ^e5 9 ?lrfjo^dj aS^W ^JS^do, 

Ow Q V fij fcAj 

as to ghee it is impossible to say how much it will still rise in price. 
>3S[oJJ i er, ^^Sjj^cS, he is anxious concerning (his) moksha. 
as to him. esdS3 O^oJos^h, as for that. (Cf. 348, 17). 


'As if is rendered by means of the relative past participle with 
(or y^,), e.g. ?jse3ri 3oJ3?rtc3, wcks3d3\ 



>, if (we) do 


not go to school, stay (at home) to play, and when on the next day the 
teacher asks (the reason), say that a fever had befallen (us), it is as if 
(we) had told a lie ; if (we) steal the books etc. of others, it is (the same) 
as if (we) acted feloniously. 

'As long as' is expressed in the ancient dialect as follows: <3$ rfdo 
roO ^dortora^ddo ?jjotfe^ to^doo, as long as they possess riches, will 
not also scoundrels be honourable persons? 

'As soon as' is rendered by means of the relative participle combined 
with an adverb of time to which the ^> or & of emphasis is joined, e. g. 
W^NO 20?) c3 or grfjfc WcS3 rt3? &3f$ 33 aJ3e3U?$j, as soon as he had 
come, his father started, rtorforttfj &tfrt 2otfjrf?3 or 

, as soon as the guru came inside, all rose. See also the 
close of 349. 

5, At least (with regard to a sum), 

This is expressed by >is3?3dJ3, if (one) says it is nothing, e. g. 


, out of all those mines silver is put at least to the amount 

of one lac of rupees a week, ^rs^j & 32!3.rifl >e3tfdJ?> SDd> 


ji), I shall get at least five rupees for this box. 

6, Just, precisely, exactly (as to a standard or fact). 

These terms may occasionally be rendered by ad^kcj a&Dri ( 

O Tf Q 

'arf aoe)^), to (/. e. corresponding to) its being being thus, 


e. g. 'Stj&.d ase)/ 9 ! oi^ rfrsF?S dJs><3>0, you have described him exactly. 

O o" Q 

7, For. 

If a person wants to adduce the reason (or cause) of something he 
writes or speaks about, 'for', 'because' are expressed by o&es^rf 6, if I 
say (or if one says) why? e.g. ^4 3? Add "ata^ 5&O(3 3orsj rttftf^ 
^J3oSJSg?pleN^? z3?rf! Giis^^ 6 ^4 jirf^rfg), shall we cut some (of the) 
ripe mangoes of this tree? It is not fit, for they are not ours. 

Tado3s) 6, deceitful men must 


use much shrewdness in any affair, for all beings are watchful, lest they 


be deceived, 

<, -, we must 

not (or should not) steal, for though men do perhaps not see us, God sees 
us always. Cf. 322, and see further e. g. Bombay school-books, 2, 1. 
10. 48; 3, 38. 105; 4, 10. 16. 20. 52. 98. 111. 141. 

Tor', 'on account', 'because of. In 282 we have L^ort, t>?oor(d, L&3 
with the genitive to express these adverbs; similarly are used also Xv 
53e>A, lit. the reason a becoming or a having become, e.g. 5c3C3 ro^53"d?\ 
on that account; ^osSo^, (reason?), e.g. $5c5C3 ^o?^^, on that account; 
and c3?5o3orf, lit. from the side, e.g. &$ d?2o5j^, on account of him. 

O O 

The same is expressed also simply by the dative, e. g. zstiHk, on that 
account; irvti^, on account of (a) work or (a) business; 3oW ^ , because 

1J !$ 

of the feast; aS^dcS*, for requesting or begging; tjdo^rf^L for read- 

's 1 "a 

ing; ^js^^, for buying; or by adding e5?\ a having become, to the 

if G 

dative, e. g. >?frTe>A, lit. for thee a having become, i. e. on thy account; 
23e&3o3o aljsez^cJA for search (or in search) of game; ^3 o 

O* O 

on account of the father's word; t? ^u?o^%T\, for that business; 

d^sxh, in order to buy. (Regarding the use of the dative see 348.) 


'For', 'therefore', 'on account' are frequently to be rendered by the 
instrumental (i. e. ablative 352, 4 a) of ^cfo, e. g. doortrt^o 

monkeys walk like us even on two feet; therefore they appear quite 
like man. 

, honour thy mother and father; for it (on its 
account) their blessing will come upon you. 'Therefore' is often rendered 

also by wc5d&5 s ^ (Wd+5^5 3 ^ ), and sometimes also by Samskrita 

^P (with the genitive), JiOo^ (with the genitive), 
(or w) ^sdraa^, wrf ?radC3. (CJf. 322.) 

'For', 'in order', 'for the purpose'. Above it has been stated that 
these adverbs are partly expressed by the dative or by the dative with 
; but there is still another way to express them, namely first by adding- 

, a having said, to the dative (see 332), e.g. ^s^rt^^o ?o?lc3do3o 

^ o *%. o 

e3&dortttOoJ$l ^^dol) 'S.arfjSo^}, to place the army that is ready 
for battle, in the proper place; oSjari^^o slreSd tirtO, an altar prepared 
for sacrifice; rffprielrfj ^oS^oijo >>^> ^JSraj, having bought a sheep 


for the purpose of killing; c3e>3rt?& 5^0 >& 3d ^oCS 9 , the sheep 

which you have bought and brought for the deity; 5!^) td) ! i?,?l) tzo 

f> TJ o i2 

335tp)C5NO, there was a pupil with him for reading; and secondly by 

* 7^ O 

adding <0ok to the infinitive ending in es>u* ( 187. 188), e.g. WwA;ci^ 
?W oSo^e3> rSpN o, in order to comfort the queen he spoke in this manner 
(Cpr. 3, after 63); ^33 ?iode3f$j *Uri ^Qfi> wooc ^ p ^ e( * up * n or( * er 
to burn a dead man; jjsJod ^l/sS^o ^tfdO r$kJ. rtore.rf), a post fixed in 

eJ to PO v gj ej ^ 

a threshing-floor for the purpose of binding cattle to; ^d&tfrt si>o&3oo-3-, 

jsis^), a prayer muttered for the removal 

of all sins when one has immersed himself into water. 

For' (with regard to exchange or price), e.g. 

, I bought this for ten rupees (see 348, 19). 
'For', 'instead of. These adverbs used to be rendered, in the ancient 
dialect, by the dative, e. g. acrartoo >o>rt5i>orf$ rt^rtrfoo z>3v a?2 wrto 


, instead of the augments ao* and >o* the augment rl?* is used ad 
libitum. (See 348, is.) 

In the modern dialect the Hindusthani toeto* (wriex)), change, with yf\ 
is very frequently used, e. g. 

3J3?o S^^^d^o, ^JSi^^o, instead of his old book I gave him a new 

book; ojd^, wdosA, instead of that (in its stead); w6aJoodrf^, 

"o" o 

instead of writing. The Samskrita jj A (Tadbhava sj^, SCO 9 ), in. the 
place of, in combination with t?h is used in the same manner. 

'For', expressing time, e.g. ^rf^o rfs^r^, for two years. Cf. 348,29. 


'For', when it denotes privilege, duty or assigning, may be rendered 
as follows: sS^oosio^crio ^^s^rdo u^oijdo (or ^z>f( ^^.di), it is 
for the poet to sit in the principal row. 555^0 *&& ^53^ 23^0, it is for 

him to do that work, g; ^js^)^ aorso cra^orfrfj this mango (is) for Rama. 


'For', denoting that in view of which anything is done, e.g. c^JSOoOoo^s* 
G3 9 o&e>ft ^JS^o, he gave a plot of ground for a rent-free grant. 

sJ CO 

JSkl^o, he gave for (or as) a present. 


'For' when it expresses that in the character of which anything is regarded, 
e.g. S5d?io oe>do?3?& 3^:3^0, I took him for Rama. 


8, Enough, e. g. 

S? docfoioo tf^ddsU (i.e. tSf^o wd ws^o) d^dcicj, this house is 
w v eo' a 

large enough, fjrfori cSe^rfssU cU ii, wd, we have bread enough. 


, sdrs ?5C3, I have money enough. See Dictionary under 753^0 3 



XVII, On the repetition of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, 
numerals, adverbs, interjections, and imitative sounds 

(cf. 253, 3). 

303. In 152 and 211 it has been stated that repetition of verbs 
is used in Kannada (see 339); such a repetition (vipsa) obtains in the 
three dialects also 

1, regarding common nouns when it is intended 

a) to express simple regular succession (vipsa, anupurvya), 'one after 
the other', that occasionally signifies totality, 'all', 'every', e. g. =?0 ^Q 
o3J3? s sSoC^do, he appeared with pomp in street after street (or in 
every street); do<3 rfoFSri^ &o& dos^), house after house shone; yxsOJS 


dJ3s?* ^.i^J^ddj^oo, so that one could say (there was) auspiciousness 
in town after town; ^ 3=5=3 ozfjs^^o rfo^ do?3rtJ5dJ3Qri <oeje> 


when Karikalacola went from house 
to house, from village to village for the purpose of ordering all people 
to perform press-service; ^J5f^^* -Ssris? ^v^^od?^ 3? ) 
I will just now sow gold coins in all these streets; d?3 c3?3ri 
S5d^c55^), in direction after direction (i. e. in all directions) lotuses 
began to flower; d?3 dzorf^ 6 $}& ?oo^, looking at one point of the 
compass after the other (i. e. at all points of the compass) ; S3s3f3 &^F 
:3?3 d?3ri^o doj?jo, when his renown covered region after region; 
5e>o;3oe^o . . . =$d<**o, &a -S-a^tf ?SJ3^, Kalamegha . . . began to rage, 


and whilst spark after spark (of anger) was emitted (from his eyes), 



on table-land after table-land (as to the Kannada form see 253, s) 
there and there (i. e. everywhere) the host of Sabaras came like a 


spreading out of very black hills on which fog appeared, holding the 
accompanying and accompanying (i. e. the many accompanying) dogs by 
the collars; then beating bush after bush of abundant foliage they 
discharged, never failing to hit, arrow after arrow, and with the repeated 
sound of falling blows felled all sorts of game in the wood. What shall 

I say? => ^eSftcSo. he made obeisance to stone after stone (i. e. to 

A v 

every stone); ^o^o ^o^tf ?oc3o, having eaten mouthful after mouthful; 

the beauty of river after river (i. e. of all rivers 

or of every river); Wfcjfcdo (S3& e5fcjdo) s3>?jo, greet elder after elder 

(i. e. every elder) ! to'ok &&5 9 o3odo z3^riJ3v*, ask young man after 
young man (i.e. all young men or every young man)! esOrt, there 

ro ro 

and there (here and there or everywhere, also 5^O); 3&rt8rt, step 

PO n' 

after step (i. e. repeatedly or again and again); ?&& ?!><atfJSdJ?>F;3oF 
itfrfo SJOOF5^)^J^J o, once and once (i. e. once) at every word taking (his 
son to his breast) and caressing (him); sSjscS sSJSrf&Os?* (as to form 
see 253, 3) dfla^J, &)> ^oaolos* rice o, in every one of (its) roots 

<3 "3 

(the tree is) stout, in every one of (its) tops (it is) small; ar?3 sk^sS 
sjjsdo siradori oidrttfo zSj^ssz&^tf^sS, all around the stem (of the 
plantain tree there) wave leaves every one of which (is) a fathom long; 
aorawo SO^JD SoJ^ri (zTejdtf) aoJS^rto^d z3^o, (you) must go (to school) 
daily time after time (i. e. at all the definite points of time); w^tfo &)a6o 
riz&ssh SoJasijj, SoJ^tf 3oe>oo ^jarfj^^, the cow was very mild in 
disposition, and used to give milk at the proper times; 3oA?$ ktfrts?rt 
3orf Borts?fl (as to form see 253, s) ggjs3 adjs^ >zl>^;3, cocoa-nut 
trees get new flowers month after month (i.e. every month, monthly); 
3ori 3orti?rt 3oJ3e3z^3 ^sJ^iSeJo^)^^, a magazine that is published 
every month (i.e. a monthly magazine); 33^0 Sejro^, hour after hour, 
hourly; a^ a^ or a^ arf 1 ^, )^?o as^^ or asi?o arf^^,, day by day, 
every day, daily; ^do3* s3do3St or ddo3^ drfos*^,, year by year, every 
year, yearly; We>t> w)Q or eroO wsOri, repeatedly; wrT)rt, that time-that 
time, e.g. repeatedly l) ; (also with regard to the interrogative <>}&>, as 
, what time-what time-soever, i.e. at all times, ever, continually); 


') As to the repetition of nouns of time it is to be observed that the intended meaning is 
somehow also obtained in the following way: wcfcrt 3ontfrt Xoavs5$f3o, what is his 

monthly pay? tfrfrfolj VJSCSwfi* W63J Son?rtjBs5j wao^zSo, he cut the hair of the tuft once 

& t. 

in six months. tft>5S rsaoScn<?rt 


6) to express a distributive sense (pratyekartha), e. g. 

3s rtcrSv/en?* ^dflr pc^o tjj^o ^oc^o, give 

each of these persons a gold coin out of this purse ! give each of these 
persons a gold coin out of this bag!; 

which takes place with regard to =$<rio and do^rb also in close 
proximity (samipya, pratyasatti; as to form cf. 253, 3), e. g. =$< ^ft 
FjO^ftooris" 1 ", the pits of hell (are) lower and lower, i. e. each at a small 
distance below the other; >o sSo^tf ?o rtF3JeJe>orts*, the (various) regions 


of heaven (are) higher and higher, i. e. each at a small distance above 
the other; $<$ $$f( do^r^o, times of famine (were) preceding and 


preceding, i. e. preceded each other at small intervals; s3o^ 3>^f\ zij^o, 


times of plenty (were) following and following, i. e. followed each other 
at small intervals; 

c) to express previousness (anyatotisaya), e. g. sj^^^JSs^ S3?ootf sSjsd 
s3J3c3 <&?* (as to form cf. 253, 3) s^^acSo, the Asoka tree flowered 
first of all; doddJ3<$ ^dc* siorf dJScSd^ <osoO. these shot first of 


all in the battle; 

d) to express high degree, excellence, intensity or emphasis (atisaya, 
visesha, adhikya, prakarsha), e.g. ^^0* ^oG-^o*, great valour; 

, excessive pleasantness, etc.; toS? rf^?* to^.ds?*, a very good woman; 

, taking (his son) completely inside 

into himself (from love); So^tfjS^tf ?2o?s* eroD^)6, when the soil burnt 
deeply inside; vd>& ?SJ5e^^ &$fo Sod A 2oK)j 36cjtfo, in order to see 

^- TJ <A C5 

that people assembled in large crowds; dosSrloSo tfoz So^pfi? WS^) a5o^ 

j ^ 

sdo^ '^^, what is the taste of buttermilk? it (the buttermilk) is 
very sour; A)?tf s&ovh ^oo^ricS, the sige is full of thorns; (=3^ dc5) 
s^d) zS^.rt ^"S^J =5e)O3hdj^do, the elementary substance (of camphor) 

oJ V 

is white and consists of many small grains; zijv^riofo^ 3JS>c!c>6 B'swri^o 
^cio 2tfJ5do 2J3o->rta;^53, if (one) beats (them) with a hammer, stones 

break and become bits and pieces; slfcctoo ^J3rfe;o sJ^ siookJ, ^^, S3^ 

v-> eJ -rf- 

, at the very first it used to be 

a^iS, some clocks are to be wound up every day, some once a week, some 
once a month. 3->A>rtJS?jj *JB^J s53 5 ^-A)?^J SooSj , if she bears a child every hour, (there 

C2 ' 

is) the same amount of kisses. acSs^oi^ aS^So^ (instead of sSS^ sSS^) 'aj ) 5S ) Sj 2CeOd 
SsXJ^Xos-ijtf, every day they print from ten to twenty thousand papers, 
is expressed also by ftcrat^j, a contraction of O?i3e>r!jo, 'when a day becomes'? 

i. e. every day. 


necessary to pay postage according to the measured distance of the 
place to which letters had to go; c& fico^, in the very middle; 

3 On>, having cut (the sugar-cane) into very small bits; 
ca r 

i, more and more, excessively; 

3*3 irtift (as to form see 253, s) s^do, he went down and down; 
?3d ?3drtj, great calamity or sin; s3tf zStfrto, excessive lustre; 3tf 3tftfo, 
great shine; ;&>{ ;3oe,rt>, (as to form see 251 and 253, s), up and up; 
oJ3 sJoJSrto, great dumbness; 3o?tf si3e)ckstai5 9 3 ^J3> ;3jad ^t)^ 
a^;3 36C^ 3 ? Si^d ^JS^ Odft^^Hl^rl W3ooci>, by doing so at the very 


first, for a while, quarrels with old people may arise; 

15, 3d (as to form see 8253,3) sSwrfeS. ^dotf<J3rcU, even at last 
eJ eJ ca' 

having taken the high-road; 0^0 ^20 d tfiitfdedJ W^ dsj, the very last 

letter of a word; 3ti 3dft, at the very end, at last; do3o3orttf tfU. 


, the very centre of energies; $k$ r$ck;3, iu the very middle; 


dJSP^d ?iP^ 3o^ ^oaoioo, thou rosest to the world's far-stretched 


very point; tJ n)?3e>^ao^J tift 3d{O??3 


rtoo. .^(273^3, there always shone 
Lilavati at the very first, as the chief (town) for the inhabited countries 
that were situated on the south bank of the Sita river 1 ); 

e) to express variety, e.g. 3d ^dcS wra ti dtfo,rftfj 'adj^, there are 
cats of various colour ; oidrtsk ^d ^dc$ tJSDdrf^) ^dods^, leaves are of 

various form; tffej ^^^Jrt^ 1 ^ wri wrioJo S^ciorttfo aorfrtoSl 3, by bad deeds 
eJ Q 

various evils are produced; 

they saw various creepers in the garden; 

they felled all sorts of game; cS^ de^cS ao^)^) ^dc3 2od;3rttfj, many 

kinds of things of various countries; ^orso 3or3j dJSdritfo ^JS^ 3&reo 

a a & 

SoFso ro^^p ^JSoinjrfdJ, the various petty chieftains came together ami 
assembled an army that formed a miscellaneous mass; 

) A curious way of expressing No. d is found in the following instances of the modern 
dialect iu which the action of the verb is intensified by the repetition of nouns, viz. <& 
^a^O**! w nctfnjjj old id io3 Aecs ^o, because the buffalo died, the cowherd repeatedly 
(or vehemently) beat (his) breast; w3?5 3so5o, Son ^BOdoos^fJ^ , ic5 .id u>3 ^JBV. aB^dtfo, 
his mother saying '-my son dies", began repeatedly (or vehemently) to beat (her) breast; 

mother, if thou hadst repeatedly (or soundly) beat my head at the very time when I 
brought and gave (thee) the chain (that had been stolen by me), why should I have got into 
this (miserable) lot? 


3oSck, u& ejarioSoN soSddo, they who watched the 


corn-land . .. seized this cow, and beat (it) with various clubs; ?oD ?o> 
3JZ3e>$Fritfo, things of various sweetness (i. e. various sweet things). 

In addressing a person repetition of nouns may convey the following 

1. envy (asuye), e. g. 

2. approval (sammati), e. g. 3orfc3, 

3. anger (kopa), e.g. wara&rt,. &K>ra&ri, 

4. reproach (kutsana, ninde), e.#. tf&oSo, To 

5. menace (bhartsana), e.g. d>do, ckditf, 

Instead of repeating the same noun for the sake of intensity, variety, 
and comprehensiveness also duplication and reiteration are used more or 
less in the three dialects. 

i. Duplication denotes the use of a couple of nouns that are not 
the same as to form and often also as to meaning, e.g. &&$ zd^^, 
excessive tickling; 33 9 <D S3023&, all sorts of cloth; wSCSo z3^?o3o, great 
weariness; 2rio>o^, abundance; =5^ ^>?^, a vei T profligate fellow 

=56)050 3JWp, pod and leaf vegetable; Ac^rtrS (-tfe&), all kinds of small 
trees and thorny shrubs; d^ ^Cf) cattle and calves; ^os3o c^oC5 9 , frag- 

ments and bits; to^o ZJ^ri, all sorts of kinsmen; 

Cp if 

children and grandchildren; sjj?^o ^Jp, words and speech; 
narrow ways and nooks; ^JosJo^ sjoo^, the state of being all around 

2. Reiteration denotes the use of a couple of nouns 

a) the first of which is meaningless by itself, forming a sort of 
alliteration, e.g. 5^,8 ^^3, fraud in weighing; ^^> d>>, prodigality; 

3- J O" Q LJ 

^)^, great tumult; >& 33^do, considerable unevenness in scales; 
(-dofej), great fraud; 

I) the second of which is meaningless by itself, being a mere 
alliterative formation, e.g. &Q> ?o& opposition; ao^^j rf^^o, tenants; 

A A TT v 

T^ro t3jsri?o, all sorts of work; dj^o^J dja^^o, great crookedness; c3f> 
do are do, all kinds of deities for idols); dj^cS )c3. inarticulate, stammer- 

C3 O O' 

ing speech; eS^srad ?jSo3e)d, trade of different kinds; s3z ^23, various 

id Za 

expense; aSrso ao^o^o. all sorts of fruits. In this second kind of 

P3 oJ 

reiteration the syllables P\ and sj are often used, being put instead of the 


first syllable of the first noun, e.g. ytfo Aetfo, SO f\>, d ft; &tf, 

, . , 

V V T^ 1 

2, regarding nouns of indefinite quantity ( 278, 3) when it is intended 
a) to express intensity or abundance, e.g. 

e^ &e?iortoo, how much, how much (i. e. the more) the plump 
breasts of the lotus-eyed Kirata woman increased, so much, so much 
(i. e. the more) the forester in the wood thus scraped that his bow; 

rf 30>tid esrtrt skqSoCsrortzS, if (one) cuts sugar-cane be 

it (ever) so much, so much, is it not very sweet? 

)?3e?jO ^oa?, so large, so large (are) the cakes; how many, how many 


canst thou eat? 

b) to express a not specially mentioned amount, e.g. 

, e o V03icx2ja?r(^sdc3j, when it has been 

13" Q 

fixed that in such and such a time so and so many (various) works are 
to be done, a watch is of great use to finish those (various) works within 
that limit. This *a.3fo is similarly rendered by ( a D 3fo,, e.g. 



3, regarding appellative nouns of number ( 278, 4) when it is intended 
to express a distributive sense as to persons: 'each', 'every', 'each severally', 
'one by one', etc., e.g. LdJSsjrorl Ss)SJJe)oqjr^ooioc3 tnjp^Fq&^Q&OV* 
WAJ^O ^JS^oBtiex>, when Basava with unparalleled affection granted every 
one numbers of things desired; &&ie>,u aso^ortr^o ti&fo& ^tJ^c^ iO 
e5CJ3 wqJrrfii^ aS^WJS^ aoJ5?rt t3e^J, each boy must read every term 
and tell its meaniug; 3^&> ze3J? N to, a6oriorl^^ ^> g^rttf? 
the teacher must put these questions to each boy; &oc3J?\2o 

to t<J 

)^, near each lady (there is) a servant-maid; 23^3 do 
, when each (or every one) of the 

- ^ 

Bedas rose with commotion and spoke arrogantly; zjredor^3tf^ *&&f(d 
cSo 6 . . . tt3js.w.dfi)c^ TS 1 ^^, tne y (two) fell headlong on the ground . . . 

each one to a side; ^tlo.uf^o 3& 3rf.3l* 3)?Se -SidosD^, each one 

tO tO H < 80 T 


remains for himself 

give them two Rupees each;, one by one, by ones; 'aft. 20 do 

., , . 

to to ii 

two and two, two by two, by twos; doorf ;3oo>do, three and three, three 
by three, by threes; yd^o wsjbtfo. ^.).eo.Di>ft ^tfo&n) >fcl?fo, he sent 

*> tJ U 5j 

them away two by two; 

>,do -6? 3J, : o : e>d 3oJ3ri 3v,do, we are to go to him by ones, by twos, (and) 


by threes, in this manner; =$0 ^otodj means 'some here and there'. 

Remarks on No. 3. 

a) Samskrita 3lo is also used to express distributiveness, e. g. Q& 2-^ 

^ 3d 23?rO, each boy must bring his own book; Q& ^^ 
j^ d every man has his failing's. 

J 7 / 

b) 'One another', 'each other' in a reciprocal relation is rendered by the 
declension of iotfjaar, t-s3r, 22jr, O r 2-^ in the plural, e. g. (eiJj3oJJ0 5 ) 3;k 3djrt 
^essdj ^JSESJ s^^rt^ Kyortes* LdJS^ro* Ldjsdro 5 ^o?d AS^rfosnTl^, when (the 
females) went to some distance from one another, and besprinkled one another 
with various kinds of scented water; 2*3?" 2jjrrtr ^ooo^j^jd), (to try) to surpass 
one another; 3^do t^d slxd/s^do i^& sJrec&s^S, they love one another (or 
each other); 93do ^^Ortjs^d.) ^dosaw, they are not in peace with one another; 
2-2Jd&3,udo wrtCddJ, they left one another; ^ud ^Jsd ^udJ &.?^oDoj^ 'gd 23^0, 

w ^ w <J tO to ^ Q 

(they) must be on friendly terms with one another. 

The nominative plural ksorSjazordo, z^d-Q^do expresses 'these and the 
others', i.e. all, e.g. c3dd aori^jo 5 kzordjszjrdj ^oio^oOido rfrtwo, when the 
assembled Jangamas all clapped (their) hands and laughed; ^utf-o^dj u^ 
^o^O f)^', come you all and sit down! 

c) 2-aJj in connection with ^^ J , i.e. 2-^2^ do, denotes 'one or two', e. g. 
2-^z^do ^ortrid,), one or two women; 'S^ t-^^Ort ao?G3 zS^o, one or two are 
still to be invited. Cf. 278, i (<oda^e:>, etc.). 

d) e-ug^ja^rfo, z-w^js^^o, as we have seen in 292, mean 'a certain 
man', 'a certain woman'. About another way to express the indeterminate 
'certain' see 283. 

304. Repetition of pronouns is used in the three dialects 
a) to express 'respective', 'several', e.g. a#(k isii 3fcix 

c3 do, the people were sleeping in their several tents; 

rf$Aftf ScJS^CSdo, even they two rose, and went 


into their respective rooms; 03o <3c* ^rfj 3s3o, 3o?Sris?rt, they went to their 
several houses; tttf ^^o, (a dvandva compound, 250) os&ioo, their 
respective kingdom; &# 33 sJJFSoio asuae S^aoioos^d, they take the 


way to their several houses; S3 (or o&e>) k 3o3odJo 

&>v* ^2~>O(3* VUGS. 3d S^ssri ?C>, the excellent goddess Speech who 

originates the respective objects of sense in the ear by words; 

=5-, yotos ^rodrfo^ drarfo^ aSjs^rt zS^o, (one) must do every work 
at (its) respective time; klld JitaFdUodAV 1 tfllOoftdJT > OeJCratf, 

w w O 

in the assembled mass of deities who are those each severally by them- 
selves that stand just opposite? o3j>d otosd w ^f^ ?3e>>?o z3^o, of whom 
when severally mentioned have (I) to obey the command? 3d 3drt 
( 225) &ajO fcjoioo3j>d dd>dso$e>riJS>)OF;3ej<, when they respectively 
raised the loud cry 'the victory (is) theirs (i. e. ours), the victory (is) 
theirs (i. e. ours)'; <0>orU> ^do^ ^d^ $ii3 z3e3JS^c5o ^rso^d, even to 
all their respective behaviour appears to be nice; 

6) to express reciprocality, e.g. 3dJ 3dort 3t3 9 &> ^J^rao, having gone 

to some distance from one another; g)^) 3 do 

all of them having taken pleasure in one another; s^dfcjfidt) doo 3; 
23&3rrari, all the towns-people looking astonished at one another; 

), daily they used to figh't with each 
other; esddo ^do, 3dJ3,V^ &,3oSOf3 'Sine) 6 they love one another; 

^ c/ ^ f O O 

c) to express emphasis, e, g. SJ^F?J ddo* sd^?^*, what does this cry 
of pain mean? )f3?&0, La^ dO s3?oo s3?Ajj, what! the way of 
reciting is very excellent! C)c5e^J5 erudLfcoPrt dj^ciodao, (they) do not 

^ oo 

perform the least work; ^^dj ^>?5e^J3 *3& f s\^>, as for me there is not 

a <*> 

the least hinderance (or objection). 

305. Repetition of so-called adjectives ( 273) takes place in the 
three dialects 

a) to express excess, intensity or emphasis (adhikya), e. g. 3J3?d &d 
doos^riv*, very large pearls; zokj zoftj (see 247, d, e) dJSdrtv*, very 

round female breasts; >$o3o >s?o3oortv>* very white swans; djsz3 


cSJScS WrSrtv*, very big elephants (these four instances according to sutra 
391 of the Sabdanusasana); Jjs^d ^J^^dci ^j^riv*, very large morsels 
(in which Jj3?d appears as a noun); &0 &OC50, that is very large; &Ci 
WOJoort^o, very extensive plains; cSJSrf djad deJ rtv*o, very large 

ca '*> cs 

towns; aS^, 2^^ 36^rto, a very small vessel (a boat); wOCSOdo, that is 

"0" ~O 

very wonderful (also thrice repeated: WDdOCiDcSo); dJS)6 c5J88rtv f o 



. . . . >, seeing that chiefs after chiefs 


had fainted pierced by many long arrows; rfjsd rfjsd, very far; 

, very fine; eoc3 20 1, very poor or feeble; ?j?3 sJra, very small; 

ro ro 

to express variety, e. g. wd^ (?^8crfj^) si 
ciJ3d z3e^ ^zfog^d, they send that (sugar) to various distant 

countries in order to sell (it); cSjad dJ5d rotfri^ri 3J^ ^^o3onS zS^^dd 

9 vj 

q5r dJ3S3e)03j, 5&o^e>jS*i dJ333s>o3j, a^c^ dJ333?o3o ^=3* 6{&<3&, if (in 
by-gone times one) had to send letters to various distant places, the postage 
was half a rupee, three-fourth of a rupee, up to one rupee; s3JS>c3^ 
fcj^do rore ^ra ^S) rl^;dj sjjejc^os^ 6, at first (before they commit great 

P9 oJ "L - ' 

crimes) people use to commit various small faults; 35J> 

sirs do^s^o he has six little children of various size; ?3 
r -rf- 

?ors ?ora ^^or(^ri^J3 ero?oo^^ a?lritfja ysS, how many small islands and 
n s a 4. 

sandbanks of various size there are in the sea ! (but also e. g. sure 

to a division of the terrestrial 

globe belong many small and large countries); 
C3e)ddJ, the various chief officers of the army; 3 
doo^rfsjd^ dJ?d cSjSCo sroJ3jSo^ri?od^j, ^raa, having made Amritarava, 

*- CS oi 7) cp C 

Govindaravakale and others various eminent officials. (All the instances 
under letter 6 are from South-Mahratta school-books.) 

c) to express separateness, otherness, e. g. sStfiS 3 t3?S 3 , separate, 
different, several; a6oOodo &Ort<s*o --SS 9 v c3e)A c3J3d dJ3d ^do^^), the tiger's 

ears are small and far from one ano'ther; 3j?>^j Wf3 ao"e)r\ 3J3^ 3oJ3?o oioo 

~ GJ 

>, "according to 

each occasion I steal away by another trick", said the fox; 

aJ3S 3oJ3?i &?t3rtrttfc^ rSJSfrfo^^, daily we see new strange things. 


1, The meaning of 'very' (adhikya) may likewise be expressed by 
etc., as shown in 275. 

2, Also reiteration ( 303, i, after e, 2, ty of so-called adjectives takes 
place, e. g. w3 ur^, (a) very poor (male person). 

306. Repetition of numerals takes place in the three dialects 

a) in a distributive sense, 'each', 'every', 'each severally' (c/. 278, i), 

e. g. 2re4ortto0ri&&&0 A (3 $0(3 o 30&>3 B , searching the vegetables 

o o 
(and) separating each one; zjSaoSJ3?Sja <3 =#, 

O O o 


o, he brought one excellent linga to every basti ; 

, he gave one balla of pearls to 

each of the different persons separately ; 3o3o u?j si.AocS 

Q ^ O 

3o3o ao^siurttftS* Zo^rdtesJrD* j^a*, then the ten renowned chief 

- -* W la 

officers discharged each ten arrows; B^s^p^ ! Br, 5=^3^ (* 363^ 363^) 
^^^j^fi (* e- ^^i ' s ^^o) s^tf TOrtdrttf?^ 3oja,&3^d, every 
day they print from ten to twenty thousand papers; ^J8rte;tJsd)Ort^ 
fccSJSffc e s &rttfo ^^0, ri?rco vod aOoidl, each wing of the flying fox 

Q O Tf Tj Q B 

is four spans long; 3oJ3Sf 3 oJo iiea Ao wdCi 3 JS^^^ a^JSrio ^Urtoiorlx 

Zf O O jj 

23e&5 3 e3eS 3 ^Jsa sJooC5 9 oio 3o?^ 9 c3cio, he made (them) untie that bundle, 
and told (them) to make each (piece of) wood separate and break (it); 

35^ 30^0^0 5e)OS)ort^o ^do^sS, on each bunch of the plantain 
there are from ten to fifteen clusters, each cluster has from ten to twelve 

fruits; 36>rtcrfj sSo^s3 lo^JS^j &3 drf^Jk w6, write even each letter on 

o o <^N L 

(thy) board; w3^s3rl ^^J3?^ dJSsraoSo ^J3^o, give a rupee to each; 

53r3Fortv* a{5ja^ sjrirsjj^ri rfrlrsjj* wofo^j.o, as five letters 

00 V CO V O TJ- 

each form a class, there are five classes; 
^^i Q,?^ rf^f ^^n* 3e^o^ &tf oitfo, C5oo dj%rt^< w^o.o, if two 
and two months are taken together, the six seasons, namely vasanta, 
grishma, varsha, sarad, hemanta, (and) sisira are formed; zS^o/i^ ^eiOrt 


erortodo 'adoddj, there are five claws on each foot of the cat; 
OrU) <odddct) tfMrU?(ix ^JSiic3^?5, God has given two eyes 

co CO *L M O 

to every man; 3e?jdd rtzfrttftfi ^dzld^o ^JSS*3d y^ldd sSo?e3 saw 

C3 ^ B 

2oSdo 302^03^6, they plant the bulbs of saffron in rows at the distance 
of two cubits each ; toflo <3e> A, each separately; (jfo^o) {iia rkartJS 

dJSr^oF ( 279) l/^do sJojR?>zi)^OB > once at ever y wor ^ taking (his 
son to his breast) and caressing (him) ; e3SriSflo3J3?$JS> ?i> rt&5*f(f( ^do^o 
a^Sje) si%sl>, woo d^^JSC^^ AOrtv*. mountains which thus without 

o a e 

ceasing again and again once at each galige sounded loudly; 

6) in indicating a thing, etc. as not known more specifically, 'some', 

'certain', e. g. 0^=^.0 ^v*rfoo3j* Wtfo.o L>dJ3?Sclo3JS9* (Commentator: 

-a o 

; see 248, i), aud becomes o or v* in some places; 

3cO* 2*>?$J3> zj^ orttf^* Wobr^^eS 9 Sifi CCio.6, when the minister valiantly 

*t) Q Q Qj O * ~~^ 

mounted some excellent elephant and followed: 


, on the body of certain cobras hair has grown; 
oCS'rtv 1 ^ t&orto^d?^, some frogs are 
said to swallow whole chickens; ao?l rfj s3?$, at some time, at times, 

occasionally; =$^> ^s^ ( c /- ~48. 12 ) ^w qir^^ort^*, diverse (Kannada 

words) have an optional bindu; ^$0 =5^ ^ a^, some few days hence; 
3w $ws3) ^^ri^O fcs^do o&e>^&,ritf rjAiri^rix 3o2^03s) 6, in one place or 

s> "o {j- 4. ^3- o ' 

other (or somewhere) people plant seedlings of cardamom; $v $<&z$ 

aorsosj&ci) ?oJ35lj7> A Jj5P&5o3 c3si. some few fruits had become ripe and 
PQ oJ -*> 0^=" 

looked fine; tod>sSor ( 279), sometimes; aosl/w^i,, sometimes; also 

, occasionally. Compare the instance 
etc. above under a: 

c) in multiplication, e.g. cOdddct}, four ( 278, i). 


1, Distributiveness is also expressed by Samskrita si >, e. ^. 
vusdo, each village; S.^olerf^ ?53Qrf zs^do, the people of each country. 

2, reciprocal relation is expressed by declension, e. g. &&&, ^ 
^SooAoAej ^< craej^ ^^^^ 2oOo3o3^ sra?io, cirilli, timi, timingila, timingilagila 
these four are fishes of which the one is larger than the other ; t? ajrs^ritfoa 
i3 && s80ii>i^ those divisions of the terrestrial globe join one another; 

CO O W o r 

kc^tfj^cfo^ ad^dsarf SOcSrt^J, houses that are near each other; tf (i3c>C3 s ) ^drt* 
rfSod Addjatfnrf W es So^js rfo aJ8^ TOOK' aw.)^ d, between those (plantain) leaves 

O Co Ca <a _ \r 

(there) rise still folded leaves one after the other out of the tree. 

There is the following curious instance in the Sabdamanidarpana, called an 
instance of itaretara or anyonya: k&o ;^M -^oSooi)^ i>3-Q rfo #o3js rao arado^doSjsv*, 
where one (party) takes up and performs the same action of another (party, in 
mutual fighting). 

3, Also z-cS^fSvOj^ uses to express 'a certain', as a-fJa^jarf^ ds?, a certain 
time, at some time or other; a-^itoeto 3tt, a certain country (see 292 and 
cf. 283). 

307. Repetition of adverbs ( 212. 253, 3. 281) in .the three dialects 

a) 'very' (atisayatara), e.g. =3^ 3t> 3, very blackly; 33^$ ^si)j3 

or ^^j ^^A?S, very fragrantly; grs ^ irsjS or 3re ^rs ^, very coolly ; 
' re re ' 

or s3j sSo^fS, very gently, etc.; ?j?j ^ N c2, very insipidly, 


etc.; 3JCO ^C3fS, brightly, etc.; &<j ti*33, dazzlingly; J^ ^^?2, ver y 
quickly; AG5 3C3f5, very quickiy; ^^ ^?S, rapidly; & 3$, vehe- 

C9 69 


mently (as to form cf. 303, i,e, reiteration); >jrt Sort, very abundantly; 
orto e>rto, very quickly ; 

6) variousness, e. g. f s,^ B ?^ ) ^J5?Csj^o w6, when (he) was seeing thus- 
thus (i, e. these various objects); 

c) mental excitement, e. g. o^r^^a, si>rb&3j sS?^*, how-how (. e. 
how is that? how is that?); Oh, tell (it) again! 

308. Repetition of interjections (see 212, 8) happens in intensity in 
the three dialects, e. g. etffejtffej, w^osjo, oi^sfos^P, ^ **&, }s3e3, a&s '-is. 

309. Repetition of imitative sounds ( 212, 9; 253, 3) takes place in 
the three dialects, when the sounds occur more than once or repeatedly at 
short intervals, or also continually, e. g. rto 2&os3* 2&OS3* 

?3J3rtoSo^jr{oo; ^0^ iJ3^?2 (with the repeated sound 
of falling blows). Such a repetition may be used also thrice, e. g. 20$ 

XVIII, On the expression of 'other', on the article, 
and on the expression of 'only', 'alone', 

310. The pronoun ^3 (3o3), other, in its masculine, feminine and 
neuter forms, has been introduced in 266 ; another way of expressing 
the English 'other' we find in the reciprocal use of appellative nouns of 
number ( 303, 3, remark 6), of reflexive pronouns ( 304, 6), and of 
numerals ( 306, remark 2). Cf. also 305, c. 

It is necessary to bring in the manner of rendering 'other' here 
again, viz. 1, in the sense of 'additional', and 2, in that of 'different'. As 
in English 'other' is used in both of the said senses, so also the Kanuada 
words to be given below admit both of them, according as the circum- 
stances require, in the three dialects. 

1, The meaning of 'additional' is expressed by prefixing the; adverbs 
f a^('3f3 <i ), afterwards, further, zS^ei 3 , separate, and rf^ (dJ^o* ^97), 
again, to appellative nouns of number ( 278, *) and to the numeral 
t^j, one, e.g. 'a&iSj^ro, (lit. afterward s-a-man). another man; 'S&C'tio, 

CJ *4. ^- V* 

another man; r a?3j3^tfo, another woman: ( aj?ju v tfo, another thief; 

another thing; 'a&S >jf$o 3e;?j, another business; 


(lit. separate-a-man), another man; 23^C 3 J3 20.^0, another woman; &% 
esSjSck, another thing; e^w^fSzt, another place; e3?&3 3 Ji<3o a^, another 
day; (${&&&<&) c3e>o3o, another dog; g^GS 3 3o^>s3do, some other persons ; 
;3oJj3 dro, (lit. again-a-man), another man; sJo^J^sJrs 3 *, another woman ; 
sjo&J^rk, another thing; s&Jjj^fSd, another place; doij^^j 0, another 

manner; !oiJ3 ?i) sJToo , another thing, a substitute; s3oJj 
* o 

another country; s&Jj^o ^ofc*', another (or the other) hand; s 
some other persons. (About rfjs5o^ c/. 280.) 

The same is expressed (especially in South-Mahratta) by 
(itfdf3{), second (278,2), e.g. o}3<i?3ok^?fo, another man; 
another woman; ^ddrSc^osJdo, other people; oidc^fSoiodo, another thing; 
tOd^?3e ?o o, another place. 

2, The meaning of 'different' is, as remarked above, also expressed 
by prefixing the same adverbs to the same appellative nouns of number 
and to fcjfc. a3^5 3 , separate, different, may be prefixed immediately to 
a following noun, e.g. z^eSJSo*, another or a different village; z^es 3 
T5^?j, different work. 

Both numbers, 1 and 2, are expressed also without the mentioned pre- 
fixes, e.g. torS &lta to^ &>, to give one thing and take another 
(*. e. bartering), t^u rtxS5?o$>rt od^o ^o^tfo -acS^, to^o 3rao, 2o?3J 

w V ^ "o O O P9 Q 

rtrso, a gentleman had two children, the one (was) a girl (and) the other 
a boy. wddo rto^S s3o?s3oiJJ3 ?oQoireA ^odoloio^ dj^^d, EoZ^sJ^ 
ri^S^o 2oU3>rtJ5f5o sJJS^jg^d, they (the parents) do not equally love 
us two, (but do one thing to the one and another thing to the other. 
toU E^JS^A fcJC56 &o^ 2JS?A, if one (is) a sensualist, the other (is) an 
ascetic. &^J e^? tfejo, &j^J ?3JS>?5? ; ffe>e;, the mother-in-law's time (is) 
one, and the daughter-in-law's time (is) another (i. e. different), ^d) 

si, this (is) one business, (and) that (is) another 

one (i. e. a different one). 

To this belongs also the expression 1*$ &o ^o f^^j 'Sie; ^^o 1 ), lit. 

^O oo v o V o po ' O/' 

one it is not, one, i. e. if it is not this, it is another, some or other, e. g. 

zo^tf dje)3)^jsjc3ft3 9 ^ &> dflrfo 3dcS wsJosqtoriC) ^^J3 *aOcSo, by 
talking much some kind of offence or other always happens, 

ro3jo o> s3ja rfj arf WeJOio^,? sSp^o. a born living being must die 

C -- 


some day or other. 


311. There are no articles in Kannada that are perceivable by the ear 
and eye; both the English definite article 'the' and the English indefinite 
article 'a' ('an') are mentally to be supplied, e.g. 

tfreFcSJStf^a, the sensible speech of Karna. 3"^ ^!0^ ^^C3* six/aa 
dodo, the sun rose brightly, w^wJS^tf ^?A, having gone into the 

garden. tf&x&A&ga (fttib the poetry has become good. 

tJ Sr ^^ 

he descended from the tree. sjoc^fcjorrfi^o^o I am the son 

of Mallikarjuna. aoodort^o kdogj)^, the boy reads. SJ^NJ ^N^ 

ufcokosekf?, he beats the ox. ^tfo 3oo&>rt>fl ^zkse) 3, the teacher 


teaches the boy. ydrfo rood's 1 , Jojog^> 6, they fear the lion, si&ctfo 

Tt - ' -^ 

the bird's nest. 3"e3co ^JSd^o, the hair of the head, tfodotfoioo 
the horse is white. =^JS?io 55^03^ yc3, the child is weeping. 

ge>o3oo3o ;|jz!o3o ^o^e3 'ES'JSrfo.^rS, the child sits on the lap of the 
(or its) mother. -3^0 3oe>ft &A{G5'&<^tS tfS, I am showing the way. 
Jj5f23ri^ ^ort^o 3oJ3 ^jscxioool^rf s^o, the daughter of the gardener was 
gathering flowers. ^soSjC^oja 300JOJ3 totf? rfrird^), the dog and the 


fox are of one genus. ^j ad dOD^o, the word you spoke. =5rl<3 
, the Kannada language. 3o?l)^^do, the Hindus. 3JdJ8^3J : ffe)Ooi;e5rf 
, the philanthropic Karna. 3J ) 3e)o3'ro : 5 ! ^ d^o, Alexander the great. 
, the rich, rtorre^a, the river Ganges. wrt?d^Eii, the gem of 
the sky (i. e. the sun). 

^d^&io., a head-tie, ^s?^^ , a fort with a choultry. 


a village-chief. tn)^o5jdo, this (is) a learned man. e5 

that (is) a respectable woman. eruaOort dOdcSjs^ 'adr df^o, a garden 

that is at a distance from a town. e3SJ?3 30^ d ^^cli^ojoorso,, he has a 

pen. ^ So^o^ cfs^oioorao., you have an inkstand, ^rs sSo^, a small 

house, aooi^ort^o s^^^d^ toCiog^^, the boy reads a book. 

^etfo^??8, I hear a noise. oJofcjrfoD^o ^d^rfo^ ^^sJog^cS, the master 

sends a servant. ^4 Sod^rffSJS^j^e^, we see a ship. 3oJ3?d 

a new book. &,S?P ^js^o, a good child, dod sSliri, a big box. 

V ' 

a bad boy. ^Se) dJ3^ >&3J7T3$, what a great storm! . 

^ ui ca ti 

crfooqi^), how useful an instrument! 'a^ w?3, such an 

O *J" 



The appellative nouns of number ^Sr } Z-UF, e-to^ ( 278, 4) and the numeral 
o ( 278, i) in its different forms (fcW, t-w 5 , &,*, t,g*, 8-35*. ^u ff , -^J*, fc,o, 
when used so to say as adjectives, cannot be used as articles; they denote 



' a certain', 'a particular kind ', ' single ', ' one ' (nearly equivalent to the indefinite 
article 'a' or 'an') I>ur3d3o, a certain king. ri^arle^F rWrazjio 33^00 d<$ 
ofcarto* Rao dSc&es 1 * oa^dJ ^^3?, and when one proud king treats an excellent 
poet stingily, will not continually liberal persons be born on earth? ^ oi3^drfo 
)^^, (there) was a certain boy of five years called Sivu. 
d?W 20eytf SojstA, a certain bad scholar having gone 
to a certain king. Socc^rfdo^ arfo JJ.)do, multaga is a certain tree. &&> ^3^, 
a certain crow. W^ QdToo, one day, on a certain day. z-rf^ 03%, one night, 

in a certain night. z-cfo >3 2-U So-io^,^ 23?e3.cOrt aSjsxrfonart e>3o3.fctfrt z^ 
Q tj a 

Jdjdd ^tfri 2*^ ado? soes'oJoo do^A^. when one day a certain man went to a 
foreign town, there was the young of a certain tiger lying under a certain tree. 

eaort 2*20 3orf?k eroraj., thev had one bov. 2-U ws.sdcs^ dOcSoJod Zs,rfo y^o^^j, 

W u * * (0 v O co Os> 

in the house of a certain Brahmana there was one cow. & ?3J ztid S3f3?fo3 c3, 

on CO 

there a singletree appears. i3^ OsJrfjJjjV* ^^^ he came in one day- 
^sir^jdro, he stayed one year. 2-^ ^3d?j sr^ ^^ 33d?33A &u sortrfjs 
^*^:0 ^^ ^^^ ^^j^ ' a certain gentleman had a certain son called Candranatha, 
and a certain daughter called Subhadra. 

312. 'Only', 'alone' are expressed by suffixing the postpositions 

>;> or a to odF, o2or, &,&> 2^o, e. g. Eo5Jr?5 rlra^d tirio^^dJSs?*, is he 

tJ Ci' C3 

not the only powerful man in the world? 'cwr?S zdj^fto ^rfrtid, "0, is 

he not my only son?" (thus he, the father) not saying. ^ZA?^ ^JS^^, he 

sat down alone. ^zo s ^ do^odoO ^do ^J3rarfo, he lay down alone in 


the house, ^tf &uaflp w ^odo^ S5?o ^J3^,^-,^, I alone cannot manage 
V v y 

that horse. ssddJSud? w^ bo, they came alone. 

t\J CJ 

, I saw the king was alone, 


, if he alone has to build the house, great toil will 

come to pass, ^j 3^ 9 d ^a? sfcs>& wdtSJSUiSe =a?V^^o, he alone 


took to heart the advice I gave. sDoS-fc^F^, the mother alone. 

, she alone. ( sdJSR>e sjjsrtr, this is the only way. 

a ^v 

, this is his only son. ^ $ ^kJ a single town. (See 212, c, 
and cf. 282.) 

XIX, On additional tense-forms of the verb, 

313. Ancient Kannada grammarians enumerate three tenses (kalatraya, 
^ 145): the present ( 194), the future (jj 200), and the past ( 198). 
We have seen that both the two forms of the present tense of the 


modern dialect differ from the form of the ancient one ( 196). Besides, 
the contingent present-future of the modern dialect has been introduced 
( 195). 

On examination it will be found that the ancient form of the present 
is a compound-tense, and that the two forms of the present and the form of 
the contingent present-future of the modern dialect are also compound-tenses. 

Analogously also other compound-tenses are formed in Kannada (cf. 
362), although they are not specified in ancient grammars, vi/. 

1, A sort of continuative Present, e.g. zodojjos^ ^^3^, writing I 


am, i.e. I am writing (see 172; 196, i), or 

( 196, 2). 3 wsSja^&g^, "anas?, esdtfo 35300 tfo&ctfoo^cy?) 3. 

ar?or(j>.oirart> rto^o rto&o&srl 

re> O O 

^w, till needles become ready and can be sold, (there) being are not, 
i.e. (there) are not, required for any other "work so many persons as 
are required for the work of making them. 

It is to be remarked that this continuation is also used, when the 
present participle is combined with the infinitive or with the imperative, c. g. 

Vo ^rfo ?oo3oiaioo, when e5d which as a particle (or adverb) has the 
meaning of 'a little', expressing is, i.e. expresses, 'the half of a thing'. 
it partakes of (the rules regarding] euphonic combination (see 215, e. 
remark i). Firto3rf t3?^, (you) must not (continually) laugh, rfort^f, 
55^ s3js3> ti& rSeO&^Co, daughter, (continually) serve (your) 
mother-in-law and (your) mother's brother. ^^ &?kJc3<D tJJ& 
let us play in the garden. 

A sort of contingent present is likewise formed, e. g. wdji) -dsrt 
V^CTS (fo, writing he may be now, i. e. he may be writing now. 

2, The continuative Imperfect, c. y. %rt.)3j3orfro, entering he was, 
i. e. he was entering, tf&qi tao >$, cirfSFZoJSb 06, when the monkey- 

oC5 o 

banner rose to its full height and repelling was, i. e. was repelling, (the 
foe, the idea of the past arising from the past participle $,). 
whilst he crush d (them, see $ 362, 2, 6). E^JS^o^jS d?dn) ?o3oc 

then the Apsaras, saying "huzza, 



huzza", quickly brought waving-platters and holding (them) up were, 
i. e. were holding (them) up. art?o?k sse^sSrt^fl^ kfioJoo^rffi), the 
washerman washing was, i. e. was washing, clothes, ^e^j e^os^rt ^N 
33 ^y^rttfck, fco^ljfi 'alb, 5?1 sdrfjsne)^ sirarfoA-CS^o, when thou (as a 

o(_ ^ * ij gj x O 

little child) weptest, (thy) father laid his work aside, and comforting 
was, i. e. was comforting (or used to comfort) thee. <3e)3o 3oJS?C3e>rt 

srorao 3 cS <&, when I went, dining he was, i. e. he was dining. 

c o 

*L^ tdjc3rl Btfdrttfo (Sain a^ojoo^a^; dS5 9 fd k&?Se 

^A\ 2J O C^ O O O 

a, when reading the first book, the letters being known well 


were not, i. e. were not known (to thee) well ; therefore reading thou 
wast, i. e. thou wast reading (or usedst to read), even each letter 
separately, e^ddjs -dsft^aSo? TraScSja^ri ^JS& =$J3e^ aSJSC^oior^ 
C3->y t3? : 5s)r1o : | D ^o , also then just as now becoming it was, i. e. it became 
(or used to become) necessary to sit in a boat and cross the river. 

3, The continuative (or habitual) Future, e. g. 
(Sabdamanidarpana sutra 14), employing they will be, i. e. they will 
employ (or use to employ ; vritti go&Qcft&do*). ?oo3olo5j5^ ?idd3o^ 

(Smd. s. 59), in euphonic 

combination of letters consonants without a vowel uniting will be with, 
i. e. will unite with (or use to unite with), a following letter (vritti 


O ^ Q W O 

^OosSrdo, it' thou comest at five o'clock, most probably writing I shall be, 
i. e. I shall most probably be writing, a letter. 3ocrWdo w^drsrt^^j 
eSei&^dosick, women asking for will be, i. e. use to ask for, ornaments. 
Qf. 366, c. 

4, The Perfect, e. g. es^Frforttfo 33 fkoft^oro ^o^^, darkness 
having quite swallowed is (see 203), i.e. has quite swallowed, sun and 
moon. rfrtFCS^orttfcS* Wto 9 ; e9rl)^^V9J&Q^o ^^a^oro, know the last 
letters of the (five) classes; having got they are, i. e. they have got, the 
name of nasals. ^0$^ ofi 'AJJS^J td^drsJFS, having been born is a son, 
i. e. has a son been born, to Kulinda. ^zrorici) ^O^^sdrrt^^^ d?5 
, Kalidasa having composed is, i. e. has composed, charming 

poetry. 5ojz3ortd-> ?3~e>e3fi ^JSehn'S dJ3f, having gone are the boys, i e. 
have the boys gone, to school? n^D W^, 05'S : ^ zodSsj ? =$ 

" 1 ' 


9.<3 (i.e. >eJj, w3, see 196)._ 

U v fc. 

(i. e. *J3^> 6). Gy. 315, 2, J. 

In the ancient dialect this so-called Perfect may convey the meaning 
of the present, e. g. $&& f3e>oj,o 3333 o^a^oro jjdj^ddort, four 
arms having nicely appeared are, i. e. nicely appear, on Vishnu. Also 
when the common future of ratf is used (like ( 33 ! OFo), this meaning 
holds good, e. g. wr3o3oddj oiJSdJS&^r^ rfor^rre&d .... rtrasreSe^ortv* 
WSj^orts?, nicely having appeared and having shone will be, i. e. nicely 
appear and shine, even the numberless shops of jewellers, etc. 'adoFCjfS* 
wi^a^FdOodo ^po* wcS^o, a substitute having destroyed will be, 
i. e. destroys, like a foe, that which is ( 198 under 3). If the final verb 
is in the infinitive, the meaning of the imperfect too is produced, 

e. g. =5^3^ do o!e3 ?3a6, when the ear-ornament having shone beautifully 

"^ <>3 

was, i. e. when the ear-ornanrent shone beautifully. 

If this Perfect is formed by the combination of the past participle 
and a verbal noun of the past, again the present may be represented 
(see 169 and 198 under 3), e. g. ,3vB 

Do X 

a union of two words which consist of a base (and) a suffix, having 
desired by having been (or by being), i. e. when a union of two words 
which consist of a base and a suffix, is desired (or is to take place), two 
euphonic combinations .are formed by the learned, (viz.) the internal 
(and) final one ( 214). 2jre3c&?orijFrij 0zp>?o tf$03o3, TraqJgSi^ 
tyrfd) fcirtcSjSv* j3?do7Te)c3v0^o, it is impossible also for a king to remove 
by slight what having been called has been, i. e. what is called, destiny. 

It may still be mentioned that this kind of Perfect may be used in 
the imperative, e. g. 33 <& ZJ&SosJdef) 3 ^^^ w3ri whb, dinner having 
become be, i. e. dinner be ready, within my arrival! rtodorW.J udorfd 
C^JS^ri c3e>s^j 3oJ^hdJSCc>, having gone let us be, i. e. let us be gone, 
within the guru's arrival. 

It is scarcely necessary to state that this Perfect is used also when 
the participle is a negative one, e. g. & Stitf &T& 
since how many days has this Siva not dined? 

5, The future Perfect, e.g. $>&> tfdrt !Uc3rt 

, when I come to thee how many letters having written thou shall 
be, i. e. how many letters shalt thou have written? 


3Je>eAtfo;3fk, when it has struck five o'clock, having gone 
out I shall be, i. e. I shall have gone out. $$ c3?533s>$F$ wrtorfd&3 s JS> 


$f\ $& yafi tJhdo^rfo, whilst thy worship of the gods takes place, 


my cooking having become will be, i. e. will have been done. 

6, The contingent future Perfect, e. g. ^^ w^s rt rf^ $vti^ rfoofta 
a 5^0, when thou comest, my work having been finished may be, i. e. 
may have been finished, oiratfo $ 3J^ 2j6ae3>tfo, who having written 

this letter may be, i. e. who can have written this letter? esslo. 3J33 f\ 


e3&^ 5*fta{&, at that time dinner having become may be, i.e. may 
have become ready. 

7, The Pluperfect, e. g. sss^j wdosjritivl dooosS ^)^j SJSA sodacS^o, 

"C ^LJ O 

having written I was, i. e. I had written, the letter, before he came. 

S3d?$o do?? >&.ri <3j, having left he was, i. e. he had 

left, the house before ten o'clock, ysj^j ud)s3d-8\?i rf.os 


, J, having sat writing letters I was, i. e. I had been 

writing letters, before he came. ^s)^j $5;^ dofSri SoJS^AcS^j, wrf6 
S5^^o wOcSo3J3% J rias;, having gone I was, i.e. I had gone (or went), to 

Q ro 

his house, but he was not at home. dJS^ >^o ?j3s3ri o5:5> 20^ a > 

*- O CJ <*>' 

why having come thou wast not, i. e. why hadst thou not come (or didst 
thou not come), to school the day before yesterday? & 

3oJS?ftaol?? slfc?! 3oJS?hc33j, having gone thou wast ever, 

Q O *t CJ 

^. e. didst thou ever go, to the house of this old man? Having gone I 
was, i. e. I did go, the day before yesterday, j^o sJodrf $$f( 2^j 3oJ0^ 

O O 

sJo&S 9 dooh^, under a certain tree a certain tiger-cub having lain 
down was, i. e. had lain down, sdatf ^e>r! &of& 3oe>d) ?o0^o aoe>&&>, 

O O ^"^ 5' 

a certain snake having coiled itself was, i. e. had coiled itself, round the 
foot of a kite. ^rW sSo^d aSceo rioA ^JSosI^, the female sparrow 
having sat was, i. e. sat, on the eggs. e3^o^DD03o^j ^3* Jjaok^ftji 
sjoooz? ^odrs 3oJ3^ ^^ > ^ D 8 Acyuta having died was, i. e. had died, 

O O 

before king Krishna. L.CJJSJ c^^dJS^AcddJS^j ^^ aoC5a^, one leaf 
within the reading book having been torn was, i. e. had been torn. 

0} dJ553s)05o <d> 'o'rso ^J3rS ? $& SjO^cdo ^ia^o, where did you find 
ro a> a- * <r> Q -o' 

this rupee? Having fallen it was, i. e. it had fallen (or was lying) in 

my house. es3>, c$>0: 3o4,&>tfP^ 5JJ5)^)(d si>drf ^o?s3 ^?^J 'S'^^j 

j ^ 

mother, in our back-yard on the mango tree (bees) honey having put 

was, i. e. honey had been put (by bees), aotj. r033e>oaoOwOO 

- 319 - 

, a native soldier having 

- . 

caused was, i. e. had caused, a certain very sharp sword for going to 
war. *353rl> $$ $11^ zo^rt ^>^o yur3at>, when he came to see me, 

^ CO Q Ci Q PO 

having dined I was not, i. e. I had not dined. 

Already from the instances quoted above it will appear that this 
kind of Pluperfect, though in form a pluperfect, does not always clearly 
express the meaning of it. Thus in the ancient dialect it may simply 
denote the aorist, e.g. djs sl^ftriorcjo sjjstf, the month Mage grandly 
made its appearance (see 298 under 3), or the present in the instance 
?)eao)bdjrs2;d^ yc3??3* (O^arfordJS sJ^siraa.oSJlv*? and in the instance 

wi ix ^ 

fto &e$jAckr;3jj ^oarioecifcs?* >3oorto? (see 271 under & ). Compare 
315, 2, I (about the passive). 


Also relative compound-participles may be formed, e. g. the contlnuative 
present one: 5333o u3oio^cb3 KJS^; the continuative imperfect one : 3arfo 
ajjrfrfo, t3J3&3crart otojj&at &>u.rfo sisJ3S)# zjrfrfo; the perfect one: ^do^a 

<a w * a r 

Q353r d^oAoJj ^do S3f?tf, (let the wood of) that cennangi tree ornamented with 

bosses (be taken) for a club ( 241); rto^ So^detfrt 

314. Here may also be introduced, especially if the compound-forms 
of the modern dialect given in the remark on this paragraph are 
considered, what is called the Conditional or Subjunctive by Europeans. 
Does it exist in Kannada? 

There is no subjunctive mode (mood) or particular form of the verb 
in Kannada, which is used to express condition, hypothesis and 
contingency; the Kannada conditional is formed simply by certain 
suffixes added to such parts of the verb in its indicative tense (see 144) 
as we do already know, i. e. to the present-future relative participle 
( 180 seq.) and past relative participle ( 175 seq.) in the ancient and 
mediaeval dialect, and to the latter participle in the modern dialect. 

The suffixes or postpositions for expressing 'if ( 212, e) are t^d 
(in the ancient and mediaeval dialect), && (in the mediaeval one), and 
536 (in the mediaeval and modern one), z*d being the original form. 

very probably is iocr (which we believe to be another form of 
, to be, see 194, remark i) and the } of the infinitive 
({<;< 187, 4; 188, which o means 'at the time that', 'when'), e.g. 
at the time that, or when, (I) go (=the English 'if I g 


About aod (=e$d, j6) the grammarian Kesava says the following: 

"The word Sod which expresses a case (or supposition, paksba) and 

ends in (the vowel) -o, is added to the end of verbs (dhatu), it being 

connected with the three genders, the three numbers (and) the three 

persons' 1 , e.g. jlafW'.ft rfste* 3-5 9 o3ov*, if (she) sees (or inquires, i.e. 


for inquiring), she (is) the junior; ?jdjo ^o^^^^o &t)o3oo, if (he) speaks 
properly (i.e. for, or in, speaking properly), he (is) the senior; ^dos^ 
, if (it) blows, a fragrant breeze blows there; 
, if (he) fights (i. e. in fighting), he alone (is) oue 
who possesses skill; Aj$>jl)sfeas$Fd>o ^^o*, if (they) compare (i. e. for 


comparing), even both (are) fit persons; ^oadpdo tfoo 

if (they) speak, all of them do not know (proper) words; 

$#30, if he approaches, he (is) a good one; A&F^icteidftftddf, if 

(they) correct, they (are) good ones; zS^uu 3 . d ?* &>,z3oi3*, it' (thou) 

oj % 

solicitest, thou (art) a good one; ^jsgpzS ^sis* fcfrao*, if (you) give, 

you are good ones; sp^D^cs^* Sw^^o, if (I) consider, I am a good one; 
r^Ss^zSe)^ 2s?.$o3), if (we) serve, we are good ones. (It will be observed 
that tod may sometimes be translated_into English by 'for', 'to', 'in', as 
also sscS, es6 may get that meaning in the mediaeval dialect.) 

"Also for the three tenses a^d is used", Kesava adds, e.g. ^rodoci 
>feio, if (he) lied, he ceased; 3Jtfo?$d|5zS &>?3o, if (he) opposes, he 
kills; t&A^zS ^JS^oSoo ^OnJo^o, if (he) will paint, he will have a brush 

Another instance of Kesava's is the following verse: 


v r\ 

s3o ^J3^d, 2,ys^j^^J323D? |] (See its translation in 360.) 

Instances from other sources: 

3)o ^r?i3i^ri 3odra^. SD^^ (^ ne protects and) 
kills, i. e. for protecting and killing) ^^orf^ d 


(if we shall give, i. e. to give etc.). 

^ It may be remarked that the Tulu 3 in the so-called subjunctive, e. g. in 
if I make, seems to have originated from &3 ( wd) by the euphonic elision of initial <a 
after a preceding vowel. 


lt>oBj, . . . 

A) td O tJ W 10 


PO Q - o ca 

Sod and wd are suffixed also immediately to the negative relative 
participle ( 175), e.g. tfodretfdazS, ss^djsd, aodaziS, 'aodd, 

r\J ro co co 

but they are chiefly suffixed to a following 'SicSF, as 'adJSrd and 
these being joined to a preceding so-called negative gerund ending in 
wd (170), e.g. e3<L>ad&Fd (w^d+'adJSFd), r a^adjSFd cawd+ 
'sdJSFd), ^O^adJSFd, iS5 3 oJoadJ3rd, ^ja^adjsrd. In the modern 
dialect wherein e$8 is employed and *acJ takes the place of adr, there 
are e. g. arf 6, w arf 6, ^doioacS 6, djsdad 6: instead of 

PO O ' <r> O ' O ' ' 

it uses also aojs^csd (3J3?c$+e30), e.g. sjjsj^d 

Also Samskrita si^ has been used by Kesava in the so-called condi- 


tional instead of Bed, (eszl and 6), his three instances referring to the 
negative relative participle, viz. j3)SJodJ3^oJo^ 9 a5oci 3J^ o, if the conven- 


tional meaning of a word is not destroyed, sas&siroa -S-^rf sJ^o, if the 

*J ^A ' 

well-known meaning of a word is not destroyed 

CO, commentator), t) sJ3^^qi^aodjdj* tdrfd 3J^o (sutr'a 235). 

-x v^ 

In 287, 5, a. b it has been seen that 'though', 'although' are 
expressed by kz$, yd and 56 in connection with sso, eroo, SAfl joined to 
the past relative participle, and without those postpositions by a,o, oxa 
joined to the so-called gerund ( 154 seq.), and in 288 by wrUv joined 
to the past relative participle. 

According to 287, 8 tod, S3d and 556 in connection with e$o, wv& 
added to past relative participles express 'whether or'. In 286 we see that 
tod and 556 in connection with yo, erua are used also in a copulative sense. 
According to 287, 6. 7 tod, ed and wd in connection with eo, tftto are 
used to express 'at least', 'at any rate', 'even', etc. According to 289 
WddJS or t>C3e>rij3(, express 'however', 'but', etc. According to 291 tod 
and w6 in connection with o, eao mean 'soever'; and in 296 it is 
stated that yd joined to the past relative participle wd, expresses 'but'. 
In 338 it will be stated that tod, etc., when added to a past participle 
and followed by e3t>d, get the meaning of 'except'. 

ro " 

In the modern dialect 'unless', 'except' are frequently expre->e.t 
by agjs^oF (aJt>&3&) following a relative past participle ( 282, i),e.y, 



, unless (the guru) initiates, final 

* ' 

beatitude does not come, ^ra^, ggSSstotfo, o&orf SoJS^JF 3S3dd:> 3^0, 

< >^ e <=(. 

>^ol>;3e)h o-3-rod.i, unless (you) take notice of other persons, other 

persons certainly do not take notice of you. ^oirara sira^rt aJ3&r 
urao&e>a ^?tf, except (one) makes a legal complaint, the kinsman does 
not hear. 

'Lest' is to be expressed in a particular way, viz. by &&f( (or &$ ) 
in connection with the relative negative participle, e.g. >si\ s^Sri =0^0 
rUi^o 3e>tfcS aoe)fl 83$?$Cd3e>A&, take care lest your foot is (or be) hit 
by the sickle. dori sl&^js^ wrfrf csisri waStf t^d 3^ zratfcfc, do 
not eat many pungent substances lest your stomach pains (or pain). 

6 deceitful men must 

o ^3- o - ' 

use much shrewdness in any affair, for all beings are watchful lest they be 


Some pertinent instances from the modern dialect of South-Mahratta 
(S.-Mhr. school-books) with regard to the use of v$ in' the so-called 
conditional are the following :^f( w6ofc. zodo^a ^>^o ftrf, 



), (literally) coming if it was (or is) to me to write, writing 
I was in company with thee, i. e. if I could write, I should write (here) 
in company with thee. rf^cjj vfy g^a, y^d^? wdj^dd ^3<> era! 
^J3& 3J3pr(os3e), is mine not the same road (to school)? Coming if (you) 
are (i. e. if you come), come even to-morrow! Let us go together. 

w, the sun not being if 

y ~ CO 

was (i. e. if there were not the sun), on all sides coldness falling was 
(i. e. it would be cold everywhere), darkness would cover, trees and 
creepers would not grow at all, and we should not live, 


, ships not being if were (i. e. if ships had not existed), 

coming not was to men (2. e. it would have been impossible for men) to 
go to and to come from one country to another country. ^ 3e>c&> 
s&s^j ^S?Co6 & 530514 33ft o&e)^ ucfc^,^,, my mother's word having 
heard if (I) was (i. e. if I had listened to my mother's word), this 
misfortune why befalling me was (i. e. why should this misfortune have 
befallen me)? $tf rfor(?2?, >jdc5 3o?>(3 )Drf6 S^ ScJS^o^a, my son, 


from the tree having fallen if (thou) wast, having died going thou wast, 
(i. e. my son, if thou hadst fallen from the tree, thou wouldst liave died). 

escrij^y, dJ333e>o3o T&sUritivfl & ftdrfji), 33^0 o&e>orU> &zi>3 Oej, fifty 

6JQ < -*On' 

rupees (one) having given was though (i. e. though one had given fifty 
rupees), this tree to whomsoever giving I was not (i. e. I should not have 
given this tree to anybody), o rfoC^cdoo 3rf, 33C&JS dJ5^o tfe$c$3 53, 

^- CJ ^ 

tfpdi wrfol a w , the young one its mother's word having heard if was 

o Q co' 

(/'. e. if the young one had listened to its mother's word), to it disaster 
becoming was not (i. e. no disaster would have happened to it), Re- 
garding ^ae; see 316, 2. 

Q f*l 

The author of the present grammar has not met with similar instances in 
the ancient and mediaeval dialect. The Rev. Mr. Hodson writes in his elementary 
grammar of the Kannada language (second edition, Bangalore, 1864): 

" JK^O djs^ ^wd3 Sc^ udisSifo, if you had told me the day before yesterday, 
I should have come yesterday." 

"This sentence may with equal propriety be expressed by: 
d<3 Be?. zj<oc33o. or stci) ztoeS. aotwdd && Uiodjdrfo. or Strfo 


o. or 

_ 05 ' 

"The negative is similarly expressed by the use of the negative mood, as: 

SXrfj rqeD "Sldd rfrf, 7j3od3dc5rfj TOOJjrfj, or eNifo ^^ ^doS rf 6 rfrf, 

PO CD ** *"* * CO "> 

or R?rfJ ^ 'grfS $3 ?jaoJ3?ddrfo TisoiwS o , or 
ai -jca** 1 

^3oi)d rsidodrfo, if thou hadst been here, my brother would not have died." 

315. Also what has been called the Passive ( 148), named karmani- 
vacya in Samskrita, may be classed with the compound verbal forms of 

1, The term of karmaniprayoga, or the use of the passive voice, was 
distinctly used in Kannada grammar first by Bhattakalanka in the year 
1604 A. D. ( 8, note); long before his time both Nagavarrna and Kesava 
had not yet given that name to the peculiar compound-verbal form and 
its use which he designated by that term. Sutra 251 I about karmani- 
prayoga that has got into Kesava's Sabdamanidarpana, is not found in 
our best MSS., and in those wherein it is found, it is called an anukta- 
sutra or interpolation; it is based on Bhattakalanka's Sabdunusasana. 

Bhattakalanka's instances regarding the karmaniprayoga under his 
sutras 443 seq. are the following: 


003335% ofoo 33SJgOo 


dor = 

do r 


under his sutra 530: sfcsris? 


under his sutra 


oO e 

55ii si^o or^e^ sj^.o: 

w w 

or -S-^?os3* sJUo^: and under his sutra 209: 

532: d55ii si^o or^e^ sj^.o: 3&?d jiW.o or . 

w w eo S 




Now let us see how Nagavarma and Kesava introduced the form of 
the verb which Bhattakalanka says that it belongs to the karmaniprayoga 
or the use of the passive. 

N&gavarma introduces it under his sutra 80 when he writes, the agent 
(kartri) may be expressed by the instrumental (tritiye), e. g. 



Kesava introduces it under his sutras 126 and 128 saying: also when 
the agent has the meaning of the instrumental (c/. 347, 9) the nomina- 
tive (prathame) occurs, e. g. for 5sj>o slracl (o. r. dJ3^3*) 3jfcJo.c$o 
there may be used 55^0 ^JS^do; sJrf^sJJ^ edj>s3oaoo ^33^5^ (o. rs. 

and ste^); ^ejd-sij 5 oia.o . 

'60 "0 *%. 60 

In other places of the Sabdamanidarpana we find: 
(sutras 51 and 128, where the commentator has ^^COej* 
&>,4); WOJJ^ 3Jji4c5j (vritti to sutra 127); 3s 33^*3 53* 

* O 

(vritti to sutra 272); and 3J.o3J5?P>7o sjdrtao (sutra 110, commentator 

From the above it is learned that what is termed karmani- 
prayoga by Bhattakalanka, is the use of the infinitive ending in ^5^, o 
and es ( 187) followed by the verbs sido or 3J:. Instead of oo* the 
mediaeval dialect frequently has 55^0 (see Dictionary sub c3o i), e.g. 
rtoo !kb.c5o. The initial sj of sjd) may be changed into to e. ^. 


zotiodo (c/. 215, ?, a). According to 188 the said infinitives are verbal 




Both sjrfj and t>d mean 'to experience', 'to suffer'; 'to acquire', 'to 
get or obtain'; Nagavarma's instances under his sutra 80 (see above) 
are therefore to be translated literally: by Devadatta a making it ex- 
perienced (i. e. it was made by Devadatta) ; by Yajnadatta a saying it 
experienced (i.e. it was said by Yajnadatta); and Kesava's instances 
under his sutras 126 and 128: by him a making it experienced (i. e. it 
was made by him); a padaka by the goldsmith a making experienced 
(i. e. a padaka was made by the goldsmith) ; a poem by me a saying 
experienced (i. e. a poem was said or told by me). 

Let also some of Bhattakalaiika's above instances be translated liter- 
ally: by a Brahmana the king a village a begging (the begging of a 
village) experienced (i.e. the king was asked for a village by a Brahmana); 
by the cowherd a buffalo milk a milking (the milking of milk) experienced 
(i.e. a buffalo was milked by the cowherd); by the king by the cook 
food a causing to prepare experienced (i. e. food was ordered by the 
king to be prepared by the cook); by Hari by Arjuna Karna a causing 
to kill experienced (i. e. Karna was ordered by Hari to be killed by 

The so-called passive, especially in the instances of Bhattakalanka, 
is rather queer and clumsy in character to a European's idea; but as 
stated, it was used in the literature of the ancient and mediaeval period. 
That it has been used also in the modern written dialect will appear e. g. 
from the following instance met with in a South-Mahratta school-book: 

, if (there) is no sickness of any kind in the body, that a saying 
experiences (i. e. that is called) health; but it is rare in modern litera- 
ture, and in colloquial language it is avoided, and if used, is generally not 
understood by the populace. 

A peculiar way of expression is found in Bhattakalanka's first 

instances 33$* ^de^ ~kl> arask* 'ado* s^o*, etc., which are to be 
translated 'he a being experienced' (i. e. he was), 'they a being experi- 
enced' (/. e. they were), etc. This may be called periphrastic, as in the 
present case the simple verb <ac*, to be, is expressed by 'ac* and sjcio. 
A similar expression presents itself in the following instance from an 
ancient classical work: sfctfJo skSftdodo f(v& sizSofccre 

do^SJ^o, Cupido will lose his wits, not an overcoming obtain- 
ing (i. e. not overcoming) that Nayaktrti, the chief of those who strive 
after mukti. 


2, Other modes of expressing the idea or force of the passive in 
Kannada are the following: 

a) the mode of joining the verhs 5>c& or 5>c3 to nouns, e. g. e$^ Os3<ij 
(-3Jz2o), lit. to get surprise, i.e. to be surprised; e5^dct> (-3J^oV lit. to 

get a fit state, i. e. to be made ready; ^fcjo sjc^o, to be bound; x 

, to be loved; ^D^ sJc&>, to be ashamed; ^sjo 3Jz&, to be wearied; 
(-33:3), to be cut off; ^&3d (-3JjS),to be powdered; v&^d (-zJiS), 
to be struck; dooS^dd (-^), to be broken or defeated. Cf. letter n. 

&) that of joining the verb SjS3* (^S5o), to get, to receive, to nouns; 
in the ancient and mediaeval dialect, e. g. SsSrCS*, lit. to get a wound or 
wounds, i. e. to be wounded; L>2^^5 (-33S3*), to be arranged in proper 
order; 3&3Z3* (-^5*), to be cut. Cf. letter n. 

c) that of joining the verh ^perto to nouns, e. g. tfas^rb (-S^rto), 
lit. to go a cutting off, i. e. to be cut off. Cf, letter o. 

d) that of joining aJSrto to the past participle or gerund of verbs 
that are commonly used as transitives, e. g. ^<s*ck ^JS^ddo, that is past, 
that is lost; e5s3^ titi& ^^ort^o ^ad) ^JS?ds, his two legs were 
cut off. dreowsa.?*) ^JSrsd && SoJ^rfo^A if (I) buy sweetmeats, they 

i3 ~~^ C& Q 

will be eaten. 

e) that of using the causative verh <o$?&> (2^0), to make say or 
call, to cause (one's self) to be called (see Dictionary sub voce), very 

frequently in the three dialects, e. g. waoJo 3J^ ^dsl^o 

, and the first ten letters are called monophthongs; 

, the mother of the Danavas is called Danu; ttl{iF(5{9$& o^^ 
Joo, the wife that is called the half body (of her husband). 
S^ONO^O 3s>?ko ?o2^0^Q ^j^r!^ y\>rio&e)>;^o, of Udayaditya it is said 

tj* ^J 

"Manu and he (are) virtuous people". 

In the ancient, and especially in the mediaeval and modern dialect, 
any causative verh in the past participle followed by the verb 
also expresses the force of the passive, e. g- ^ 

o, any object which is called a recipient, (is) a saying 
sampradana (i. e. is what one calls sampradana) ; ^eSoJo^ ?50rvj 
^^,^^0, one who is fit (or deserves) to be beheaded; ^y 2o 

Tf So 

one who is fettered; ^JS-S-A; ^jsra^^o, one who is pushed away; wo$J 

, one who is calumniated; , 

C3 "2. O 

one who is fit (or deserves) to be whipped; 


, one who is respectfully saluted according to the 
manner of the sastras ; eooJotf 3J3eJ.dJ8 DOSo tfjaskcfc 3><D, though 

U rO U oJ W 1 

(one) gives the desired object, (one) does not go without being abused; 

. . , 

, however so much (one) beats (the dog) one has reared, it 
quietly allows itself to be beaten and does also not become inwardly 
angry. Cf. 341. 

/) that of adding the verb esrtj to a verbal noun used more or le>> 
in all dialects, e. g. slo3Je>eP>?l)di33oorio, lit. it becomes a using, i. e. it is 
used; o^SsjjsJ^ . . . ^r^ 5^O* ^^0,0, lit. where comparison takes 
place... a saying e^ (and) s^ej* becomes, i.e. w^ and s^o* are 
said (or used); z& 3)ro&stfrt ^exx ?3>>3 3e>s3) sfcoa ?3J3?r33e>rtoic3, 

O o *-* " 

in one hour four thousand sheets (of paper) a printing it becomes, 
i. e. are printed; yrf^ 'a^o. sp^dd aoJS&^JS^^^rtrfo, lit. by him a 
carrying such a burden it does not become, i. e. by him no such burden 
can be carried; s^^^rt^?!) ^dJS^Sei^d, lit. a bringing the books 

having become it is, i. e. the books have been brought; $y ^s;^) 

ej 9 PO 

siredod losfo =$2;?orf^o ?j3o ^U T?^^ris?^ O9^osrl)^|, also good 'deeds 
one performs in an improper place, a considering bad deeds it becomes, 
i. e. are considered bad deeds; yrfj So^CC 3 J3^rase)05j^i or 

, that was said; ^crari^ wtfo$ 

, the drama Sakuntala was composed by Kalidasa- (About 
verbal nouns see 243; about verbal nouns like s3ooy?3J5r3, etc. see 
205, s, i pers. plural.) 

In the aucient dialect there is found the following sentence in which 
the infinitive or verbal noun ending in 5^5* stands in the dative: 
^redOj^ aiwsii^j* cO^^^o tfjsa ffcaofcWjT#o.o, the term o^redo 
is (or may be) contracted, and uttered ^^c^; and in the same 
dialect wrta is joined to a verbal noun in the past, e. g. 3s3 
, the writing on his forehead will be wiped out. 

g) that of using the verb vS^j* (3) with the noun Sufcb,, e. g. 


, be was beaten, lit. he ate blows; or the verb 
with the noun wd3 (or o^), e. g. rt>dJ33e>art wrf^ (or 
Gurupada was beaten, lit. to (or on) Gurupada blows fell. 

ti) that of using such transitive verbs as are more or less commonly 
also intransitives, in the three dialects, e.g. kddodo, that is broken; 


, a cow that has been covered by the bull; 
, a window that is opened; ^eJo.rWo sie^d)^, the ties were torn; 


the Gauda's house was burnt. 
i) that of using such transitive verbs as do commonly not allow an 
intransitive sense, e. g. aa deS 3 J3<g* ^s^^od s^SOsStte* 23?^, (you) 

* "D 'Sf 

must not say that thus in this (section) all signs (or letters) are not 
mentioned (Sabdamanidarpana sutra 51); g$dj s^Zprrtv* ?iJ3jcSJ3v* 
sS^jS^), the nominative and dative are mentioned iu the rule (s. 140, 
vritti); ^^docoOs)A 3 fc3 3o 3JrsrSe)s3, the arbour was built in a 

^ W 

wonderful manner. 

k) that of using transitive verbs which are not accompanied by an 
agent, but to which the agent has to be supplied mentally (cf. 254, 2, 
under 6), very frequently used in the three dialects, e. g. &$ asp^rt^, 
the mentioned terminations, lit. the terminations which (I) have 
mentioned (see another ancient instance in 351, remark); 3d^rt;3c3o3oo 
SiJS^rodoaos^P, was Siva's offering of water not filtered? lit. Siva's 
offering of water (I) a having filtered was it not? aa zS^rorf <oddc3o3o 
wsl^, a revised and enlarged second edition, lit. a second edition which 
(the author) has revised and enlarged; rod sJJSSd tfrds^), a prepared 
fluid, lit. a fluid that (people) have prepared; 3oJ3o3oc3 53J5S?rWo, cast 
types, lit. types that (workmen) have cast; e52*o 35>&C$ s^^^rl^j, printed 
books, lit. books that (people) have printed; wdrf SJ)^^, a written book, 
lit. a book that (somebody) has written; s^^do zro'S'o, what was (or 
has been) said is sufficient, lit. what (the man) said is sufficient; Q&fi 
s3j3Z3ejsc3ot3eS 9 o sJJBSd S5ddo?3, a palace made (or built) of bricks and 
other things, lit. a palace which (they) have made of bricks etc.; 
Swf^oSoo ^J3t>o* ^^,sj^o, one who deserves to be killed with a club, lit. 


one who deserves (people) killing (him) with a club; ??so3o ^J3e-> a^,^c-o, 
one who deserves to be slain so that (he) dies, lit. one who deserves 
(people) slaying (him) etc. Cf. 358. 

Very often the present-future relative participle of 0^53* (^c^_), to say^ 
to call, is met with as an instance of this rule, e.g. ^DoSooSo rfora 

$ 3>oiosJ Se)^,^ c^i, the goddess who is called speech and is 
endowed with the quality which is called splendour, lit. the goddess whom 

(people) call speech etc.; 55 <a, ero sri.) < <oOo.^), these (vowels) called a i u 


ri Iri, lit. these (vowels) which (they) call a, etc.; =5^0?$ =5^ ^^ dJ36, 
the chief called Kulindaka, lit. the chief whom (they) call Kulindaka; 


*jdoo x ck, a grihasta is called a snataka, lit. a grihasta 
(they) a calling it (i. e. they call) a snataka; ^^d-ndo, what is called 
'enough', lit. what (they) call 'enough'; .odrfoo rfoofcj^^ic3* wz3 0?kd3j 

v ^OT 

^sodoo sireJ oSjrfoj d>, a matre is called that length of time in which 
o o 

(one) pronounces even two consonants, lit. a matre (they) a calling it 
(i.e. they call) etc.; dj3^3^ ^^^ <0^o. ^^^ rfo^j, two children 
called, lit. whom (they) call, Doddappa (and) Cikkappa, See 332. 

1) that of using the compound perfect (cf. 313, 4), the agent being 
mentally supplied to the participle, as under letter &, e. g. rU>rforttf J ^J3 
ctoJfi oSo^O 3 adoorfs??) Zsdossxdssjft sSr^adJ^.sS, lit- nests (birds) having 

PQ "o Q 'O 1 

skilfully knit (them) with hair, wool, threads and grass are, i. e. nests 
are skilfully knit etc.; We>r\> ^JS^^, 3^0 Soe>&c3 (-^d), lit. to the 
upstair house the key (the owner) having put (it) is, i. e. the upstair 
house is locked; aosoo ^^c3, lit. milk (people) having brought (it) is, i.e. 

milk has been brought; & 3^ =5^ i3&.P.$ &J8?s3rfri 
^ ;3 5 lit- how many wonderful things (somebody) having written in this 
book are, i. e. how many wonderful things are written in this book; 
tJ^dOftf 3orttfri>. DsJSJo^ sdort^ri ^e^c3, lit. (they) having given Bhima's 
daughter to Rama's son it is, i. e. Bhima's daughter has been given to 
Rama's son; o^rj^rf^o, ^N zS, lit. (somebody) having brought the books 
it is, i.e. the books have been brought; or also the compound pluperfect 
(cf. 313, 7), e. g. rU>a?d> S&J3S30 ^rttfo SoS&ri^, in the nest three 
eggs (a bird) having laid (them) were, i. e. three eggs had been laid in 
the nest (by a bird); A^Jofcc^Odo&^rt 'tfjsU.a^, lit. (they) having given 
Site to Rama it was, i. e. Site had been given to Rama. 

m) a curious way in which the verb z3^ with an infinitive is used 
to express a sort of passive in the ancient and mediaeval dialect, may 
also be mentioned here, e.g. w^rfo dja^o* d?adocl>, esd>;3 tfskro, that 
toward which an activity is directed, is the object (of a transitive verb), 
lit. that which desires a doing (concerning itself) is the object; siree^o* 
sS^a esortSoio ro0roc3 <3,^5^, a substance that is to be sold (li f . that 
wants a selling) and is spread out in a shop; tJrtaj fcS^&ckck, what will 
happen, what is about to be, lit. what begs to become. 

n) then the frequent use (in the three dialects) of the verb &v* 
(^JS^J,), to take, to get, in combination with nouns is also to be adduced 
(cf. letters a and 6), e.g. qSoJooT^v* (-^JSv*), to become or be alarmed, 



lit. to get alarm; &$ odor^JS^o to become surprised, to begin to be 

" V 

surprised, lit. to get surprise; Jjs^rU^o., to get or become embarrassed; 


, to get or become wearied. 


o) lastly the verb s^rto (cf. letter e) in the sense of 'to become' 
remains to be mentioned, e.g. -^^odp^rf (-^Qjs^rf) ^J^), a stalk that has 
become dry. 

All the modes of expressing, somehow, the force of the passive, men- 
tioned under Nos. i and 2, go to show that the Kannada language is 
destitute of a passive which as to form and idea corresponds to the 
Samskrita and English one. 

XX, On so-called auxiliary verbs, 

316. In English there are some verbs that are called auxiliaries, as 
have, be, shall, will; such, in a strict sense of the word, are not in 
Kannada. It is, however, not only instructive, but necessary to learn 
how Kannada does express them. 

1, The English auxiliary verb 'have', e.g. in 'I have seen', is 
expressed by the aorist (imperfect, perfect), e. g. ^^o (^s?do, ^s?d^o, 
198, i se#.), I have heard (I heard), or by the compound perfect, e.g. 
5, he has (or is) gone ( 313, 4; cf. 315, 2, I), -and 'had' by 

the compound pluperfect, e.g. 9#0o3o30di<i> djdrs 3oJ3 d^j, king Acyuta 
had died ( 313, 7; cf. 315, 2, 1). Cf. also 314, remark; and 155 
seq. about the past participles. 

The English verb 'to have', 'to possess' is expressed by the verbs 
eruv* ( 194, remark i), to be, or 'ao* (^do), to be, or esd, is, essS, are 
( 196) preceded by the dative case, etc., e. g. &?jrfj vuc|e^o^, !** renown 

is to him, i. e. he has or possesses renown, y^rtrrso c&P^ofi, lit. flower- 

pa w 
like eyes are to him, i. e. he has flower-like eyes, wiort ^ociodrfv* ktfsj, 

lit. to him horses are, i. e. he possesses horses. e553>rt 3o?3 sroreo 

he has money, wdtf 3ol>o w^tforao,, lit. with him five cows are, 

co a e3' 

i. e. he has five cows. e5s3?$ 3od a" 3 *! erorso., lit. near him an inkstand 

is, i. e. he has (or has got) an inkstand. $$ &53 9 ok ^eX^oreo , lit. in 
my vicinity corn is, i. e. I have (or have got) corn, w^fl ^w do 3o^ 

dtfo, he had two sons. &>u rlao?orl sii^dri). a certain 

Q w e) 9 o" 

gentleman had two children. 2wU v rtdtfrt^ to^oioO of& <os3j, 

tj CO CS <S> 

a certain cowherd had one she-buffalo, 


;5, snakes have two pointed hollow teeth. $ &3 o 

*\. * 

5e>rtci yd, I have fine paper. v3$f( ^s3r$JSf4 e$c3, she has a 

headache, tfrtft >?da3 tJhc3, I have got thirst. r>ji 3d 3d ^cso adca) 

*. * u re 

sssS, thou hast eight ripe fruits. Also: ^ SoS^C sdrs yd, I have money 
by (or about) me. &$ uS^ok^ rfaoiJt>d '-Ai^u,, he has a watch with 
him. Cf. 360. 

Regarding the so-called relative participles ( 175 seq.; 180 seq.; 
253, 2, d; 254. 267. 273. 330. 364) the following instances may be given : 
*o, ne wno nas riches, ^oiitfrfo, he who possesses gold. 

she who has beauty. esqJrdj* erovUck, that has meaning. 
, they who have knowledge, sofas 3$j, he who has money. 

., she who has love, wa^radd)^, ok#03^;&, a man who 
v v i* 

has authority, ^^.ojjo^ SooCO, an insect that has wings. 20^ e3 '336^^0, 

lit. he who has nakedness, i. e. he who is naked. 

If the negative is to bs expressed, 'ao, 'Siw o ($ 209, note i; 298) or 

PV <*> 

or 'ad^e^ ( 209, under No. 3) are used, e. g. d?dd^, ^ci^e 
Devadatta, thou possessest nothing, y A^^, ie3rt^^>, that 

"Q" CO 

tree has no leaves, esd^ ao^ d ?oJS23r'. < S 1 ^ , she has no needles. wd?i 


zoe^oio ^^o^isj, he has no sack. wtf'S'rt acS ^do^ae;, cows have no 

ro M' co' 

hump. S3fi) w^^>^ SoraOdOe; , at that time he had no money. 

As to so-called negative relative participles the following are instances 
(cf. 273): jr>^(Doc3o, he who has no knowledge, ^^ddo, he who 
has no feet, ^o^ Oorisj^o. he who has no sickness. <a^c3dv f o, she who 

-o co co 

has nothing. ^^O^rf $JS)0, soil destitute of water. s&S 'S.^cS^O^ r?3 

co n 

those who have no understanding, have no happiness. 
It is a very curious fact that, in the ancient and mediaeval dialect, 
, the present participle of rov ( 180, remark), may be used transitive, 
e.g. riora^^* vo^o, he who possesses gentleness ^instead of i&rsjv'o). 
Z^ Wc3* eruv* w^v'o, a cow which has swelling udders (instead of 

2*T V 

^tf, w^^o). There is also Stf* cxJb?3* *sioc3oc3j, that which 
to . V. i ' ~ o 

has no terminations (Sabdamanidarpana sutra 72 and vritti; see 338 
under 'awd). 

CO / 

For 'to have' followed by an infinitive, e. g. he has to learn, see 
under No. 4 of this paragraph. 

2, The English verb <to be' is auxiliary in the passive, the 
way of expressing it therein in Kannada has been treated of in 315. 



When 'to be' is no auxiliary, it is ewv* (kS?*) and <&o* (^tfo) 
in the negative, frequently forms 'ao*) in Kannada; e$d (eso?^), ^z3, is, 
and ysS, 'arf, are, being also used ( 196), e. g. jfcortos^sk* fctfsjdi? 
rf<s*. (there) are also swallowing fishes in the ocean. 
2w<s*6 SJOrocrodrscSJSs 5 *, are (there) any protectors in the 
base world? y^$* lo^o, he is (present or he exists). 3^* 'adro, he 
was (present or he existed). See some sentences in 275, and regarding 
'ao* ('ado) being omitted when a mere copula see 359. 

If y\jS?"', etc. are connected with a dative, etc., they express the 
English 'to have', 'to possess'; see No. i of this paragraph. 

About the negative <QV , (I) am not, (thou) art not, (he, she, it) is not 
etc- (of 'ao* = '3>o*) see 209, note i ; 298. It has been stated in 298 
that it is used by itself, in connection with nouns and pronouns, and 
in combination with verbal nouns (see 243) with which also the 
so-called past participles or gerunds are classed by the author of the 
present grammar ( 154 seq.; 169). In paragraph 298, 3 there are 
given as instances the forms 

Forms like wcfoQe; , e53orQo , 533Q>Q5fobfc> in the ancient and 

co 1 ro' n' 

mediaeval dialect, stand for the simple form of the negative ( 209) to 
express the past tense of the negative in a clear manner (though there 
occur rare exceptions, as ^3^ $3S3 9 c5oa^ I did not know, has been once 


used for 'I do not know'). Forms like 'adJ53bo. wdJoSQw, ^3)CW53 

ro r^ 

bej>, wrtJSjQt), in the modern dialect, take the place of the simple 
negative to express the present tense of the negative in a clear way, 
tftfodb^o, 3jdoi>>e>. etf>e>, &r()v are used iu the modern dialect 

n* n' n' n 

to express clearly the past tense of the simple negative, which use however 
is conventional (see 298 just before No. i), because verbal nouns ending 
in we^ originally rather denote the present tense, as ^s?oJot>o, an 
abandoning, sJjSoJotw, an obtaining. This their primitive meaning 
appears in their dative, when e. g. it is, as in the instances quoted in 
298, s (cf. No. 12 in the present ), followed by ^^>. 


Forms like ,^80, siraao, (3J5>?ae>, eho , 'afto of the modern 

rV n' fir cV o oo 

dialect are such in which aw has been suffixed to short past participles 

- 333 

which we know also to be verbal nouns from (168). 169, in the present 
case 3^0, SjJsS, fSjS^a, Wh. By their use it is intended to express the 
past tense of the negative in a very conspicuous manner. Other instances 
are: ad fix <3e>c$o zotfae;, I have not written (or did not write) this. 
eroCe>>, he has not yet eaten (or did not eat yet). wd<3 

O ro 

sd?ozfc&>radj 'aftodrae, was n t his turban of a green colour? 

ro o o M^ 

joa^a^, he was not happy. See the instances quoted in 
298, s; 313, 7; 314, remark. 

3, The English auxiliary verb 'shall', when it implies a simple 
futurity, as in 'I shall give', is expressed by the future tense in Kannada, 
e.g. tfocksSo or ^js^o^^j, I shall give ( 200; cf. No. 12 of this ). 'Shall 
not', as in the future ; I shall not give', is expressed by the negative, 
e. g. 3ido or ^jszSci), I shall not give ( 209), or by a verbal noun to 
which 'aw is added, .e.g. $&& ^\>z&dao, I shall not give (see also 

00 CO 

under No. 2 of this ). 

When 'shall' indicates a duty or necessity, as in 'he shall go', 'you 
shall go', it may be expressed by (zS^CAxp, z3?&%), ri^o, e.g. &3& 
acJS^rt t3^o; e;3) 3oJSert zSe^o. Cf. No. 4. 

In a question 'shall' is expressed by the suffix e$ or es9^ ( 207, 2, 
a. b; cf. No. 10), e. g. <3e>r3?ri> rfJS^O? 3oJS?rt)o3:e>? what shall I do? 
Shall I go? 3o?5A?S.^j So^3, what shall I say more? 





s?? doest thou give me such a bad 
advice? Shall I take away the money of (my) mother without her know- 
ledge? Would this not be the same as stealing? ; or also by a verbal noun, 
e.g. c3e>(& ^ood&o?? 3oJ3?rtadt3jS? shall I stand? (or) go? 

The way of expressing 'should', the imperfect of 'shall', by 
z3^3V), z3^o will be seen from the following instances; fSJS^a 
you should read carefully. >^o ^ aorerff^ ^JSrieS =J3^ ^3^ : a i J, you 
should pay this money immediately, ^s^j >fl> s^jsd zS^o, what should 
we do? ?S6oJo^d s3o^3 ^3> sijsd t3?T#j, (we) should love (our) neigh- 
bours. See Nos. 4. 9; 314, remark. 

About 'should not' see Nos. 5. e. s. 9. 

4, The English auxiliary 'must' ('is solicited', 'is desired', 'is 
required', 'is necessary', 'ought', 'should', 'is probable or evident') is 
expressed by 23^C3o,o, 23?C3o,, d^o ( 203), e. g. sJ 


tStfofcrfd eCAxo (-ritf^o), in (i. e. for) 
the verb which expresses the growing of corn etc. and that of trees and 
creepers, 23s? (and not v>$] must (or is to be) uttered. $ 
_, you must (or please) put up with this mistake, 


23^0, he must (or has to) learn grammar. >2oo&e>d> 
z3*tfo, you should make cool what is hot. ^ras^ enaart aojserl 
we must go to town (or abroad), <3e>?i) otossrart 2od t3^o, when must 
I (or am I to) come? esrffk 3j^Atf 28^0, he must have gone, -gsrt Sjfl 
oi>) 2030^ 23$ >ao 23e^o, it must be very cold now at (the town of) 


Pune. 03Ce>Oe>c3tiJ3 vti^ft ^t 3sslo3jrf) d^rslis^ ^^roO d?^. somebody 


must have communicated these tidings to him. 

It will be seen from the above instances that infinitives ending in 
We 4 or y are used before dfc3j,o, z3?&3j, and 23^0; the infinitive ending 
in esew and its dative may also precede eS^o, e.g. 'S.d^^* u 9 ol>^o 23e : 3 ! o, 
I must learn to know this man. 

Must' is also expressed by zS^CJo^cJo, a verbal noun of 23^c2o, e. g 

'Must', when denoting obligation, has been expressed in the modern 
dialect also by the infinitive ending in ese3*, ef>e>o, followed by eru^., being 
( 180, remark), and a demonstrative pronoun, e. g. $a>c& ^^oo^s^j 
(c/. =j3c3)^, 'ado^d^o), I must give, lit. I to give a being-he. Forms 

as T?j3^^>o^. >odo>0ntaotf occur also occasionally in the mediaeval dialect 

%> V . V 

(e. ^r. of the Vivekacintamani), and may denote the simple relative present- 

future participle, as they do likewise in the modern dialect, e. g. i^dfij, 

a worm that sucks (or abstracts) blood 

without causing pain. z^^s,h 3oJS&3X>v* aodo6, a horse which carries 


To e3^J the verb e*rto, to become, is frequently added, (when tfj is 
considered a verbal noun, see 204), e.g. ao^e ^sX&ori^o u^o 3of5>r< 

), 3o2^o^ado oidck >Sor1^o 23^)rto^ z5, about two months are required 

# tc- - ' 

for cotton pods to become full-grown and ripe. 


rw tfOok Zo^rbsiao, it is necessary for you henceforth to 

TT C3 

exert yourself to learn. ^0 ^ JV ^ djS3>S z2ec, S&e>3e>acj6, rT>ck 

thou must not (or shall not) utter falsehood, 

if thou utterest, I shall be obliged to punish tlice. c)rfo^j iw fcriJS z!e 

, Rama was (or is) wanted by all. w?^e> , ^t3o)rt ^j?o aSto 

n%, brother, a little grass was required for the calf. d>d^- 

t>3 zbM 33, ?jtfd wo^dd doused soSro^o &sz* z3?7>rt>3 B ^>, at 

>_> eJ Ty <a 

the very first it was (or used to be) necessary to pay postage according 

to the measured distance of the place to which letters had to go. 
c^c& 5^ .Sorttfortv* $<3f( 3&ti e3^>A%, you ought to have given 
(it) six months ago. aoefcrt 2v5cdo z3?^e)A^, how was it to be written? 
3oJS?rt 23?Tff308J^>, he had to go. zS^dido, that is needed, fy 
O^ d^* r s^o, he gave as much money as was desired. 

,, as much as is needed or required. ^TS^J siojsixOuort 3oJ3ert 

I must go to Bombay, 

these fruits are sour, therefore these have not become desired 
(by me), *. e. therefore I do not want these, y?^ z3?T?Je>? t3fffe)Aej, do 
you want (some) rice? It has not become wanted, i. e. I do not want 
(any). ^^ wtf^ zS^arkdaw, you need not come. Cf. No. 5. 

5, 'Must not' ('is not fit', 'shall not', 'should not', 'is not desired 
or wanted', cf. e3??rsr!odae-> , etc. under No. 4) is commonly expressed by 
( 209, note i; 212, 7; 301; and cf. No. e), e.g. aa^o.o -3-a*o,o 

& XT 

, one must not (or should not) say $S^xo ^, 
( 203). *a^ tod g3ed! <o^>^)?, 3JS^rlo, (thouj must not (or 
do not (cf. No. is) come this side! 0, go away! 
(thou) must not (or shalt not) use bad words. 
thou must not (or shalt not) lie. rfotfo, 3e^ t3^S, you must not (or 
should not) utter falsehood. =5-3^0 sira^o wc3 z5?d, ^a^Ozlrt 3J3?rt 
z3?rf, (thou) shalt not utter perverse words, (and) shalt not learn from 
rogues. feJ^rraSSc^ft 3&rt t2^, (thou) shalt not wander about as a 
deceiver, tforiod^ 3o^ ^d tS?d, eddo<Soio riooji d z3?d, (you) should 
not be behind a horse (and) should not be before a royal mansion. 
I do not want this. c&3 s3?^, (I) do not want anything. 


> sna ^ we cut some (f tne ) r ip e mango fruits? (No) it is 
not right, for they are not ours. 


is also preceded by the infinitive with final eso* or ese>o, e. g. 





The idea of eJ^cS can also bs expressed by the negative participle and 

the verb 'ado, to be, e.g. =$&&z>3\ sira^ado, 33e>, rt&PG&rarfftCto. 

< -a- 

See under No. 6 and 13. 

As frequently to z3^o (No. 4) so also occasionally to e3?d the verb 
is added, e.g. 

6, The English auxiliary 'ought not' ('is not becoming', 'must not', 
'should not', etc.; cf. Nos. is expressed by wadcto (the negative 
of zoo*, zotfo), e.g. ^5^0 (tSdef, =&>df) &3tf<&>, ^jadtfrfo.^, eni^0?o 
(one) ought not to pronounce (or should not pronounce) these 
=$J3do*) z3dtfo, ^J3d^o. dja^ddo ?ora rfjs^jrt^^ ^^ z^ddo, eminent 
persons ought not to listen to insignificant words, djs^ eradd =$>?o, a 
business that (one) ought not to do. ^do ^J3rso 3?1 ersdrfo, (one) should 

O C3 *> 

not steal and (thus) eat. doeJo. 3oJod siragD^ w)dcjj, without know- 
ing propriety (one) ought not to speak. 33 g'dOSjrt^ sjjs^o 03303 &3->d 
j3o ? (one) ought not to (or should not) transgress the word of (one's) 
parents. 3oz&rt> SJJSrf w->Cd>, (you) ought not to (or should not) commit 

theft, rfre 33^rfr{^f^ Sj^as ^ddo, (one) ought not to (or should not) 
torment little creatures. >& &>f( aJ?) :3e)drfj thou shouldst not o 

there. $^ zod arsdcSo, you are not .permitted to come. 

(you) must not remain here. ^>^ 33z& djsc^ wudrfj, we must not (or 

should not) steal. q5 Jrtdo Lti 


, (you) must not drawl 
in reading, when reading (you) should not hurry, (you) must not read 
too loud, (you) must not read too low. $k3 ^sj^ri^fsa s&ad tjadci), 

W ^ 

(you) ought not to do evil deeds, ^rf djsdrfddo erors We>dd.>, those 

that will not work (or have not worked) shall not eat. $deo3o 

20^3-3 ri jScsd 



The idea of aradcto may also be expressed by the negative participle and 
the verb 'adj, to be, e.g. 3^ <&<$ sfcs&rttf?^ ^aO,, you ought not to 
speak such words. See under Nos. 5 and is. 

7, The English auxiliary 'must not' ('ought not', 'is not fit') further 
is sometimes expressed by ^ac3cl>, e.g. e2c3?& *$&* ^JSrfd), (one) must 
not kill that, jj^o &&ert ^JS^cb, you must not go. 

), I shall allow thee to go to play with thy play-fellows, but thou 
must not loiter and come at night. 

8, The English auxiliary 'must not' ('ought not', 'is unfit', 'improper 
or forbidden') is not unfrequently expressed by esrtcii, e.g. i&t$, &$ tfsl? 

*v O 

o}?fo ?o>o3jo 3-&roSJdrfcl>, (one) must not spoil euphonic combination 
o - 9 

(for instance) by using -^ ^^ ( for 
a word that is unfit to be uttered. 

), (one) must not allow inimical women to enter palaces. 

), alas, (you) ought not to kill (it). ^^ aoJ^rt^ wrtcSo, you 
must not go. ofoadJS) a sodes'srtcj^, nobody must come here. (Cf. No. 11.) 

9, The English auxiliary 'ought' ('should'; cf. Nos. 3. 4) is also 

expressed by 33 uti (3tfj,c5o, fit, etc.), e.g. ^e^o 3oeri 5JJS3 ^,rfj, thou 

ought to do so. ?5^dj ^7^ wO ^^do, they should come here, 

CO ^" 

rt^^Oi ^ d?2ic3 S)A 3JO?^?o ^^sJOuSDd, they should sow and try those 

CO ^\ & q) ' 

seeds in this country, esrs 3rfo,>dJ &>ud ^o?s3J5w,do 2i,?A sJJ)^ ^,c5j, 

CO Q O IJ ^ 

brothers ought to love each other. 3^0 3J3?r1 ^g^as^, he should have 
gone. >^ vti^ft Soerl a?S3 ^^a^,, you ought to have told him so. 
?;!> W Sj^^ri^ S5f5^ 30A jsc3 ^a%, thou shouldst have returned 
that book to him long ago. 

'Ought not' ('should not') is, in this case, expressed by suffixing 'ao or 
*9>, e.g. ^of^. ^?1> 3oe)^ SJJ5i^ ^^,aat>, sister, thou shouldst not hav> 

*** Tf Q f* 1 

done so (see 298, s about ^t), and No. 2 of this ). ^35U Me)0f ^OJOTJ, 
& ^sSsiUsJFlx Jie^) ^JSrso ^JS^, ^aa^, you ought not to have bought 

v. (3 V TJ Ci co 

this almira at so high a price. ^^ 3oJ3?r( ^^>de>, thou ought not to 

rf- co 

go (see 300, i about w^>). See Nos. s. e. 7. s. is (*<). 


10, The English auxiliary 'may' ('is allowed', 'is possible', 4 is tit'. 
etc.) is expressed by waojci) (of :oo*), to come, e.g. ?sj &^ ^^ 2o3jjCX. 
you may (or are allowed to) come in. >??!> SJ>?rt U3ooc3o, thou uaayest 



(or art allowed to) go. <3sjoj d zosdorfo, you may stay with us. So^ftC 
203oJdo, it may be so. yi^^o ^ z^sJd ri$ol> *sd fcaood), he may be 
thy true friend. ?5d^ sls^ oiQ^JS rUi^d waoorio, his tale may 

(more or less) be known to all. g^d) 'a ^0$ d w^djrfj, you may sit here. 


2j6ad iisdjcl), he may have written this. 
, you might have given more than this. $5ddo 
eod 203c023e>A%, they might have come last year. 

Another way of expressing 'may' (in desire, wish, permission, expect- 
ation, or possibility) is by using the imperative ( 205, i; cf. No. H; 367), 
e.g. sSdddJSxs* So^craoioo ^rfrt^,, ma y the age which prevails in the veda 

Q 1J 

(i.e. one hundred years), become thine! essjo ^odotf, may he give! ysJo* 
slBSOS may they make! t?^o sisarfos^dj or w^o dj)0o d>, may he 

o oO 

make! or by using the suffix && ( 207, 2, a. 6), e.#. >3or? tfe^C9397lO, 
may you become happy! & ;3^F>3e>f$53) nj^ c ^)r(, may that news prove 

true! essS^j &d, may he come! na^ro, ^3s^J 3J3?riCo3:e), may I go, sir? 

), may I tell him so? 3o5>ri? wrt), may (it) 
become so (?'. e. so be it, very well)! wrt, may (it) become (i.e. be it, 
very well)! -ad, may it be (be it, very well)! or by using the contingent 
present-future tense ( 195), e.g. -dsrt fci^ejv'o, she may (i.e. is likely to) 


come now. <s,c$o >^C36 S5SJ zo^C3s)^o, if (he) learned to know this, father 
might beat (us). ^jsoJoo^e)^)^, rfoCO 3 20?) 5^0, it may rain this evening. 

o 63 

c3e>ffo w?33 zojS^j, if T come, I may come, i.e. I may come (perhaps 
I come). 

'May' in a question has also been expressed by a verbal noun, e. g. & 
3oJ3wdJ)^r\^ )S3) aSjft^2^A(tl^, may we (i. e. are we allowed to) cross 
this field? (regarding the form 3JS^js^ra see 205, s). 

11, The English auxiliary 'can' is expressed by toafocto, wtij^rf 
and other forms of the verb 200* (zodo, cf. No. io\ to come, preceded by 
the infinitive ending in ss or e3sx>, this last termination being put in the 
dative (ss^,), e. g. 5e>ra aoaoocjj, what can be seen. e5orra)tf g^cs^ci 
6 WorTe)^^, 3oJ8?r( eoaoorfj, if (there) is power in (one's) sole of the foot, 
(one) can go to Bengal. ^j3C3a^ tfidoiotfo. sSJ3C3 358^ wadod?, can 

O ^ ^ 

(one) throw out darkness with the bamboo fan? 

he can do work. 'acS^j 035c)do ^IraSd wao^dJ, who can have done 

this? $$f( LciO* ZJdolcS, I can read. $$f( &*)$.. wdo^ d I can 

IT tr 


swim. &3$A ^tfcdo tododdj, he can write. 3c&)3ort 35>e3>* 

S^, Hanumanta could jump. 

w o 

can we cross this field (i. e. is there a road for us to cross this field)? 

2o6o3o#, oiJ>Otf to^a^o, who can have written thisV 

Tf Q O 

'Can' is also expressed by the verb erto, e. g. & 

he can do this work. > 3 ^rio^d?, canst thou do it? 

r^ ^otts d 3ofc3 fl ^J^essl a?o z3?tfo, we should make happy others as 

much as we can. 

'Cannot' is expressed by the negative of wo* (sod)), e. g. t) 
'Sr, w>3dJ (or udodBw), that boy cannot write. yv>s3 
^tfs^f ?5 wo , such as cannot be uttered, are no letters. 


, that cannot he counted. (Cf. No. e.) 
'Cannot' is expressed also by the negative of e$rtj, e. y. 

rrortdo, I cannot do this work, ^do e5^?i ^O&P wrido, he cannot do 
o , -o 

this, ertdo, woS-JSo?, 3;& ^O^OP, alas, you cannot do it. 'Sfi ^)rcO 
c^0 tf^ SoJSfrbrfdo (or ^J8f^J8(C85JJ tJrido, I cannot go in such a heat 
of the sun (see also 315, 2, /). ^^ tf $&& ^rs^^rtdo, thou canst not 

^ O PO 

stay (or stand), d^^ OXJ^^&S 9 ^ v& ^JSOiJgSTsrido, (one) cannot cut 
a diamond with anything, ysj^ &&^(3^ ^{OMparili), ( one ) cannot 
tell his joy. wsj?jrf 3? ^^ yrii^aw (or wrtdo), he cannot do this work. 
a business that cannot be effected, t^dorl ^^oiod 3&e>r 
^crartdj, without the knowledge of God we can never 
do (anything). (Cf. No. 8.) 

' Cannot' may further be expressed by tfja&cto (cf. No. 7), e.g. tufSoSJSd 


oio zjaoodo, dfle sJorf^JS^oJo ^JSc^do, (one) can break a rock, (but) 


cannot break the mind of a whore. soS^^oSod O w>3 2J3codo, t^^P >ij 

CJ co 

?o05^?d ^J8^do, (one) can live where familiar intercourse is, (but) cannot 
stand the trouble of cold. aSpj^ ^JSdd^o. 3 e^CeiAcS, so much pain as 

6J co 

cannot be told has befallen (me). 

For 'cannot' ?oo (see Dictionary) in combination with eso is also 
occasionally used, e.g. w sjojadd ^js^)^ 3o?Cs3ae>?oe> , (one) cannot tell 


the lamentation of those three. 

There are some special terms in Kannada which directly denote 'to can', viz. 
a) e9C5, e.g. <&aoka* e&^okd .$&& se^oiod adr^ C)dsJoJS^c3 
, if (a man) cannot speak (and) cannot hear, he is called dumb 


- 340 

and deal', dojsajrtfo *?3roi)^ rte^rio 4 es&^Oootfo, fools cannot gain 

6) es&S*, e. g. $ft wSUSo"' wrlo" W3Jr6 nei^oa 4 , can rustics become 
abler than I? aoj^orfdo wqJrrfrf rf.3o?o5* wCSOo, the boys cannot under- 

stand the meaning. 3J3 Sofi>sreo. *$$fi, ?raa<oo* wet 3 f^o, I have gold 

(and other) property, I cannot die. ^e>^o SoJS^rteraSS 3 ?^, I cannot go. 
3rfS3 Os&rfo^j. cra?i> ^ori ao^o ^^grsS5 s rfo. I cannot tell you more 

"& Zy 

about it. Je3s3* 6 (= r6) 3oJ3clo&>rto, if (thou) canst pay, become 
a surety, ijatfji) Tfs^rtrf sirej3o>rk, a valiant man can fight, 

, we cannot hide anything from God. 

sl, he who cannot write is inferior to one 
who feeds sheep. 

c) we, e. ?. ^JS^ra ww dl sSecSdjSJB^a sirfw^, can the male buffalo 
recite the vedas? ^5^0 -^!?o 2os3^o, I can swim. ?3^^o tododj uwrfj, 


he can write, ^art^o riR^rW?^ rfrlr?o 200 do, poets can depict objects. 
12, The English auxiliary verb 'will' when it implies a simple 
futurity (cf. No a), is expressed by the future tense in Ka'nnada, e. g. 
or ^J3^od^o, he will give. ^o^oDo* or ^jsr&ao, you will give. 
0,0 or ?5^o, or artorfcSo, it will become ( 200. 203). The future 'will 

o o" 

not' is expressed by the negative, e.g. ^o^o or ^JS^^o, he will not give; 
or by a verbal noun to which <ae; is suffixed, e. g. ^^ ^J^cijrfao , you 
will not give ( 209. 298, 3). 

Regarding the suffix 'sto in its connection with the dative of a verbal 
noun ending in est>J (wo*, 298) it is to be remarked that South-Mahratta 
people, at least sometimes, attach the idea of doubt (samsaya, Nudigattu 
p. 135) to it, e.g. ?5^^o <$$ ^6a3o>3\w , he is not to invite me (to dinner), 

*\. -jj 1 CO 

i. e. he will (probably) not invite me. w^ erora O^w, she is not to eat, i. e. 

re tr^ 
she will (probably) not eat. Other instances chosen at random from 

S.-Mhr. shool-books, may, or may not, express doubt: 

V T3 

See also some instances in 

298, 3, and c/. No. 2 in the present paragraph. 

The English verb 'to will', 'to be pleased', 'to desire' is expressed by 
ZoO* of which fte3o), toe3^o, tce3, vulgarly s^e3 I will not, and other 

^ M ' 0^ CO CO 

persons of the negative are in every body's mouth, e. g. eror&ee3(& or 


vors de3, I will not eat. $>&&&&& or tfjszS 3<L>, he will not give. 

03 W' ro 

0(^&A>{b or T?^ d^>do, they will not hear. 

13, The English auxiliary verbal forms 'does not', 'do not', 'did not' 
are expressed by the negative or a verbal noun with -3,^ , e. g. 2j6c&o, 
I do (or did) not write. &$? e53 9 ol>o, I do (or did) not know, w^o 
^JSdo, he does (or did) not make. &3edo fcd-i^aw, Soma does not 
come. tcrs^o3j> flea's-, We>do, why does Bacayya not come here? 

wd>e>, why did the boys not come to play? 



, do not cry (cf. No. s). Also the following way of expression 
(see under Nos. 5 and e) is to be paid attention to: to5 9 d acJSs^ tftfoij 
ado; x>?l3s>3 s&s^ado, do not spend (your) time idly! do not desire 
great things! 

The English 'does', 'do', 'did' in questions is expressed as follows: 

did he become dishonest? 

The writ on his forehead will be wiped out. sssj^o zo do 3?^ ?&>, does he 

come? wdr& zorf^JS^, did he come? ys^j erxoOrt a^^rtos^-^fi), does 

he go abroad? ^?1^^ Zo^aoi:^, S5f5) , brother, didst thou break the 
looking-glass? &3$r ^p^do, why did he go? e^kre, rfodj^jOj.rtv* 

T3 O W 

risl^rtrWto** ii^ ^^riJSrss^) ^^rSo^ao, alas, why did the mad black 
bees become inimical to campaka trees? o3J3^ 20^ do, why did they 
come? otostf SoJS^rtj^^d^, father, why do you go? A)?3, oi3e>= wlSo 

Site, why doest thou weep? Did somebody 

beat thee? iOrf 2j?d o, whence did he come? 


who did kill Mura? w rfo^oio^o, ^0 Oi3e>s:-)r1 FSJSe^a, when did you 

see that sparrow? ws^o 3J3^rl)ddo i0ri, whither does he go? 


v>3&> 033)^, why did you come? ^jj v>$ ^-sdre^e^o, why did you 

^0 O 


The English 'do' in connection with the imperative, as l do write!', 
may be expressed in Kannada by the simple imperative or by its 
repetition, e.g. wo! or 206 u8!, zo6o3oO! or ^6o&>0 zodc&oo! 

14, When the English 'let' is used as an auxiliary in the imper- 
ative, denoting 'exhortation', etc., it is expressed simply by the imperative 
( 205; cf. No. 10-, see 367), e.g. rto3o, let (him) do! ^3, let (him) 
go! gsrtosjo, let us attack! en)&&s3, let us utter! ^oiood, let us 
walk! aojs^^^ra, let us go! 

- 342 

Compare also the forms with 55 of the mediaeval and modern dialect 
in 207, 2, a. b. 

The English verb 'to let', i. e. 'to allow', 'to permit', is expressed by 
the verbs gr, to give, etc.; &ci>, to give, etc.-, and by their causatives 
( 151) &T& and &/sQ&>. The first syllable of &&> is exceptionally 
shortened by some writers so tbat it becomes QT& (in imitation of 
Telugu *SL^O, to permit, of its &, to give; cf. 151, b, 3). 


The mediaeval dialect has, e.g. ?d 3oOo3osj -dscriod 



a structure which does not allow water to flow, is called 

adhara (dam); and ^d)rV es> sj^e) o3o v>o fteoSoej* ^eSo, the trees 

r\ c\ 
there do not let (their) ripe fruits and nuts fail. -g??oo occasionally 

occurs also in the modern dialect, e. g. ?fo^$S3e>A 35e>t>j Q' 
a cow that allows itself to be milked with ease. S3s3;3o 
he does not allow me to come. Thus also does a^j, e.g 
he does not let him enter. 

The modern dialect generally uses ^J3^o and ^js&Zoo, e. g. 

-^JS^o), let him go (or allow him to go)! 
he does not let me come, f^.rfa a ?iw7^J3a?oj, let me stav 

C <=L co v co 

here! ey ^ociod oiJstf^J^ ^?^ ao^d wdrijaa^Joda^ (or sjd^js^osja^), 
that horse lets no one come near it. 5ort^c3sj> rf> So^ >Oe>rt> aJ3e;^o 


'S.dAjad tjsrfdo, one ought not to let filth lie either in front of a house 
or in (its) back-yard. See an instance under No. 7. 

Also the verb ci>, to let loose, has been used in the mediaeval and 
modern dialect for 'to let' in instances like the following: 
SoJS^rt >&, let the cattle go! c^c^ 5o-?rt zi>, let me go! s 
o2o, ^oao&3ste$rfja fi)rf, ne neither drinks himself nor lets him who will 
drink (do so). 

15, It is still to be mentioned that the English 'ought not' ('is im- 
proper', cf. 33U3o under No. 9) is also expressed by ?ow ( 209, note i) 

Tf PO ro 

preceded by an infinitive generally ending in e$, e. g. rtado 

Se; (Dasapada 157), (one) ought not to abuse those that are 


(one's) guru and elders; a very handsome woman ought not to become 
the wife of a blind man ; (one) ought not to court the friendship of 



On either or ( 317); neither nor ($ HIS); whether -or ($ 319); 
the the (320); as as (321); for ($322); namely, as 
follows ( 323); what is that? ( 324); what happened? 
( 325); in this manner ( 326); as so ( 327); how much 
-so much, how many so many (328); when? (329); 
who -he, etc. (330). 

317. In the ancient dialect 'either or' is expressed by ts$ es??,, lit. 

be it be it ( 205, i; ef. 316, Nos. 10. u), e. g. e3rtrs 
rfdc&?<irttzi eoriortsd siwcS rV 

oJ O If 

rtee>dsl3 53=5;, 3$^j 9^0,0, when (there) are nominal 

TS "a 

themes that end in 1, 1, r or r and have their first (syllable) short in 
the back part (i. e. in the beginning), slackness ( 240) takes place 
either before rts?* or further before the ft of the dative; or also by 
5oko, as appears in 292. 

As has been remarked in 207, 2, b, the modern dialect uses 
, lit. be it be it, to express 'either or', e. g. ^d^j, 

z3^J, either thou or he must do this, $& S3e>d 
3J33kje)do, they may start either on Friday or Saturday. 
e^rtC) $$ft ^do a y^floSj^ ^ra^e^j, either good or bad your 
command is agreeable to me. Tff?rtri;3>rt> $3ft t3?5e)dd> do 
buy either paper or whatever thou wantest. 

o re 

,, if at night either cats or the young of cats are met (by 

them), owls will peck (their) eyes and kill them. 33 

o3o ^3s!OJJ ^oScdoos's 8, either for vomiting or for bile they drink 

*T ^ 

a decoction of cinnamon, 

Q O 

dvX), a present got either by 
having done service in an excellent manner or by having afforded 
friendly aid to others, 

si 53-33 5lrado3 n c5do, they used to travel abroad 

v_; -o o 

either on foot or on horseback or also by means of carriages. 

. e. 


, such people will subsist eithor having entered 
the house (i. e. by living in the house) of relations or by what has been 


acquired by (their) fathers. ASrftfo sjjdrte* SoJ3C$u3ort$23e>rt) 
rUedctfj adotforttferart rU)^: sel T&orej 'adoisS, parrots build their 

co 6J <3 

nests and live either in tufts of trees or fissures of dilapidated walls. 

weo 9 ^ j^dafctfo. za?&*rteatfrrart z*?wrt^ft^n^rt6 ^OAS^S, then 

"Q* \ CO tO "" 

they fill the sugar either into boxes or sacks. ofoocS sJJsdosJCm'exh 
.sJzS dj?odo&e>rt) ^JScfcS'&jsi.tfcJ &?e>tlo3Sdrt> eoisiorioJo 3oti>rtz2 

B A A J 

fe3,dos3 sJOcS, a building that has been erected either on an open 
hall or on a bastion of a fort or behind a palace for the purpose of 
warring, eruraj 3ti3, kjo2o&s)rt vora sSo^sjsri d^rfdrl), 

ro o cs "^ 

praise God either before (thou) eatest or after (thou) hast eaten. 

As will be learned from the instance quoted above (^srirfsra 
23e^5Cick s&l^^tjri&fc wri &OC3J ^J8?) wrt wri (be it be it) is 
constructed, as might appear, with the nominative after a transitive 
verb; but sentences in which the accusative occurs in such a case, are 
not rare, e. g. eos3J3^So^ 3ow^s3)rttfo S5(3>o3o do^Ad dj^s^d^ri 
rt ^ooriosJS^), occasionally boas will swallow either people 

that have reclined in the jungle or calves, jys^j >^ri ^^c3 >?! ^^^ 
rf^rtO ^>r1ddc5-3.ri ^^JS,ra6 ^j ?oodj,^ 'adoDoSjs?, if I, without 

\. *T o CS s 

telling thee, take away either thy book or paper, shalt thou remain 
quiet? Regarding this see what has been stated in 287, remark. 

The Rev. Mr. Hodson, according to 287, remark, has used wcSdJS 
yrfdjs also in the sense of 'either or'. He has the following additional 

sentence: & tf^^ddJ?) e> ?3tfff3jC$dJS 3oJS>ert dezi do not go to either 

9 TT <a -rf- 

this place or that. 

318- The English 'neither nor' may be expressed by the copulatives 
0)o, 9o and eo/9-( 284 se#.) followed by a negative, e. #. ^dri ^ejsj^o 
o3i dood^ 'S.o , for the worship of idols (there) is neither fruit nor 
flower, ssddosjjstf 'addodoo 3JOepC)?j^o, he disrespects neither those nor 
these persons. &irA w^oiojo ^ras^^oJojdj'" Qv , she has neither a sense 
of shame nor modesty. 

in his bundle (there) was neither pen nor paper. 

rfo^ffrt De)fcioOe;, neither in that nor in this manner (there) is a kingdom 
for the children of Kunti. SD^JS 3oao3o, ^oaoJoJSJd^r(J3 fi)rf, he neither 
drinks himself nor lets him who will drink (do so), y^o ador1J3 3oCj 
ti5fli, Doe>3rU) 3od&3^o, he fears neither tigers nor snakes, 


, ?3CjJvU>. ,7>^)rfo^a^>, he will do neither this nor that 

i" tJ ***" 

ew, d^cS dors s&odJ* ?3s;, Wf2o3je, it is neither a hill 
*> v ft f* 1 



nor the headless body of a demon, (but) an elephant, 

ao^^a ww, so&ojj 3Jfc3.o3of, it is neither a rope nor a snake, (but) :i 

long piece of cloth. <acSo tfrfojciab S5^, ^aoJoJ8 ew, 35 s oi>e, this is 

^-/ OO CO' 

neither a sea nor a river, (but) a lake (Hodson). ^ 835k;to6rtJ3e 


O&w, WidOri So^s;, )^s3?, these are neither balls of white sugar nor 

co' ro co' * 

fallen out teeth, (but) hail-stones. 

319. The English 'whether or' may be expressed by a,d, esrf and w8, 
'if, in combination with the copulatives eso and e/u, for which see the 
instances in 287, 8. 

In the verse quoted below the five times repeated &&&&&*) (=wz3> 
do&J?), wdtfjs) may be translated * though' (see 287, B, 6), but whether 
or' would also not be wrong: 


"whether he gives (you) riches, or eats together (with you), or also gives 
his own daughters, or follows and joins (you) without weariness, or utters 
novel wisdom, it is proper to keep down a hostile king" said that Sakuni. 
Cf. 334. 

Another way of rendering 'whether or' occurs in the following 
modern sentence wherein 'add 'S.dd, be it be it, is used: ?ra?l) 

whether I 

have committed, or have not committed, a fault. I have to honour the 

command of Badasaha. 

320. The English 'the the' before comparatives ran be expressed only 
by paraphrasing, see e. g. the ancient instance quoted in 303, 2, a. South- 
Mahratta school-book instances are e.g. the following: ^^j efsp^c^ 

you study, the more you will learn. ssa^zSjatfftfS 'tfrjdo 3rt ^rld 



, the more (they) remove the impurities of the 

u < 

syrup, the whiter the sugar will become, aodrf^ ^o^ra^, 20^ 2o3 5oD^ 

"o" O Q 

ZjJ^rffto 3^3$ T^fl 'Su3 9 c3r3 B ^KO^d, the more a ship approaches the 
south, the more the polar star seems to go down. 

321. The English <as as' may be expressed as follows: 
^3\p, this man (is) as deserving as that man ( 348, H). 

TJ ~-~ 

rio >3i> rl^o&do ^^J^ON, doest thou know archery as well as Drona? 

(cf. 284 under dative). tO^^o^ 

Yudhishthira lavished as much as he had. 

having given betel as much as possible. t3j3fc3.^>3o Sjj^doo S^A), having 

applied as much ashes as a (forehead) circlet, ^o.d^ 2&JS?lo 

=^.0 TJ <* 

do I not pour out gold as high as thou art? vS^fS ^e)OS,) sod 
^r^3Slo. cSjSc^cTOrljrfs^), poppy pods become, by degrees, as large as 
balls. $Je)3or3Je)d <03o. dz^.^j 'S&le^So^ ^3 OJJ y^rci^j escS, the diamond 
called Cohinor is as large as the half of a hen's egg. 

6, with the king of Portugal there is a large diamond; 
people say there is no diamond on the whole earth as large as that. 
S5djl) 3?l3S!o. wd^^j, he (is) as poor as I. & sjj5)>r$ 3o?w ^^,60^0^0, 

C 5*J *3 "o *** 

^0, this ripe mango is as sweet as sugar. ^Q^?^, as far as this 
place. do, rfj?3e ^r^ wdj^?^, I come as far as your house. ;ys$>F 

l as far as the ocean. ^j?3 sjooej, v>3 & he came as far as the 
' w o 

house. ^o3je>d do^^, as much as possible. 

CO ftj 

as long as I live. ^oa^do, as far as the end. &)ddrt, as far as 
the ear. S3d?oO ejfse>rte3^ SovOiSkido, as soon as the king came, they 
started. t ska rfooijo,^ e3, as soon as that news arrived, e^rfo 

o eJ- 

3, as soon as it saw him. A0o3o?2 )rJ do i&d^Oak 


, (he is) as big as a hill, as strong as an elephant 

of the gods, as deep as the ocean. &J)o&eL^{a ( ^atfcra^, he (is) as 

liberal as Bali. s3o;3o3J?)tftf 'adod^do, as many persons as are in the 


house. sijSS^y^, 3$ =ffe)^?$o, =#J3r30 $&&&, he bought as much 

grain as was brought for sale, wdjl) oi3^o. pp%o^^CJ9rSjd$, 553^0 

50 ,^ Q (J A 


e) ?2, he is as virtuous as he is learned. See an instance in 
327 (d>!3 'e3oo3o&>?& etc.). 

'Such as* is expressed as follows: rtfSrfc uodi?io^?d tfo, such a 

cv - 90 


wife as a husband desires, sirartr wti aorfc'ortvb, such as know the 


(proper) way. >r^?3 3e>o&j, such a mother as thou. 

'Not so as' is expressed by adding the negative e5^ (see 300, 
e. g. wsjtfo t^ 3 ^ ejzirf?to, he (is) not so poor as I. erfo sirartr 
, he (is) not such a one as knows the (proper) way. 

,r 2J3f2to,, the elder brother (is) not so clever as (his) younger 

322. In 302, i o&s)^ 6, why if I say, i. e. for, because, has been 


introduced. It may be added that SrsdeasS^pJ 3, the reason (or cause) 

what, if I say (or one says), and : 5a>drao3?5JQ>o8j3oJ6, the reason (or 


cause) what has it become (or what is it), if I say (or one says), are 
similarly used, e. y. 

r * > 

VldC9$t(&3 (3, parents must teach good conduct to their 


children from (their) youth, for . 


,3 " O 

l3, death appears preferable to a life without 

honour, for . 

?5e)0ao^^6, Tulapura means the town of weight [lit. Tulapura, if (one) 
says, is town of weight]; what was the cause that it got this name? 
(or why did it get this name?) . Regarding the verbs e5$* and 0}$* 
see 331 seq. 

323. If a writer or speaker wants to adduce something that is or was 
said or that happens or happened, the English 'namely', 'as follows' are 
expressed by adding >$$J3> rf, $3 6, if I say (or one says) what, to the 

pronoun esd), or to a conjugated verb, or to a verbal noun, e. g. 
clfSzl or wz3?^6, that is to say. 3oo^ort^o ^Stfus^, >cW6, the 
boy speaks as follows. rt;dorttfo 3f$f( w^f! s&s>an^6, C>r^6, the 
guru has given me the following command. &,u ^.eoo^fi) wsdjirt 

t<0 *v 

zj^ojor Soe^ri^o, >r^3, a certain friend gave (lit. told) him courage 
with the following words , w Wij^o^orlri) 3o^ 9 c3^r3 6, what that prince 

O O 

said was this (or that prince spoke as follows). 

^S, Mr. HvaranAtha spoke as follows, 

N^6, the guru instructed him as follows . 

oSozS^rfriS, what the mendicant represented respectfully to the judge was 

this . e3C35 9 f3 wrtorfc3^36, thereby happens the following . 3tSo 

O O 

^ 6, afterwards (there) happened the following . C/. 3'J5. 


To this class belong also oJjddcW 6, which (thing, etc.) if I say (or 
one says) . tfS^sScSJSd, which (things, etc.) if 1 say. 


which woman if I say . ad?3J3ct or o&Ddcd6, who if I say . 

ari 3of?o rto ^JS^ wcdoo o^,$ddo, efddo o&>d?36, Dasaratha had 
PS a o -o o o 

five children including females and males, they are the following. 

324. 'What is that?' may be expressed by $3^6^, if I say (or one 
says) what, e.g. gs&^, $$f\ rfrf estf 3?j flj3jz3o8je>?, brother, do you 
know what cattle are? y^ tJfl? ^>J . esrf $?&, e$33> , they (are) hail- 
stones (the father says). What is that, father? tfjs^d e3?3 6^j, what 
is a gopura? 

325. 'What happened?' (cf. 323), if followed by an answer of the writer 
or speaker himself, may be expressed by k^oJOfo^odd, ^ * sa y ( or one sa .y s ) 

what happened, e. g. dtf&rsjari ij^DOSo^ 6, what happened through bad 
luck? . ess^&f^JS^rle D03j^?i 6, what happened meanwhile? . 

326. If a writer or speaker wants to tell the manner in which something 
is or was done or how something is or was, the English 'in this manner', 
'in the following manner' is expressed by <0c3 n c3jsc3, 3ortoJ6. ao 

9 O O 

how if I say (or one says), e. g. ^d^^^sJocloSo^ g^drsrioo 

e3cS?J rift zS. he told (i.e. wrote) the treatise called Vivekacintarnani in 

-o a 
the following manner . j&azSrttfiiy sissdorfrfo SoeJorftfd needles ave 

-U CJ 

made in this manner . 7^^} zx$ cjj aoe)r1rf 6 we came in this manner . 

00 -0 O ' 

i,rttfo c^cS 35e)^o ^J3?Jdorl^^ wdo^o^sS 3o?ri^6, cats live con- 
tinually (by stealth) on milk and curds in this manner . tJ^ 
ood So^ri^d, the way of refining gold is the following. 


53e)D>ddj 33s>ori^ 6, they got out of (their) strait in this manner . 

3? >3^cdoci> fcji> tfqtoorcj, ao?rt^d, regarding this (there) is a story 
ea w <b o ' 

(I shall tell) in the following manner . 

Instead of suffixing 1*$, if, to <o?l^, how, the ancient and mediaeval 
dialect frequently suffixes }$, when I say (one says), to it, e. g. <$ =&$ 

r^fS, that story (is told) in the following manner . sscSr^lS, it is thus . 
o^rS, that dogma is as follows . 

327. The English 'as so' is expressed in Kannada by an interrogative 
of manner followed by a demonstrative of manner, e. g. 

, as (lit. how) is rash, so he made (=32Jo ;lra<3c5o). 
&3 o, as is faultless, so he spoke (= 


33?3o). oSjo^riaoortaojdadofl, as is according to fitness, so (= 

l, as is fit, so (=o3oq3e>?oo). ?3^33) 333* ^3ortsort, as 

the remembrance (is), so. 

rU/fl Oaaoodj ^jJ-ecSo^c, is it a wonder that as the devotee thinks, so 

Siva will graciously assume that form (i. e. such a form Siva will gra- 
ciously assume)? $$ ^ort^ && a?rt d3r?j z3^J3f, sosrt ^^d ?ior(z 
o^tfo (3rf &?, as thou wouldst that others should behave towards thee, 
so behave thou towards others. sSo^ zksi^ wadd $$f( aoe^rt Ajfejo 
2odoc!dJ3e, ao->tf W^?rU> wdj^d, as thou becomest angry, if (one) beats 
thee quite causelessly, so does a cow too. $tff( So?vfl 

j?, wrlo^ c3 as thou feelest pain, so does this fly too. 


ao^ri do^7e>W&?i 8rte?i> ^^rt^o ww, as fishes 

*0 oO ro 

cannot leave the water and live, so are frogs not at all. 


, as clay (is the material cause) for a pot, so (one) must consider 
(it) to be a substance which is the material cause for the origin of sounds 
as represented by letters. 

o a 


ta fid s^ajo^o ?3e)^Se)rioddo, as a stack that is piled 
. < v 

up as high as a big hill, if one spark flies from a fire and falls (upon it), 
burns and is reduced to ashes in half a moment, even so all happiness 
of (one's) life is destroyed by a small act done (lit. that one does) in 
violent passion. $t$t <&$ 3oee3 vldorral>3Cj3 


dJ3 ea-do* ^ei^orfa^, as an ant that walks about on an orange, though 
it comes from above to the bottom, does not roll down (from it), even 
so does also a man on the earth not roll down. 

328. The English 'how much so much', 'how many so many' is ex- 
pressed by an interrogative noun of indefinite quantity ( 278, s) followed by 
such a demonstrative noun, e.g. *jdd Zd d3o3J2v* tfOrt^^^e^JStf, 
elephants how many, even in so many (places there occurs) a number of 
suras in union (i. e. seven times ^uu; Chandas under kusumasara). 

t? sj^dJS^ osSj ^oioo rts?* 



o A) 

>?!> s&^rtv* erc3o)3co ci>o ^J3^o, how many arrows the warriors 

O rO o 

shot, so many arrows he caused to appear in the body of those valiant 
men; how many weapons entered that force, so many weapons he stopped 
altogether by cutting (them down); how many elephants (and) horses 
attacked, so many he split; how many chariots came on with impetuosity, 
the vehemence of so many he broke; how many people rushed on, even 
so many he killed. && SoQrfs?* eSe^o, >3rto3o^ -gssSo, how many horses 
(thou) wantest, so many I shall give thee. s^^j^ S3&F?l)3d^o 33 


5&Jto0f$3f&f|,j3w.^5^$cd) 13333 ?odo&>e;o, when he was offering 
sandalwood, (and) his capital how much it was, (so much, w?oo, which 
is to be supplied) was spent all in succession for the saudalwood. 

d/sd craOcrfo^Ok ^ctodoo* wSidU)?, es3l>, djsdri 

t eJ 

, how much far (i. e, how far) a horse can journey in a day, so much 

(i.e. so) distant a road (=w^tf). o?2o3o 



how much we laugh at the custom of the Egyptians to have (their) whole 
body shaved, if a dog dies in the house, even so much foreigners laugh 
when they see that in our country a woman whose husband has died, 
has (her) head shaved. 

, . , . 

ero eJ ty eo 

how much money we have, so much calculation we have. 

329. Where a relative participle with a demonstrative adverb of 
time, as zodo^ejrt (&Co^+wrt), when I come, when thou comest, when 
he, she, it comes, when we, you, they come ( 282, i), is commonly used, 
the 'when' is occasionally expressed by an interrogative adverb of time followed 
by a demonstrative one, e. g. ^ o&33>ri ^)clo3o?i 30ft 


,. 0, when you come back from Pune, visit him. 

u V 

JOftaciosjdJSe, wri aOorradO^ 3oJ3?rt 2J3ooc3j, when thou 
hast prepared thy lesson, thou mayest go out for a walk. This is, so to 
say, an imitation of Sariiskrita oJons, when, and its correlative 
then. Cy: the close of 330. 

330. Regarding the translation into English of the relative past 
participle followed by nouns and demonstrative pronouns see 179. 254, 
and regarding that of the relative present-future participle followed by 


such terms 186. 254. Cf. 363. 364. In 282 the use of those 
participles in connection with adverbs .has been adduced. 

It remains to refer to $ 267 in which it has been stated that 
it might appear, as if there existed relative pronouns and their correla- 
tives in Kannada (just as in Sariiskrita). That such an appearance is not 
based upon idiom, has been indicated in that place, though in English the 
instances given there, would natural I} 7 suggest the existence of relatives 
and their correlatives, e.g. 'who he', 'who she', etc. However the 
pronouns resembling relative ones are interrogates, and the correlatives 
are demonstratives, and therefore the instances quoted in 267 and some 
additional ones in this paragraph are literally to be translated as 

follows: qStfs&otf^ wrfc^? w^F? ^N o, who (is) a rich man? he indeed 
(is) a prince (in English: who is a rich man, he indeed is a prince, or a 

rich man is a prince indeed). ^JSo&rf 23* wsJorjeiS'o ^o^jd^o who 

CO M ' 

has an (always) bent bow? he (is) Kama. zo^dFSda^d^ 

who (is) the man that only once contemplates joyfully in (his) mind the 
three syllables Ba-sa-va? the lotus of his countenance indeed will remain 
steady. jc3o3J3v* yrf^j f3?2dj3 ^doo^s^*? estfjsS 330 20^3-30^0, who 
does think of us in his heart? (Siva asks) that one (or he) even is a part 
of Basava. ys3v* ri^si^odiSJS? 5JJ3&, who is a wife faithful to her 

\^S 'Q 

husband? she indeed is a venerable woman. 

fi), who does work? he shall have a dinner. 


53JKkrf?Sj8{? S3s3?i) rioaj sidose^, who does perform virtuous* 
actions? he is happy, 

what man does desire welfare? he must be kind to all men as much as 
possible. oira33?i> aorio^odd^j, rtaj^cte%ho3o? waotfsraft 3J3S3:1>3!> 

*C CO "0" ^* 

?2j3^? *3f$ djdo w^rOj^ P, who does frequently march out with the very 
purpose of overcoming an enemy? such a one is an abhyaniitrya. 

WS^d) dJs)rfe;* ^adoddisS ^doro, what is that towards which an 
activity is directed? even that is the object (see 315, 2, 7)?). 

, what is in customary usage? even that is fit. 

s575)d)C$o? wrfo d^r^o&o, what is beautiful? that is worthy of 

being seen, wqrado 3a>cS" ^)uio? wdo w^tfdrso, what is location? that 
(forms) the sense of the locative case. 


k^o 203oJX?3o ^rtotfoo, what is a combination of mutual action? 

there also a bahuvrihi compound ( 249) is formed. tJ?2o3o doosija rts3) 

o3Je>3dJt>?? S2d> rf^2pe>rl, what is an elephant's forepart? that (is) the 

dantabhaga. oirad zSfaJd fci^d) >&> ^>0ujo3a^ dp?? e d^tf ^SJ. 

CO '0 W f <Q 

>&>)>. in what country do people not study science? in that country 


(there) is no happy state, 

, in what manner do they desire that others should 


treat them? in that very manner they should treat others. 

who are 

some friends of the bridegroom? they are called janyas. 

ojjsdo ^f#,^6j?)^? e?^rfrf^o, Jifi 4^ So ^ D ) ^ WDrio, who (are) fit for thee to 

If S> "* "t *\. 

trust? such people choose for thy friends! 

^^or?-s4^) 5ktftfe3>5$;3)? es-iW 9 ^ S3dc3* woijo,*^J3.o, which (pearls) 

Ty TX v 

do suit you? them choose with pleasure! (See 271.) 

Such sentences appear to have originally been formed in imitation of 
Samskrita ones with the relatives 0&>C3<, o&s>^C3*, ofojpe) and their cor- 
relatives ^D*, 3)dn*, ^zp> (cf. 329). Their translation, as given above, 
can be easily changed into proper English. 

XXII, On the verbs A& and ^^. 

331. In 302, 7; 322. 323. 324. 325. 326 the peculiar use of the verbs 

oic3 (*}(&, ojfkj, -ic3* (53cii, ^rf^) to sav ' wnen tneir P ast relative 
participle (in the sense of the present) is in combination with ^d, (SSK), 
and ^6 and an interrogative 

been introduced. 

It appears from those paragraphs that if a person wants to state the 
reason (or cause) of something he writes or speaks about, if a writer or 
speaker adduces something that is or was said or that happens or 
happened, if a writer or speaker is going to answer a question put by 
himself, and if a speaker or writer wants to tell the manner in which 
something is or was done or how something is or was, those verbs in the 
mentioned combination are employed. 

332. Before expatiating on the other use made of the verbs <3$ f and 
we have to give their past participles oic&>, WE& ( 155) and their 

- 353 - 

substitutes o^ and &$, ( 172 and 198, :, remark i), as the said verbs 
are often followed by AfS*, 053*, e/u&o* (erosJoo*), cfca, Sue^* or aoe!^, 
(occasionally also Zod) combined with their past participles, for we may 
say either 3ja?foo, 3J3?2&>, toJSjfc; or also 

o, all meaning 
'he said I gave' or 'he said I will give'. 

It may be said about the use of ^^s 6 and es^s* in their simple and 
combined form that they generally introduce a statement by words or on 
paper (or on cadjan leaves, copper plates and stone tablets), this being 
either a statement made by somebody regarding himself or another, or one of 
what another has said or written, or one of command, or one of message, 
when it may be said to answer to the English conjunction 'that' or the 
quotation marks in English, e.g. ^jsrt^o ^32^* oiF^s 5 *, she said "I bring 

O O 

flowers". tjf3* 'acSo sfe>^ ^ O^NO, he said "I shall do this". &^pd 
, they said "if (you) give, you (are) good ones". 

he said "sir, you (are) a great hero and fear nobody", and (thus) praised 
him. wrt ^o3o4 ^cSo tfrf. srawj, ^r^ri ^00^,^0 e^ ^J, then the lion said 

C gj CO 

l this (is) my share, it fell to me". 3oo?3 tfrf, rt3 3oerriaei^o, ^rt ?!?1 

o ^ o ^ 

q3)oridO zod^, it did not come to my mind at that time that hereafter 
my fate would become thus, ^^o w eruaOri 

he said "I go to that town and return", and started. 55=3^, 


, "elder sister," prayed she, "kindly give me a drop of honey! 


God will make thee happy", sjdd sSj^ dJ5ac5 tfu^tee^ 

SDh atft frto^DtS rfo , 53otfA)?2j3tfrt ^sioJo rfjsa ^JSrsjio, he arrived at tlu- 

CO Q' A) V j C3 

certain decision that help afforded to others would never be in vain. 

oJ O 

, "ha, what is this?" cried he, "in this ^tra\\ there appears a 
deer to be hidden", 


it appears that death is preferable to a dishonorable life, 

0dotf3cy' -dsclrfv* ^Nj 

, when they told (the king) that tlio florist, say- 

ing "she tasted the flower (and) fragrance with which Kara should Iv 
worshipped", cut off the nose of this queen at that moment. ;^ 



tftfrt ^D> 3s?c&>^> }&, w^j^rtatfoaorf es^^o, he said hastily 

"the meaning of your word is perfectly known to me". 
3fa^stee>dres3o?5 , sS^es* tfucl^e>3c, having said even "this worldly 
existence-removing-story (shall become) a cause of pleasure for the ear", 
I endeavoured to tell (it). a adrerftfj, ^?o &>r?o 
she said "he took all the money and went away". 

3o?0 9 C>dJ, they told me that the decision thou madest, 


was not proper, B 

the ox said "thou canst not be saved from his hand". 


o ?ta&do, " I shall certainly give" king Simhala said. 


tfa <o^, ^J-S-ed^o 3^ 9 rf^o, Phakira said "uncle, thou 
didst call me", a ^JS^orte ^^ ^^0! $)& "a^Jl^fix 

^fS S3?l>o, when it (the wolf) said (to the wild hog) "give 
up anxious thought as to those (your) little ones! I shall sit near (them) 
guarding them with care". 33^0 s&ack^rStf co^ 9 rf^o, he said "I will 
do it". 


the son took to 

heart that (his) father had given him the advice that it was much fitter 



to bear with than to punish, and pardoned the boy. <oarU> 3s>o5o 


. n , it is written 

a) <=Cco eJ -* PO 

in it (viz. in the old or former book) that (you) should never transgress 
the word of (your) parents and that God created man, beasts, birds, trees, 
the earth, the sky, the sun, the moon, and all the other things. 

, . 4 <N he said "tie the 

dogs to a tree and go!". wota?> - 

O 6J 

3o?u3 9 Cj?i>, he exhorted him "the habit of using im- 

proper language (is) very bad; remember this well!". ?5?jjao3o Assart 23^ 
&& , ^?irf c^oTTe) ^o^?i o 35?^ o, that Kulinda told his son "do not become 
subject to envy!", tf S&F, 

, , 

S53J fl^ rfjsarffio, the king commanded the boatmen that they 


should first transport all his soldiers over (the river), w^rfo &>?cl>3 
<0^o, when he said "let us see!". $j3{c8j3re, w> oitftfo, he said "let us 
see, come!". 

9 D, what am I to tell him? 


Tell (him) he must come to me. aoJS^A, 73>c:>o9e>^C$> W^C ;&rt ova 
& wdJ3^f$?k 3o^o, go, and tell (him) that I will come to his house 

to dinner this evening, djsd, ;sj>coo^e>(L>ri 33o Z&ft tf\aeJ& 

?3?i), 3^> < er 1 cSrltfo, ^^o&rorfdo, the gentleman sent me to say that he 

o o* ^ *x. 

would come to your house to dinner this evening. 

j the messenger went to the ruler and said "0 king, 
my master has sent you these things as a present". 

The verbs ^$5* and es^s* Jire also used in questions, e. y. osy-j 
, he said "why hast thou ascended the tree?". 

cp o 

35%^ 2Ju oifdo, s^^^o^d^o, when the cripple said 
"how shall I come to thy help?" and was sorrowful, 

, what doest thou say that (we) shall play? -d? 

he called the servants that were in the garden and asked "who are they 
who have treated this tree in this manner?". >;3ort 
, they asked "how did you know (that)?", 
he asked "when wilt thou bring (it)?". 

o. (9<&. he asked Ramacandra "why doest thou 



Further the baid verbs are used to express 'for the purpose', regarding 
which some instances have been given in 302 under No. 7. 

Then the said verbs are also used to give an explanation of nouns, 
verbs or adverbs, e. g. tf&J^ofofl) ricSrqio, kalte means an ass [lit. kalte 
(people) having said (is) an ass], rfoji^rtsir' O^JS^o sjotio, multai:;i 

means a certain tree. 3\J3i3?3?3 rt o, kula means a rude man. 

o A a 

, tegaldan means 'he reviled'. 55rbtJf5^o c-^r3cS^ do, aguldan 

means 'he sank in water'. TteAfJoJorfo tJ^rO-^o kalkane means suddenly. 

a o e 

rfWrtW^oSjffo d^rto, galagalane means quickly. Also when a series of 
nouns is given ^^5* or $< is used, e. g. 


to ..} 

Also when imitative sounds, feeling, etc. are to be expressed, the said 
verbs are used, e. ff. 5&3CM siW Wo3ofj-s0^^ v 6 ' wuador^) rfzjiao, 

*^ C3 A 

liailstones fell down from the sky with the sound of palapala palpala. 

, the fly sings gumyi gumyi. ?Sr^ 



fcjos&* S3?&Az3, the paltn of my hand has the sensation of jum 
(from cold). 

The relative participles of the said verbs are used similarly (cf. the 

use of o^j in the passive, S 315, 2, k). Regarding o5fo when forming 

to a) 

a verbal noun in combination with erodo or e5d>, the following instances 
may be given : adridtfftck siwozSokdo^zicS* 23aioado, do not say 
"this investiture with the sacred thread is sapless to me". ^JS^ 20^0 


d Sosoo assrio* o}3oacS?}o, does the cat know (the difference between 
common) milk (and) that which is vowed? s>^o -ds aoJa^ aoJSrtaDft co^o, 
^^s&eScfc^ gviatf fifc^^d 23^0, he must daily examine "how much 
more have I learned to-day?", s&'&Scra, 
53oooa&^533ft wrirfo, ^jsdjsjrfss 9 ^ 

^ O 

oi&xrirfj. ^rsrsjsft ^iz^sc! ^jsa j3J8?a8, children, before you 

fcj t 

apply (your) hand to anything, examine thoroughly whether it is in any 
way useful to you or not. ^s rijsjjjS w^oSoTH uji ooei^ ^JS3)^ tjsd 

<& O 

cSdjj sdcS^, t^o c3J3^ ^ejrfredjreo,, there is an eminent reason, why we 

W "o" O C5 &j 

should not vainly (and) inconsiderately speak, 

, . 

60 Ci * V 

in that book there are ethic rules; it is 
written (therein) that you should read and remember them carefully and 

walk accordingly. $^^0, =5*3^ 3o?ri s&3cid:> N craft W?d &&>d>, calling 
eJ TJ <=<. to <SP 

(one's) servant and ordering "do thus". ^Ocdoo, esfoe) , aJ3^r> pdo^fi}, 
dJ8^Sd oi^J, *2rjc3? (past relative participle) aoj;S5^3^J, the fox said 
with emphasis (to the fowl) "elder brother, I go (now) and shall return. 
(Your) favour remain (on me)!", and started. 

333. <0p5 6 or *9c3 6 are frequently used after a conjugated verb to express 

O O 

the meaning which that verb would give, if its relative participle in combi- 
nation with es>3 were used, e.g. <s>>?3 ??& 33^ Tzs&ft fc?3e> zoCo^ as 

*, if hence thou daily 

O Co c v- TT O 

come [lit. "daily come" if (one) says] to our school, you will probably 
become able to write like me even in one or two months. dU>Ci ZON 0# 6. 

O Q ' 

if master has come [lit. if (one) says "master has come"]. rfo oioj e? 
^oJo sSj^ ^J33^^6 wrfS3 d.>o&!>,0ori ^^o^rarlo^d, if the sparrow 
sits on that egg [lit. "sat" if (one) says], a young will be bom by the 
warmth of its body, 

357 - 

io, if you take care of the poor [(lit. "you must 
take care of the poor " if (one) says] as much as you can, God will be 

kind towards you. ^oSorttfo SoF5?)d3tf6 ?o>rt> rre$rtJS ed$ ttfh# 

ro Q 

3o3 3oJ3C3rt fcdj^ c3, if the pods are ripe, they will open by the effect 
of sunshine and wind, and the cotton that is inside, will come out. 


, if thou goest to the town called Riimapura, thou wilt get a cocoa- 
nut for two duddus. a 33 ereoao^rfd 33ft & rto^&fctfrt cisO JortO&w, 

ro O O TT (V > 

if darkness sets in here, I shall not find the way in this hilly country. 

, if we two divide this costly pearl among us, (our) poverty of 

birth will cease. Observe also the following instance 

2o do; -d? stossd^f^ 55^6 2^j s>d ^o3o^o, the gentleman came last 

a QQ 

Saturday; (from that time) till this Saturday, if one says, it is a week. 

It is to be remarked here that oic3 6 or esctf 6 is also used to express 

o o 

the English 'that is to say', e. g. 

from A.I). 1490 till A. D. 

1687, that is to say for about 200 years. 


?o the area of the united kingdom of Great Britain is about as great 


as that of Ceylon, that is to say 25000 square miles, -g? 

if this fish moves 

a- iff o w 

about, the sea swells and increases, that is to say such a big fish. 

334. With regard to the use of <o?i3 or v^d after a conjugated verb 

O O 

adduced in 333 the remark is to be made that wdrad, ec3d or 
(cf. the verse in 319) are similarly used, e.g. ^J3^o^ 3$ e5S5' 

* ^^^ 

tSJdzi, if thou knowest Siva's mantra. ^doJ^J 9 rtd ^^^d^adAlli if ne 

left your service undone. 3oJS&3 QdradAlS, if they escaped. 3$ Aid 

u> v o 

ODrict, if they touch. Also ^^j ^3 ^dri aJ3?rl)dCTsdd, if to-morrow 
thou goest to Pune. Cf. 296. 

335. In the modern dialect 'intentionally' is expressed by 
(lit, having said "it must"), c. g. 
I have not broken the looking-glass intentionally; (and 'unintentionally ' 
may be translated 7^^ or 


336- In the same dialect 'they say', 'on dit' is expressed by adding 
( 196, remark 4; 198, 7, remark 2) to a sentence, e. g. 

(see 337) j3>ota#6e, 

, the Brahmana went to that 


money-changer and said "sir, they (people) say you have a certain 
large metal vessel into which water uses to be filled", ^^o t3>3odo 
tfs^rttfo -a^e *J?We s^SS 9 ^;^ ^oorb^?^ they say that a sort of 
frogs swallows a whole chicken, ^dos^d^,, "they are coming" they 
say (or I am told), aorfds^, "they are come", I am told. 

337- From the instances in 332 it appears that o^ or v^s 6 are 
generally placed at the end of a statement, etc.; it is, however, allowed to 
put them also before it in order to introduce it, e. g. 3$ o?oo 'S.w d^x ^6c$o 

Q to v 

3?3,ci>ofl o aSfcs 9 , wririj dotf^Ois, ^DudJS a 33 wo ^rlfce ^J^ckseL 

, %. co O Q o tO * 

'S.O, etc., the father called both (his children), told them to stand before 
him, and said (lit. a having said) " children, daily look on the looking- 
glass". 2o^J a 

tO CJ O 

3?(ij, 933?* zfoiLftS, on a certain day an old man said 

Q ^*A 

to some boys "children, I desire your welfare". C^dcS^^J ^DaoJo 
rsotf W^rio 2J3cod?rfd? CT30, the god said to Nambiyanna "always 
(are) even the manifold vedas the road". v!a?orf <?* 'SvfSoJOo^ esS^oSo 
?i&3 9 o3)^o 2^-^aJoo, the wife told the beloved one "I do not know, I do 
not know devotion". 

In such a case .053* or 5555* may be preceded by '3^ ( c /- 326 sscS 
?5 f2jscS), e.g. w^oJodj 5 " tfdroo&o rfrlabj&fSfio. thereupon, in order 

" O ^* /"O O 

to appease the queen, he spoke thus . sjo^^j* ssd?^' 'SrS^o, again 
the kiug spoke thus . do^^is* 'a^^ V s , again she spoke thus . essiv* 

r a?S a ^v*, she spoke thus-. ws3c s^ ?^D*, they spoke thus. 
-* o -* o 

he spoke thus to (his) father. $$& $$ $ Q f{ 3$J2t&33 

Qy G O 

to the son of the king the son of Patimohi spoke thus . Also: ' 
having spoken thus (with reference to preceding words). 

Or *ac3o, this, may be put after ,055*, e. g. &$< ^^ sacio, he 
spoke this . 

There is still to be mentioned the use of a relative participle in the 
form of a verbal noun to introduce a statement, etc., without 0^55* or ^c 3 *) 


), ne reflected "what she says is a bag of black seed, (is) the bag 
of gunpowder". Ajo^dj 3?i3 9 Ck $t$v &> 3$Cdd? ^a?0, the lion 

Q co <p 

said "all of you certainly know". In such a case Z><$33 is to be 
supplied, for which see 323. 


338. In 212, No. 7 'awrf, owrf (c/ 170. 361) and w^ appear 
as classed" with the adverbs by the Sabdanusasna. 

In that case a^cS has the meaning of 'in absence of, 'without' 


(vimirtharii), e.g. w^ddJ* 'S.ocS ^3*o* W^OySj, do distinguished people 

rf- ro TJ- -rf- 

originate without letters (i. e. without the knowledge of letters or 
science)? ^ a^asS^o* fctfd, ^c&^cktJS), without thee are all 
these (valuable things) in existence (for me), Karna? jji^O&j 
SoJSPcS, without devotion thou wilt be ruined. ^oCiw d? wsS f3, 

<r> oi ' 

not come even without delay? Ji52oode even without intermission. 


a^^WfSort tfalOwtS r <adorfcio 23^j, many men like to live without labour. 

But originally 'aw c5 is the negative participle of 'ao*, not being present 
or not having been present, not being, not having been (see 170; cf. 's.w 
298), e.g. a^Swaso Oe^o diwrwrfj* ^^^o, a kingdom in which 
so much (viz. a strong king, etc.) is not existing, is called weak. 23d^ 
33)^3* vo^oo, doff^ ^d?3* siwdo^, a son generated by one's self (is) 
the best; and if not being he is (i. e. if he did not exist). ^3 eS&rgo* 

CO ' IA\ 

fcffo^o o&3&e>&{3Fd, tliereafter not being anything to eat here if is 
(i.e. if thereafter there were nothing to eat here). sjoS 'a^add ^^3 
, if (there) is no understanding, (there) is no right behaviour. 
3{ gofoa^ft 3cvO?rlj^=# rfoOjj^tS r>^>^cl>, to a useful pur- 
pose even not being a spending a going (*. e. spending even for no use 
or without use) is called vyaya. 

awd being thus originally a negative participle or gerund, forms 
also the relative participle 'aejtf (see 273), e.g. cSo8Sj)> do*, those 

f> 0^ 

who have no sorrow. ,o^c3S5ao^ ^wc5 ?3)ftW, a line that has no break. 


$J3o>rf i^j , an ox that has no horns. jjj& ^ejcSdrfo. a man who 

VJ CO B' Q ft) 

has no understanding. 'aodocSo, that is not existing. It is to be 

remarked that 'Sfycl like eni^,. may govern also the accusative, e. a. 


*>$,, Ouo>z3ocSo (see 316 under No. i). 

?so cS (c/. 300, i, remark a). 

esocS when considered as an adverb ( 212, 7) means 'excepting', 'except' 
(vinartham, Sabdanusasana), and occasionally 'but', e. g. 
f are (there any) gods except Jina? ^^ 

>, except thee, Jinapa, who is an excellent person on 
earth? sj^JSo^ort'? do^^> cS^rsij* 'sad^s?* 5oo5j3 ^ro5o^c3* tJ^oroSo, 

u A m O 

except at night fire-flies (have not the ability to shine); let the sun 
shine in front, what ability (to shine) have they? ^osjosJjsoiooqS, ?i 
!5>&^>, Kama, except among females, thou hast no 




^^?3* esoSs; in an alliteration wherein the kula (the Kannada V 6 ) is, 

k>m fo ro' 

the optional use of the letter Q* for the kshala (the Samskrita <s*) does 
never occur; an optional use, excepting (that of) the kshala, is not to 
occur (in such a case). <roo&* ?3o&< ?ooo&* 2o&* zps^jri^JSv* as,5&* 

oJ >J 

S5t) Bo >^exo, in the verbal themes uy ney suy 6y (there) is no other 
use except the doubling (of their final letter when 55^ is suffixed). 

excepting the terms that end in 55, (there) is (the suffix) tf for the dative 
when it (i. e. its suffix) follows the rest (viz.) those that end in (other) 
vowels and in consonants. q^sj$ ^odoe>J ws^FCto c3 ^^osj^ -^ccko' 
53^?^ ao^jF rfo, it is possible to offer (one's) riches, but how will it be 
possible to offer (one's) body? wa^s^^ori sJocksSok^ adda c3e> rfJ3 
&S*jtf ye^^^ Cio2oloJoo 2^^^ ^JSzIo, except I reverently marry (her) to 
a devotee of Adisiva, I do not give this (my) daughter to a worldling. 
zS^sSd 3\32odjtf w cS srasJT?, 03osd3>, except through the grace of God 

W O w ^y f 

(there) is no forgiveness for (i. e. of) sin. Soa^J ^J3^De)rtjrfde;d dJS^do 
, except that milk becomes curds, could curds become milk? 

Occasionally Zorf or esd (or 556) may precede ese^cS, e. #. ^rfo^ tf oSog 
do&)^ SWiOAQf^awtoJ, except he die by your hand, I 
shall get no deliverance from my curse, ^do^.do S^e>t3A)c5^e;cS 2^^ cSjsd 
ojodo, except one adores me, devotion will not be obtained. 

e9e>rf sometimes loses so much of its originally verbal character 


that it is added to a relative past participle (unless the rule in 1G7 be 

- 361 - 

applied), e.g. ?^o fioeadwd (=jicad ^zS, or perhaps ?2. 
, except I see thee. 23tfr\d;c3, except it become bright. ^ 

v dOao&o rSeS 3 3tfd%d (Commentary: do;>d<d) tf^ri 
d ortsjjsrtdo afcjao, a term with final $33* may well form a word in 


a Samskrita compound, but in (true) Kannada does not become a 
nominal theme by itself. eruaOfl 20^ sissO erors>>d> 3oJaertdo, Mari that 

o a oo 

has come to a town, does never go away except she eats. On the other 

hand we have also: 3<d 3e>A?jc5ejc3 (=3e)A?odo w^d) u^a treddo, 

a <r> ^ a co / 9 

except he knock (his) head (against something), understanding will not 
be obtained (by him). 

Likewise this disappearance of its original character seems to occur 
when we) rf is followed by an accusative (see 300, i, remark 6), e. g. 
si^rijtf #^3(3* w^n)do^^* <3&3 9 oi>33F?34, except devotees of Siva we 
know and love nobody. At&gf W^cS ?j^o, fcCO'^?^ 3JdOo3oc3* S&ft 
C5e>3o (see 287, remark) &<$ do?ic3js^j F^fSs^a^, except always upon 
me, he does not think even upon my (high) rank. 

eswrf may also get the meaning- of 'besides' (sSo^, sjolj, e. g. ytf 
^>cS, besides that, 'acted, besides this, w^^ 

co ' co 

besides him some others came. ^JSrart^o ?3J3r1A) 

Oioo3ddoc3 ^5^0, a^d tfw^d4?** ^8 ^J3V^.3 o a^, the flies spent 

-a<r> a =O V'-BOCO' 

(their) time by joyfully flying about, besides (that) they did not do any 
work useful to themselves. c3?5foe>fcjcl) rf^-ra^, ^cl Ue)2a?d^j, 23$2odt>c$ 

*f V l ^) * o PO 

WU^dd St3e)5j)dcS^d *ft^*ftfBol) sSdrUlo^t&l ^^J5,ra?l>, DevanYja, 

^^ c*i C ^ Ci 

besides enlarging his kingdom much towards the south, took, in the 
north, the district of Hosakote of the Vijapura people. 

cS d^jpsi jrohn^ j5 besides a rich man he is a very liberal man. 

9 9 

The original verbal character of t9e>rf as a gerund (cf. $ 300) appears 

still in the following instances: ^ adj* S5>c3 ^,eao sJJSCO ^^o, a man 

fi) CO ot J 

who, (his love) not being steady, loves (i. e. a man unsteady in his affection). 
stosdod^ 4 5s;aej, a mango tree not being it is not (i. e. it certainly is 


a mango tree). ^rt)J rf ^jO^odj^ae), a jasmine of rich fragrance 

oJ ro co co 

not being it is not (i. e. it certainly is a jasmine of rich fragrance). 
3lo3o3L5l>> >F rtodj^ dJ3v*, in respectability that requires no (particular) 

<wJ C co ^ 

effort (to acknowledge). 

The relative participle of eso rf is est> cJ, e. </. e5de; zlezS, if it be not 

r> r> ' co 

that (or thus), w^dodo, that is improper. 3^^* eodf^o, another 



who is not he. ?3 ssLs&w d rioS, speech that is not distinct. w d 

oJ aj oo m 

rV, acts that are not proper, g)<&aofl w^ 

Q Ci 

such an sio* as does not stand for the bindu. 
also where there is no negative sense. 

In 212, 7 ese^ is classed with the adverbs that are verbal forms; 
it is a bhavavacana of the verb 553* and another form of &v dodo. It is 


used, like 55^ (which see in 300), in pratishedha, negativing, etc., e.g. 
w655s3J&'8\ /x>z3 0?oo* w)^) sstfJds&f S5^ , (sounds) that are written 

W TT to "0" 

(but) cannot be read (except in an inarticulate manner, as sounds for 
thunder, etc.), are no letters (lit. letters a being not), ssdftoo , not he! 
not she! escS^, not that! ^de^, it is not fit. sjjo^rf^do 
, we have no (such a thing as can be called) anger against 

him. d?3e>, ^oSo^etf 3* oi^jo ^sij* ^^^ tfw^, king, Siriihalendra 
is one who has never paid tribute. 

i. e. eso^ to which the <o of inferential interrogation ( 212, e) 
is sufiixed, is used as follows : ois3e, i ad^ > ^) W*J9 ?cS?^zi)^drt?TOji5 

rl^JSV^ ^^d?5 20?1) 33e)0^00 do ?SjS?CSe)^S2irlorTSfci^O, look, is not this 


the water of the celestial Ganges that runs swiftly down on the table- 

lands of the snowy mountain? ^js^ o ?o^o^^!orio^j esd Scrso o doraoo, 

c ^^ rs r 

are not women and lands acquired by means of gold? (Cf. ese;^ 300, 3). 

XXIV, On the repetition of verbs, and on the combination 

of certain verbs, 

339. The repetition of nouns, pronouns, adjectives, numerals, adverbs, 
interjections and imitative sounds has been treated of in 303 309. 

In 152 it has been stated that there are no true frequentative or 
iterative verbs in Kannada, but that a kind of iterative verbs may be 
formed by simple repetition (yugaloccarana, dvihprayoga) or triple repe- 
tition (triprayoga). 

Instances of such iterative verbs elucidating their forms are given in 
165, b, i 4, where short participles are concerned, and in 211, i n, 
where all the various repetitions are given, but without the respective 
various meanings conveyed by them. (Cf. 361.) 


In the present paragraph the meanings are adduced. They are the 

1, directing the attention of others to a distant object or affair 
(dura, Sabdaraanidarpana), e. g. w iJS^Fcrs ^JS^rcSj w-j&oev* $& 

+ f 

sieJo, there in the sky (lit. in that that sky) appears, appears the banner! 

2, directing the attention of others to a near object or affair (samipa, 
Smd.), e. g. <ac5 ^d TTO^F JTO^F rtre^dtf $& s&oadja^Fo, lo, lo! let 
(them) approach, let (them) approach! (it is) the time told by the assem. 
blage of astrologers. 

3, repeatedly directing one's own face or attention towards an object 
or affair (abhikshana, abhikshna, pratimukhavalokana, Smd.), a person's 
own repetition of action or experiencing (abhikshanya, Sabdanusasana), e. g, 

o || having 

read and read (i. e. having repeatedly read) with parrots and (thus) 
learned speech, having played and played with the assemblage of flamingoes 
languid with passion and (thus) learned walking, having inquisitively 
and carefully seen and seen the dance of peacocks and (thus) having 
learned to dance well, the females with (their innate) taste for the 
beautiful continually grew up to the development of the excellence of 
fine arts (Smd.). e5eJ,yeOo&c3o, he lowered (the pot) after continual 
boiling (its contents), yuraocso ^^do, he repeatedly ate and (then) 

i3 (3 

went. ?>J3a c3J3?& f33\o, he looked on and looked on and (then) laughed 

s, O 

(Sabdanusasana). vo?o^^acS?o ??e>drso, he was and was (i.e. continued 
to be) silent; what (is) the cause? (Basavapurana). 

he read and read, and became tired. ejj3e>a tflWo, he played and 


played, and (at last) was ruined (Nudigattu). 

3o >si>rt W3oS? e3?ni&3 u >?^, having sat and sat in one place you will 

O ^ 

be much wearied, i^do tSd) c^^,^, he fell and fell and laughed (*. e. 

O O ^f 

he rolled with laughter). & z3?F2o&o?$ ^3^ 7$^ eni^d^o, of that disease 
he died and died (/'. c. was on the brink of death) and (still) remained 

4, enjoining on others the repetition of an act in order to encourage 
or incite them (Kriyasamabhihara, Smd.), e. g. ?&S r^zSoJofii 



"walk, walk!" they said. ^aeSrasSFfS fcsfcjsaJoo, when Jatayu said 
" withstand, withstand ! " 

5, ordering with agitation, or hurrying an action; expressing 
anxiety, (capalate, Smd.; sambhrama, Sabdanusasana), e. g. k>& ?oJS& ?i> 
?jjd3oJoo, deliver, deliver the woman with handsome teeth! 

be manly, be manly! (Smd.). SoJserfo aJe>ertako, go> go, sir! 
, give up, give up (your) doubt! ^<d zo?3rf, tfjacii J3<&> 
, Basava, give, give all the gold of the box! (Basavapurana)^ 

3J8S sSjetfdsSi?' ^OO^O^OSDO ^osj $Aj :3pojo<j7 the female 
a j o 

buffoon saying "resist, resist, resist!" resisted, gathered saffron water 
and threw (it, Smd.). ( a^ o ays, "3^ era, 'a 3^ w>, come this way, come 
this way, come this way! y?S wrfoc3)rS ZJ^onsrS ZJ^orfo, an elephant has 

Cv O C3 

come! an elephant has come! an elephant has come! rfr?o w^ c3?W, 


rfraj to^Jc3?O, rfraj u^tSfC^, the army has come, arise! the army has 

(30 0^0 

come, arise! the army has come, arise! (Sabdanusasana). 

6, continuous, unceasing action (satatya, Sabdanusasana), e. g. 
2J?3o w^ o, he came and came. 'SJ^cJo ^js^rfo, he went and went, tfrso 

O O Cd 

^cso, he saw and saw. zjtfdd (-^6), when (it) came and came (Rsv.). 
zodo^ acJSerfo;^, wdj^ SoJS^rto^ ^c3e)?S, he is coming and going, coming 
and going (Nudigattu). 20^03^ wdos^ -usoJo^ ^0^06 ^ o5o^o, the 
king's horse coming and coming (nearer) was (but) a donkey. tJ 2^ 


, that emperor pursued the foes, and going and going 
(i. e. marching on) arrived in the midst of their country. =5\>S3o2j6^> 

to^jiJ5 n ^ji)^ n w totfo c3jseQc$8 ^^ 'a^, when all the shepherds 
- -* M o en 1 

running and running came there and looked, (there) was no wolf. 

do?i)3sUori sSjsrf^o ^cSsynrartJB- tod wdos^ (see 172) 
, though the ribfaced deer at first are afraid of men, coming 
and coming (i. e. in course of time) become attached (to them), v^tf 

=58)02)0 zod zodo3> e^d^^o, cS-fcrf ne>r(o^c5j. the pods of opium become in 
-"aw a> 

course of time as big as balls. aJ8?rt SoJSertos^ cssOoSJS^^ 5sJOtadJ3 
wdJS5*rod ^ocSd, proceeding and proceeding on the road both of them 


reflected as follows. 

7, completeness of an action (kriyasakalya, Sabdanusasana), e. g. 

, he said (to himself and another) "reap, 

- 365 

reap!" and (thus) reaped (the whole harvest). 
^jaoJoo, saying (to himself and another) "beat, beat!" he (thus) beat 
(consummately). WD zreoS-irfoi^ totf o, saying (to himself) "come, come!" 
and (thus) came. The Nudigattu has the following instances: 

a o a 

8, intensity, emphasis, high degree (adhikya, Sabdanusasana), e. g. 
tJd)C3e:ti)c3o, it has been done, it has been done! oi^jort^ cSs&rf^ do, 

xi f X) 

it must become ours, it must become ours! ij^tf ^^ftriod), it shone 
very much. <tf eStfftdocfc, it became very bright, s3oo3o siw^jftciocl), 
it sank rapidly. ;3J30 ;3J33Aci)Cfo, it roared very much (Sabdanusasana). 
, it will become, it will become! WgrfojS^rf 
., Siva drank poison, it is (so), it is (so)! 53$ 3^ 

i^e3oC)W, the unborn one (Rudra) is, is in this earthen 

o co' 

vessel! (there) is not the least doubt. wtf<2J5rt0, ma J it become (so, or 

let it be so), may it become (so)! z&&js?dA (Ud&Q&ftfo F3&3 3 

, having dipped well, having dipped well in the ocean of 

excellent joy (Basavapurana). 'aC^sSrttfo a6rt$3o 

ants work and work and exert themselves the whole day. 
$vti& craoSorttfo z3^e 83^0, dogs are absolutely required 

for the chase. T?flo3o e3 ^o^,? Airlo^ c3, a red water-lily will certainly be 

^ O T^ 

found, tp^rttfj O^OJo^osud^ ^i3,e ^^03^6, the wise will decidedly 
abandon sensual enjoyment. <&>% 'S.tfo^d, it certainly is. 'S,d?$o l 
, you will certainly do this. 

, this is not, is not the proper way. t3?z3 ?3?rf, it is 
not required, it is not required. 23^ *3?zSck Oanido, he said "it is 


not fit, it is not fit!" and loosened (him). e5?yevaJ>irf 3oras^) ?lrfo^ z3ecS? 
we absolutely do not want money of (i. e. acquired by) injustice. 
I will not, I will not. TTO^J 73s>T5\), enough, enough! ^.Ji 
sSr(v'o 'S,e3? 'S,^, certainly (there) are no useless things 
in creation. 

3si ^3J d 25d ^dort^o Jrld^J^, taking arrow after arrow and shoot- 

o j ^ 

ing without ever failing. o )^>c3, without waiting in the least. )ri 
?S^d ^d ^^ >^3rttfo, waves that came incessantly. 

In intensity, etc. triple repetition also occurs, e. g. torf D$ torfo, 

O O O 

he came, he came, he came, yursorsorso sSftedo, he ate and ate and 


ate, and (then) went. Jjstf Jj5^ iJS^AS^, it shone excessively. 

it became excessively bright (Sabdanusasana). 
, trembling excessively.) 

9, pain or trouble (abadha, pide, Sabdanusasana), e.g. 

do, alas, he went. zo?3 zorioto*, alas, thou hast come. MSD* 2J5>6o, oh, 
o o 

I do not come. s^sj 3j8?s3o, oh, I shall go. 

10, succession (one after the other): totality, e.g. sbdo =5^ ^rs 

5 Ca 

=^6 's'ddo*, the women who one after the other happened to see 

the child, called (it near), =5^ tfrarfOtfsrs 3osx> -3-OddJ?) rtrs 

ca ca 

ft rt 23^S?C0 9 x!cS^ )c3do, though the widow whose husband has died, grins 


at all she sees, they do not let her be unshaved. & 

o o o 

. , if all who come revile (her), will the grief 

caused by (her) husband's death leave (her)? ^rs ^rsdtf?3,e; njdjsqje)^ 
djs^j^rf^^A a sioorfo^^o dro^d ojo^^) ^oiousd^, the endeavour 

"a A **> 

made by the old man to please all he saw, was unsuccessful, 

, he was cutting down every thing he saw. t? rt 
tfW rtrttf^ e3J3?rf (see 181, note c; 211, 5, foot-note) 

50 <=C 

rfooCS 9 ^ ss^-S-d^, then (after the bundle of sticks had been untied) 
they broke the sticks one after the other as they saw them. 
1], variety, e.g. 

, he (the Prince of Wales) was 
much pleased with the courteous hospitality which the people, from 
attachment to the ruler, showed in the various places to which he went. 
ssd?do (Oe>dODs>&&>) 3J3?^ 3oJ3?rf rijSearttf^ ^Srorfrfc, he (Ramaraja) 
destroyed the mosques in the various places to which he went. 

, a man of good conduct is welcome to all; in the various places to 
which he goes, he is respected. 

Oj 23^0 zS^ffejrf ao^fl ^JSSiSdi -S-a&e ^^ rfoo^ds^rlv 1 ^ 
that sheet of glass they cut according to the various require- 

ments, and make window-panes, etc. (of it). wa^oJo^^o 'fffclflrt^ffo J3 

&j ^- 

C^do ^3,, z3?^j 23?5)d So)tf ?SjJ?a^ =^J3^ t3?^o, the carpenter has to 
cut the pieces of wood, to plane (them) and to join (them) according to 
the various requirements. ^osfcSe 3o^dcS 3o^crfoddo S&A7&f14<&V 


rf &, the villagers near Karaei used to worship alligators; they 
took, according to the various circumstances, different sweet eatables to 
them and presented them as offerings. 

340. Certain verbs are often (especially in the colloquial dialect) 
combined with others, being placed after their past participle (gerund). 
They are principally the following: 

1, 5c3o, to play, which gives the preceding verb the meaning of 
a) playful motion or action, e. g. aoodorftfo ^oclicj^^os^d, 

3, $? ^03^6, boys dance, cry and scream. 2c3F\d <os3 
IP 3oA)o3os3 cfrredi^zS, when the dry leaves drop, the green leaves 
laugh. Aj6J5PrfdcSJ3^* 32js3o3oo* f$z>>3 dooiOo'SejScSo' the women 


joyfully immersed themselves in the pond. ^^ 3oJ8ds?e>^o^c3, the ass 

&) moving here and there or about, e. g. ao?^ 3oOc3s)CJ^ c3, the 
serpent creeps about. ^e>oSJ3 ^o^rt^o 2*?o ddo ooris?ri 23jro.h Lcssc* 
5, young dogs begin to run about well in one or two months. 
5, those people wander (or walk) about. ^tfdo 
thieves roam about, ao^ SGsJ&S^cli^S, birds fly about. 

c) moving backward and forward, moving to aad fro as a body 
suspended, oscillation, waving, e. g. ^J3^Ds3 ^JS/TS^JS c3, the swing 
moves to and fro. JfSr^o os3c3e>co^ sf>, the ears of corn move. 

I, does that which is poised, oscillate? =s\>cte 


5, a pendulous ornament depending from the neck. 

d) reciprocal motion done by one (or each) to the other: mutuality, 
e.g. ^JSr^oSJSv* 22dA) Sjpo&Dacjo*. they met in the van and beat each 


other. DS)>O o^^rsrij aos&dcrs^oSe) 6, Rama and Havana beat one 
another. esdOudo fcJO&e>zl)3e> 6, they revile each other. (Peculiar is 

ti Q - ' 

^e>&3^e)C^), to exchange one thing for another: to sell). 

** ** / 

It may be remarked here that t?do is also suffixed to the infinitive 

Nala made (his) kingdom to go (L e. lost his kingdom) by gambling. 
I), the chariots struck one against the other. dJS^Jio 
5, he made to go (i. e. lost his) honour. 

2, 'Stcti, to put, which makes the idea of the preceding verb, so to 
say, complete, e. g. ssjgra^rt^o 3c3o03o?3o. ^^ozS ciiss 6, stupid persons 


completely hide learning from sight. ^oeo d> 
greedy persons bury (their) money, 33 & 

he wrote down with deliberation what he saw and heard. 

3, tfjck, t?J3ci>, to give, which occasionally, to some extent, complete 
the idea of the preceding verb, e.g. zJcSdJSs* ^drqSrsijo ^si^siypFfi) 
rtarcdJdft SspsArO tfockstasyo OS%rt$$ortJo, from separating the 
meaning which is in a word, into species according to their various 
purposes, the vibhaktis (inflections) have got their name (Sabdamani- 
darpana, vritti to sutra 35 ; in this case ^oc^j is superfluous, as is shown 
by Kesava's siitra which has only stoqSr^oo aqraft&dGCyfS $&). 
>?.* oitfrt sWr^rartdocSdo ^S 3 ?jJ22$rO ^JSelcxtf, thou indicatedst the 

arrival of spring to me very nicely. oarfotf 


Rama made known arithmetic to Krishna. e5;3j3o ^^^ a8?Ci3* 

he tells thee. ^ododc&o ^rasSodo^o, to^JSjU^j (for &oflc3o ^JS^so), the 

W < V 6J v W -" 

horse threw the double bag off (from its back). 5c5o (W e3o) ^o^o i^o 
a^do, &ti&^ ^0 ^JS^l^o, he thought that it (the piece of jaggory was) 
small, and threw it away. 

4, wdj (wo*), to come, which sometimes is used to complete the 
idea of the preceding verb, e. g. &3 w&osj 

a soil in which barley ripens in sixty days. 

. n . it has appeared that the 

fci -9 CO 0-0 p ^ ~ ' 

depth of the ocean in some places is nine miles. s3o35t>rD>rtdcSol> tSkl 

co eo 

todo^sS, the tops of 


mountains in the ocean in many places appear above the water. 

It may be remarked that to say e. g. esdj^, SoJ^rtal^, is unidiomatic 
in colloquial language, it is to be wdJeX, 3cJ3^ zodol^, mother, I go 
and come (back). 

5, >c&, to leave, which also makes the idea of the preceding verb 
somehow complete, e. g. yrf^o 3ors 30&C&. )&. ^U.^J, he left (his) wife. 

c& v w w 

^O^o O^4), Rama learned grammar. wcS^ 
I shall kill it. e^j^ aJ3e^, he went away. 


9 ^U,i). be sold the horse. 

<=C 80 

6, 350)^0, to put, to throw, which also makes the idea of the 

preceding verb somehow complete, e. g. 'arf^fk. Sjrtrc$JS^A?3 Jr^cio 

c o 

j they removed him out of the class. 


, great talkers remove the things of others by stealing. 
oos>&ri<&, Bhima killed the Kauravas. ^U.^ 
sJootS 9 cl> 353&i3d.>, they broke the pieces of wood. r 
, they tied the dogs to a tree. 

, , 

O tf 6J 

7, aoJSertJ, to go, which likewise makes the idea of the preceding 
verb somehow complete, e. g. s3tf.d) 3Z> aoJSfOBo^j, the account is wrong. 

TT " 

, bad people will be ruined. 
o >dJ sJ>?ds$, the duddus fell out of a hole in (his) 


pocket, ^jdjd tftftfdfttfrt >ck ?^ sJ3eo&o&, the horse fell into a 
ditch and died, rfjs^o wyj^ rt &c$& acJB^rtodrfrS? ?3sca, when a dispute 
comes on, even he is a wise man who submits. 
he is likely to be ruined. 

341. In order to form what may be called a sort of reflexive verb, 
&fcv* (TJTJSV^), to take, is added to the past participle of a preceding verb 
(to that of =&><$* itself too), also if this participle is a short one (see 
165, a, i 7, and cf. 169). We have already met with this kind of 
formation in the passive (see 315, 2, e; cf. also 260). This so-called 
reflexive verb is used to denote that the action takes place in behalf of 
the subject (agent), regarding the subject's good or damage, and so on 
as circumstances require; it will be seen that 'to take', the original 
meaning of &v*, will not unfrequently offer a sufficiently clear 
explanation of its meaning. 

The following instances taken from the three dialects will elucidate 
its use: 

d? i^skacS* w3 9 ck ^JS$, in this order one may learn to know (the 
terminations of the instrumental). ^rfo^doo^, 3$d> =5rJ3tfjc3r^p3o s3o3 
Bo, wife, understand (the dandaka metre) even through my rule. 

ij aB^do 3$odoo3*^6; wcsesr^cfo? 3 Sjas^ 
, foolish people think that the dumb are tricksters: 
thus also this maid-servant thought, rtjsflrltfj ^JShdCi ^eOs)rtj^cS^o 

woaSo^bo 3tf ^Qrso 3orfe5o3) 6, foolish persons think that if owls erv. 
<? ca 

evil will happen, and are afraid. &;d&tfrt Qe>S 3cSc5o, 


, a Brahmana 
who had travelled in the hot sun, felt fatigued uiul luul become thirsty, 


- 370 - 

went to the shade of a wild date tree, sat down and began to drink the 
milk that was in (his) copper vessel; other travellers saw it, thought 
"this Brahmana drinks toddy", and spread the news in the town. &$ 

3\33e>^<J>fl6?i> as o) &?8 o*. even they blamed themselves that they 
v -o^o ^ ca 

(were) destitute of pity. sjdotf tf^ri e&e>a 3$f( e3e&> sireS 
causing damage to others and causing welfare to one's self. 

., a friend that one has acquired, &,?> =5^ siraS ^JSra^o, he made 

himself a knife, ejsjji) 3?$ri 3>?3e SJS^sJ toe>a ^JB^^nsjS, he is hurting 

- ^ 

even himself. ODSJJS), ?! ^sOfi ii^o stoS &or$, Rama, what hast thou 

C o5 

done to thy foot? arf<i> GeJ&^&^OJjffc, ;i>ci>3 sirefc tfjsretfo, he married 

I "T *> C& 

a king's daughter, ty rio^ oiO ^OF ^raa T&srao ^do^d? ^dv^^ojSoio 
djs^^oJ^ ^0^5 s3o?3 rtJSdo ^b3 ^rso 'ado^d, where has that sparrow 
made (its) house? it has built (its) nest on the balustrade of the flat 
roof of our house. eo^;3rttf&, ^J&3 9 3of3 s&e>8 ^jaretfo, be sold (his) 

^ Ci 

jewels and (thus) made money. & aoo^ort^j ^rs ado^ortd?^^ ri^oJod^ 
djsa ^J3^ zS^^o W3oo w^od sJ^o^rf^o, this boy felt great desire to 
make all the boys he saw his friends. sjros^sg)^ ^JSP^a^ ^J3d^0 3v 

) O Q PO CO 

N>, the river which became a hundred 

Q O 

branches when the son of Vasishtha, from sorrow, tied a stone to (his) 
neck and fell (into it), zi^a ?sirltf o 3ti ^JSrso , having made the seven 
divisions of the terrestrial world his own. s&Onjori^* ^^ ^JSrso 'ssir 

, he who has lifted up (his) face. 's'tfck ^JS^oao, grasping (for one's 
self). &,2^ Trarf^racJrfo Ce^sraddJS^ oi^ 2of3 3$ 3J3C93o, a certain 
merchant lost all (his) money in trade. ^ *& aof^c 

c3, it seems as if you had lost a camel. 3Jddq$rs3 ?3$c3o 
, the sin of robbing the things of others. &$ 
, he who confesses his being overcome. Oe>3o?k 

, Rama reads a book (for his own benefit). Se)c& -ds 

rtrao. ^2S ^^J3,fl^o, I opened the bundle of Narayana 

U IT TT ta 

and took his knife (to myself). e? 3oe)t)J ^JSSS 9 ^J3rao erf?io 3J3ii 
, he sold that milk and (thus) satisfied the wants of (his) 

stomach. ^fcl ^doJo SSSFfc ^rf,rle dj?S5 9 ^JSrs^o, at last he sold even 
w oo <*. c ca 

himself. 5J^ ^JSCSJ wdo^^o, I shall buy a book (for myself) and 

return. dfl^tfjsfejo. ^JSreo 3o?rl =#a^c36 ^dort? ^?do, if you thus 

9* V A 

wastefully spend money (in your own behalf), it will be even our ruin. 

. , , 

< 17 (A <*> la IT 

3?i 23J2kJo. ^JSoJuzl) ir'JSre rfj, the native soldier's son took the sharp 
=<. ej <a 

sword of his father, went to mince vegetables (with it) and (in doing so) 

cut off one of his fingers. ^o ojtf fcd ^Jareo z3;l rfjscs z3?ri, you 


must not (thus) beat your chest and grieve. 

s3of05jroc3?3o, at dawn he drove 
ca eo * 

(his) sheep to the jungle and made them eat the shrubs therein. A>oa6 

, , , , 

e & PO v 

when lions and tigers see me (the sun), they lie down the whole day in 

their respective dens, aprfrro^oio z2prt s3o^>ft tfJScs^ Zo^rt t3?rt CiWo 

o r*i an 

ddo-2jad^ 2o^5^), it is very salutary to lie down (to sleep) quickly (early) 
in the first part of the night and to rise quickly (early) at dawn. 
, n)?d, a garment that is wrapped round one's self. e3rt 
e5S5 9 s3 e5o^a 'aa o , he had no cloth whatever to cover 


O V 

himself with. o3ofc!;3JS3?k ^oij* ^3^0 JJ3^ ^J3* .O^^cS^o, the master 

stood up to wash (his) hands and feet. 

, cS? (IfSfSe) tttSh 'JJJS^o,^ d, why does the cow now and 

v ~~ v B 

then beat (with its) tail on (its) body? It drives the flies away. 

, the breeze joined a riock of 

young black bees and came along (with them). 



I had got pain in (my) feet, I could not go to school for eight days and 

remained at home. yrio 33)rfsjbo ^Wo tfjatfj.rfdTOjft tfUd d 

cp 9 V TT eJ 

that is a house built with the object that travellers may alight (or lodge 

therein). rtpg^ij ej^ra rt en>e3o 

do you know any means by which one may escape when danger aj>- 


, , 

-a o 

the king took a seat on an elephant and came to Vijayanagara. si>dc3 <5d 

he went to the shadow of a tree and sat down. 

circo ^JScsd, he who is exhausted by sickness. 
o ca o 

, lie had a knife made (for himself). ^?i?jj 3>?3e 

^ t c^ 

he ruined himself. zSrfrf 3o^^rO ^JS5#j3o, obtiiining permission, 
, he got evidence (in his own interest). 

a kind of leopard lives on the sea-coast, and eats decayed flesh and other 



thins. jra sl> $ tfdi tfjsa, sisj?ol3 rfo?So3 

3oe>^ 3o&rido, four thieves united, made a hole (in the wall) of 
the house of the chief merchant, stole all the valuable things that were 
(there), and took the road to a dilapidated temple in the jungle in order 
to divide (them among themselves). 

333 Xi fos)& 30023 tfJStftf^J 

o& 3oJe>C$?fo, the merchant told his three children to make three 
equal parts of the cattle etc. and divide them (among themselves), and 
died 3ori?fo 3s3oi> do?e3 ><3o soJasj^ ^jarso todos^s?, what does 


that woman carry on (her) head and comes (here)? sBraoOio^o ^dcia 

Co ^ 

^J3rw, en^D^ 3oJS>&3ei> 3J3^^o, he called (his) wife and went abroad 


(with her). ^ocktf ^rso ^J3Cc) 6JS, did they find the horse? arf^.) 

<a ca < *. ff > 

aUo, ^JSra^o, where did she hoard it? i ^orfod ^Uo ^JS^o.A e6^o, are 
eJ ca J v*- 8 

you going to keep this horse? dJSrf 3oocorlf3o ^JsUo, =^J3o^ ?5oh, the 

<3 SO 

jacket which the big boy had put on. 

? who are you, sir? where do you go having 

seized (i.e. with) the mad dogs? &oa? Sod ^J3r?o , Ijs^y* 2Jri?i>, he 

w a' -rf o 

seized the axe, and went to the garden. So^o &&&&, seizing (laying 
hold of). sDsScrfo woJOo^rfd esi rfoSo?! ^d ^^, zS^j, at school (one) 

co "0 <x> v 

must conduct one's self according to the command of the master. ^^ 

d =^J3d &.e3c&>3 ^ ^JS^. z3?^o we must 

o -rf- r 

converse in love with (our) parents, sisters and brothers. 

o, over them all rules one king; they must 
obey him and the officers appointed by him with fear and devotion. 

), a chief horse is in front of the herd, all the horses 
follow its guidance. 


, Niugappa went 

to the house of a physician, fell at his hands and feet, and spoke "sir, 
a son of mine lies prostrate in the house from sickness; if therefore you 
please to come to (my) house, examine him and give (him) medicine, 

373 - 
I shall not forget your kindness as long as I live". SoJSr^o 

"doctor", Honna (Nirigappa's son who 

j w 

was not sick, but nearly starved, as he refused to take any food himself 
in order that his poor father, brothers and sisters might have something 
to eat) said positively, ;t why do you send for medicines (on my account)? 
I shall never take them". Then the physician asked "why will you not 
take (them)?" Honna answered "please, do not ask so. I cannot tell 
(you)", and became silent. Thereupon the physician said "sir, what 
obstacle is there to telling (me)? You seem to be a perfect obstinate 
fellow". Then Honna entreated (him) with humility, saying "0 sir, 
please, only do not think so!" yrf&fl 3o?W ^^ 23?^o, you should 
speak to him. ao^C^ 9 ^PV* ^ sira^d, I have something to say (to you). 

ef^a &)f3o 3rf. ZJSdock, icSo &rej arf, eraddo, one may solicit (and 
ca t o ca <. 

receive alms) and (thus) eat, (but) by stealing one should not eat. 
^ys?5o ^e3oi) &>?e3 0?kJ 35e>& ^JSraj, (the sun says) "I having put a 


diadem on (my) head". cSoJo rfjsa r adJ3?ij ?je)0 &3$ 3$ aoJS^oSja^rt 

O oJ SJ 

Soe)^- J5f, please, put his fault in your belly (i. e. conceal and forgive 

it) this one time. w w3o&<&. &3& 36 A. ^JSreo, 30h 6>c2rtotf aJ3?drfo, 

A ca o 

he mounted that elephant and returned to Auegundi. sSj^rf^sJJ. ^^ 
oJo^ 3&ft XiS^ ^Je)^^^, (the sun says) "I put a muslin cloth, that 
is to say clouds, round (my) head". 

For comparison's sake the following instances which contain verbs without 
rfjsv* (and of which some show at first sight a not easily perceivable difference 
in meaning from the above-given ones) may here be introduced: 

d-Btp^zpSFo-d-^aj* .053^ 33oo SoJscJesdJ*, eosfi (commentator **rt), those 
ready nouns are of three kinds, viz. rudha, anvartba, ankita; know! 3^*. 
, beloved woman, I seize thy feet; know! ^oArt ^ 3W 
dodrfo S*do ) Madana perceived that this man (was) a suitable husband 
for (his) younger sister. 33O3* oi>d^ aoSj^rf 2?n3,oio^Jo i$dv*, the woman 
with tremulous eyes understood it differently. sas^*" 'gdwo ^^ 
whilst yet living learn the marked peculiarities of final liberation! 


he made a house, wsi* <o^ o* ^rte* e^djttfjjo draitjdo, let all of us 
now make a horse-sacrifice! ^3 JjaQfija zsn^lxztfrdC, bathe in the sacred 
water of knowledge! 3or3 3^ r3.?cl), riodo^S draQ fSjstdo, build a house and 
(then) see, marry (i.e. unite in wedlock) and (then) see! &>c|i3o3ja* tfSJ^d fcOofc 
^oiwajo, must (one) tie a royal tiger and a brown cow in one place? 
d?5o, S'JSGO rg-^ddrSj cs^, one who has enlisted soldiers (is) a king, 
one who has distributed boiled rice (is) a donor. 3-5333 30to3js9* wo 
, I shall not lift up (ray) head and walk in my uncle's house. 

, 23<rf fc?3d z33oke^ ?rtfoi>o3d>, they will have proper medicine 
given, have diet prescribed, and quickly remove their sickness. wareztoo ;3<do, 
having pulled an arrow (out of his quiver). rf^stoo &e, speak the truth! 
he who acknowledges that (he) has been overcome. 

he who has read the vedas. irtdoij* djscs^d zo^o&o, thou tookest the 


road of final liberation. 3o&3<&& sr^raio ^3o^3 ^3->ir#, power which fills 
life into a corpse. ^ 3J3aJ3 r^ad, a house in which toddy is sold. 
oi330rfjs djaes s3?S9, you should not sell these elephants to anybody. ?3 

he who borrows. 3J^3 ^^ 53 ^ a place where spirits are bought. 

^rorfjd $J8tf, 23?ro, I must buy a horse. <odo doS rf as^yo ^-ere^o, he 

v c c* 

bought milk for two duddus. ^JSO^T^ritfo Sro^j^do, granting the things desired. 

^vcii^ ^^35^, SOdJ 2jdj-&d3sw, (there) is none who has given (alms, etc.) and 
(thus) been ruined, (there) is none who has (idly) roamed about (in quest of alms) 
and (thus) lived (happily). *ok waorf^ 33Cdo 3rf3c?fc? 30 ^<5<c&? what 
does it matter whether a dog eats the leg that has been cut off, or whether a 
jackal eats (it)? 3xario tfjao&jd&a Sojsnrf &e^ SA)^^,? ^ S53( ^' as ^ ^ one ) sa ^ 
"though (one's) nose be cut off, do not the nostrils remain?" i*>ty 3\e5se3-$o 
sf^ aSf^SoJjrf^ ens?^ Jj&o3w35k, a day-labourer used to beat his (quarrelsome) 
wife repeatedly. tf^d sSkb^ ac^3dj oojsddd fSjs^oJod?, if (one's) parents apply 
the blows with a cane, do they not pain? sk^d^es'o^d sSostu ^JartdJaA SjyAao 
, an infant that cannot (yet) sit up and lies with (its) face turned upwards. 
Sodd #tfrt ^?fo aooC? doe^oSw dosJA^, a young tiger lay in the 
jungle under a tree. wortSt aroe^, tfjaortQ? aSja^, he sold (his) shop and put on 
a blanket 

his father gave him six duddus, saying "buy something to eat!" 

S^oJoo itfA, rfjsrtdjstfrfj, 3oj^?Ado, Candrahasa quitted sleep, washed (his) 
face, and rinsed his mouth. w^rf ^3? Saccorts^rf^ zssQ^drfo, I dusted away the 
insects of his head (i.e. I beat him soundly). 23tfjQcritfjs3;3 s'jsQd sdotfo, a 
night united with moonlight, deaddjsv 5 SsfiSd crfj^sd^o Pj^d as^ddJ* W^AO, 
and the letter vb 6 combined with c* becomes ^ Srf 'gdrd, a man who 

stands. $3 o, a man who stands. ^odd^rfac^do, he came down from the tree. 

00 * CO 

rf w, a place where an army is encamped. 5"eM ssoio ajc'oij^ en; a* 
a calf does not leave the company of (its) mother. 355<3.0rt 

- 375 

, even he who has remained alive, is the chief officer of the ruined village. 
tfo^dro, he sat down in the basket-boat. * ^3, tf3,ota>rtji ^J^, 
nds* eru s &orf, z3<ri^?*, the wife sat in distress, performed several 
meritorious acts of devotion, and became dispirited (as these proved useless). 
3odd ^tfrt ^J53j <? ^oSd ssrt, as if (one) sits under a wild date tree and 

drinks buttermilk. rSra rfj 3to*> 3W &>, aSort^o 3d>n ^^ the raale 8at 
and (thus) was ruined, the female roamed about and (thus) was ruined. ^ 
udjs'j 33StJ,3 3c^ tf^rfo aodrfa tfjsre^ tfotfSddo, they thought that even 
both of them should take this property to themselves, and sat (there in the 
jungle). kQ L3 edjdirf drfddja ^^ <oj3a;3{ rg^, though the boy ran and ran 
and became tired, (his) father did not care at all. 2-10^ AEDcOJoiu sstfrt^ giotrt 
23?tf^J k(3o uata addjssd 3^ dwQ&drfj, a native soldier having said U I must go 
to war", had had a very sharp sword made. wdrfo a&otd 
wherever he went, he destroyed the mosques. 
(one) causing ruin to the man who has ruined him. 
he had a poetic composition told. U^eScOodrd^, she who is naked. 
rfrfrt ^3^, give me the stale-food (thou) hast. 5^ 3^ 
what is it, if a thief's word (once) become true? 
eroreo g^3, even brothers divide a ripe fruit and eat. aojjea'ol) a6jj^ ydj^JS^rfj, a 
man who lives by carrying loads. ^ ^^^ a^js^ ^^Ooi) 3i33otf 3, does a donkey 
know the fragrance of the musk it carries? ^3dd efura.^, if (one) invites (thee), 
eat. SNPS^^ so^ ^Scdo 23?s\>, (you) should invite people to dinner. ^^ trtfo 
s'tfdj, ^sk ^so rtoSjs^rt R?do ^oao, tfjscsj 133 ojrfj , Botcydtfj, she called her servant 

A til W & C5 

and said "fill water into a brass vessel and bring (it) ". ifs>3J3o &b&3 sses^eJ;, 
does an owl see the sun? &J^S&Jj ( ^<tfo3do, to apply the mind to and listen. 
VdU^riaje^ -geJ^, Aj^^dio AortOA, having put on trowsers and embellished 
(their) helmets. ^N^^s^doo ^eW^, ssu^s^^^JcS* ^y^, having invested 
themselves with shining golden coats of mail and put on trowsers. &(2rtal>o 
he put on (his) ornaments, rfrfjdoftoioo ia&Jjrfo, he put on a green coat. 
u3, a net with which wild animals are caught. 

ne walked three leagues. J3orfo^,rfJ zJdi-8- rsid)^ do63.rU z-<?.{ 

to v 

a person should walk very properly as long as he lives. 

doJjjsdo, if (they) learn knowledge, they will walk properly. See 
an instance in this paragraph under 'to fear'. sorfakruia&rt dosaj ?ioA) a5eN>d53 
dorao^rf e33^ ^^fSt, if (he) tells the maniyagara (his) bad and good circumstances, 
will he not count the mounds? 3300J5, R?33ddJ3 ^rfo 


8 he requested "mother, tell even you a means (to me)!" 
23?ado ddoiodojjo, Vishnu asked the half of the land of the lord of the Kurus. 
^ so^do^ z3i^ z3Q 5SOJ idos^, this old man solicits alms and (thus) brings 
grain (to his house). **o5js^rt tfofc* ass* &e?duj 3*3^1)0 o, when (he) put (his) 
hand into (his) pocket and examined, (there) was no money. wstf rtd wrf oioo 


, he who mounts a war-chariot and drives. ^JJ?s|o3io rf^sSo, I shall 
ascend the fort, ioftci Sod ofcs?? 26^0^, why doest thou ascend the cocoa-nut 
tree? ^o^JCioijrfi ^3,>3 siasd, a horseman who mounts a horse. ^ o3j s5d d? s 

01 -* v4 

WA^ ?o0^rfo, Agni surrounded the women of that place. 

The terms that express 'to fear' generally appear without t?J5>S7*, e.g. 
, a worthy person fears sin. 5* aoJjiirtjfc S5oz2, &e?tf 
, the boy feared, and cried "the wolf 

has come, the wolf has come!" ^oc3o6 ^Qs3)C3& SS^o^o^cS, the horse 
is afraid of the bridle, w Jj3 3od3 9 c$^j that servant-maid was afraid. 

On the other hand there are also instances like the following one : 

, if (we) fear God and always behave properly, He will help us. Cf. 
348, e. 

342- For the sake of emphasis erura^ is, is occasionally added to the end 


of a verb which appears in the form of a verbal noun, e. g. 

?o3o 'g'srid dJsdjddoKO,, also of the bark of some trees 

(they) make paper, 'adjtfo d&,rlvaif) z5*,rf dj&^rts'^rl Mdv 

., if at night cats or young cats 


are met (by them), owls will peck (their) eyes and kill them. 

ISio oi?^ S5{&jrfd)P30, (they) use to say "the pupil (is) like (his) spiritual 

teacher". 3ood)nje) ^^ 3odd>p^r1s?c3 ^d ^dc3 sd^jrf^o 
if v o 

various objects of commerce come from foreign countries to India. 

SsoSossJo. o^J)^j &ir3c>c53Je> ?3rfo.<D?o,>rfc3jofc3je>, does it ever happen that a 

Zv CO w<J 

metal pot brings forth young? w,3a?l) ^jploioS toOd lodao ^^jj^ckfl^, 
will the writing that Brahma has written on the forehead, fail? 

XXV. On comparison. 

343. In Kannada the comparative and superlative degrees are expressed 
in the following way: 

1, by the simple dative (cf. 348, 7), e. g. 

a) &)^^* es^uo, this man (is) excellent to the world, i. e. this 
man (is) most excellent in the world. -BoDooftas&rtv* tfdJe)^ ^JS,r3o &0 
jjjj SJejrfo the timingila and so on are fishes of which the one is large 


to the one, i. e. of which one is larger than the other. io^=#J3,^ 

o a 

, fishes of which one is larger than the other. 

- 377 - 

, this man (is) great (or high) to Meru, i. e. 
higher than M.'-ru. tfo^tfo wtfo 2jj>3tfclv< srfrsi? tfS^o, superior 
to all in the world as to family and firmness of character (see 284). 
&sJo etoSri^ S3ij 9 d>j2 e3 9 ctfo SD;^ dw Ort SoOok, the small one, if 

oo ro 

(he) speaks discriminate^, (is) great to all, i. e. (is) greater than all (or 
the greatest of all), ^rttf >?!d^ aoreo ^s$ , the ripe fruit of the 
Eugenia jambolana (is) black to, /. e. blacker than, the crow. $$ tfodo 
6rt ?if^ ^jd)6 dJ3c3rio, thy horse (is) larger than mine. (C^. the second 
verse in 280.) 

c) 3(3rt 'scS^JSj eo3otf efo zS^^^j, he said he wanted much more 

jaggory than even this. ^rtd 3oe>OFi s^ oiw =&% ^U.zSo, the poison of 

* U 

the cobra (is) the worst of all. rl^ d>fe3 -osj^j^, sSo^sjscirfo, wheaten 
bread (is) the best of all. 

2, by the dative combined with 'SicS, (*arf or) a^ (^c^), 'from' 
('S^ being another form of r&ti, cf. 282), suffixes of the ablative (or 
instrumental, see 109 seq.; 352, 4, a), e.g. 

a} TS^OWO* 'ari. FftFfS ^-sdJS^.^o, a jungle (is) good to-from a town 

00 V 

in wliich (there) are envious people, i. e. a jungle (is) better than a town 
in which envious people are. 

&) w???)^?^ o^d^^, E^OOon^ wrl^Oe;, (there) is no height to- 
from the sky, (there) is no breadth to-from the earth, i. e. (there) is 
nothing higher than the sky, (there) is nothing broader than the earth. 

erf, ^e^, intellect (is) far better than 

v ' 


9 o x t>' 9 

science, food (is) far better than intellect. ^cSoOJoo ri.rfo-8-jrf 

' < - 

knowledge (is) greater than wealth. , 

gold is dearer than copper. *)o3o3-A 3oJOoioo 2J3o 8 ^ ^d^i, the tiger (is) 

much fiercer than the lion, ^atk?^ tsdo ddor^oiosyaddo, that (is) more 

beautiful than this. >3o S3C5 9 oi:cid BD^^,^ ^zS, he who knows nothing 

<>3 ^y 
(is) viler than a dog. 'a^^K^ wc3o d^c5o, that (is) larger than this. 

sptf&A 3orfo ^3^n)Cirfo oi3e)SJc3j, what (is) more dear than knowledge? 
c) 3e)05onrf So^rfOo, ?te,dF>?l 3O ao, (there) are none more bene- 

J CO Tfy ^^ CO 

ficial than a mother, (there) is nothing sweeter than sugar. 5J33ri^c3 
e3??oo, death (is) better than a life without honour. 
-O^rfg wdJ, the ears of the donkey (are) longer 
than the ears of the horse. Si?e 


53, white bears are bigger than bears of brown colour, 
, he (is) four years younger than I. 


, this well is deeper than that well. 
, your girl (is) more clever than that girl. 

;, iron (is) much more 

useful than the other metals. t?s;rf >is3) ^?o^ro ffs>0 9 ftcl eo^dj rira do, 


the seed of the Banian tree (is) much smaller than poppy-seed. awe> 


, boas (are) much larger than 

the other snakes. ^&j. 3oe>3Atf e>rtd 35>>r{ rolk, waotf, cobras have 
w v 

more wrath than the (so-called) vicious snakes. 
^Onb cSJS^S^, wolves (are) a little larger than dogs. 


OJ3 y=^^ B^Oh^OJS wa?i 35D^>o sjo^sjsh A)^> 'Sdo^d, the milk of goats 
is thicker and sweeter than the milk of sheep and the milk of cows. 
4^$^ s3o?*wworradaw, rfj^Sftji d3?e<J&d>w, (there) is no gold 
better than pure gold, (there) is no lisping nicer than (that of) children. 

(?oJ30JoPc3e)C3) c3e)rS^, of all the beautiful and brilliant things 
on earth even I (the sun, am) the most beautiful and brilliant, ^s&hr^, 
^STdrirftfc^ ?30rffc3. ^JS^ 23?=$^j. aor33osSo,, the vain pride that wants 
to make equal to one's self those who are greater than one's self, ^o^j 
sj&rttftf ^33 3J&rt$ft?l 3o2^o zooD ^do^ d, some animals have more 

fc7 3 

understanding than other animals. rfoJSCSo SeJrkr^hFS oo2*o, more than 
three hours. rfj3&9o ds/Sss^oSoA^ ^^^o, less than a hundred ^rupees. 

3o^o, the rainy season (is) more 

(abundant) in Ceylon than with us. rto^dJ3^h?3 >J3 *&& C3e)Oo3oFi OJ3 


^ aSjs^ =&>rco a8J5^ 23?^d6 ^ilsdrt^nrf ^Irls?^ tf^o, if (it) is 

t4 ^ ^ "~^ 

necessary to carry burdens over mountains and stony roads, donkeys 
are more desirable (or useful) than horses. 

d) Worred^A<x> zze>$$) 2&2^^rfo, knowledge (is) something greater 

u IT 

than even gold. }> Oh^sjJS d^sdo c3jS^ rf^o, God (is) greater than all. l) 
3, by the ablative and its substitute the instrumental ( 352, 4, a), e. g. 
a) 'Sx^ ^^e$o 2J;Jjiclo &0o3oo, Balabhadra (is) old from Krishna, 

It is to be remarked that uneducated people occasionally use such sentences as 

touS^fct^, assO^*^ xc -st^. siwozaci*^ i3?^ft. ecdw^eso tfjasracOjns?^^ 

zieo^ aSjs^Srd*^ ^o eruiS^ 'arfo^d. They evidently think that v^tf, or s*^ are 
separate suffixes which require the genitive case. 

- 379 - 

i. e. older than Krishna, fd^jwcg^ c$o zdaodfsio &S3 9 G3oo Sahadeva (is) 
younger than Nakula. eifcjJFffr^r^o ^zfod^fs* S3$tfo, Vasudeva (is) 

more excellent than Arjuna. &3f$3 r3>^o sjfcjo, this man (is) more clever 

- o 
than that man. See 349, 8. 

b) T5r,3S[ $o &0o3oo zo^clo, Balabhaclra (is) old from Krishna, i. e. 
older than Krishna. rioo3j?)F$^o -S-Gf^ofov* cksL^ Dussale (is) younger 


than Duryodhana. sra^CJorf ?fe>oi)53i 3o><3vJ>c5 rjs?i>o ^zlo3o, a body 
without knowledge (is) even worse than a village in ruins. (Cf. the 
first verse in 280.) 

c) r a>o3oc2 23oQ>>o3oo ( z3o>?3 < a>o&o), a (or my) paramour 

co Q v ro ca 

(is) indeed a man sweet from jaggory, i. e. sweeter than jaggory. drs^, 
^.?S >?o dooo$c3oi3*, thou art more excelling than I in respect of war 
(i. e. thou excellest me in war). 

d) <o>o,;3 dj* 'S.s^oS^^o $z*$) 3o^^o, you (are) mean from us indeed, 
i. e. indeed meaner than we, on earth. 

e) 33&30?3 sSo?e3rfo o, a man who says U I am better from others" 
i.e. "better than others". C3s)0d. o>rf 5&3ra SoS?.cSo, death (is) better 

v-x'u O V 

than poverty. 5)rto5o?i >?&3t> SoCSJ =^S) , the ripe fruit of the Eugenia 

CJ >3 J 

jambolana (is) blacker than the crow. 

, a man who utters low words (is) worse than a fool. 

/) ^?l^^) SoOodo^o, a male older from him, i.e. older than him 

L O 

(or an elder brother). ^^?os>J3 3oOa?otfo, a female older than her (or 
an elder sister). (In these two instances the s^p an d >>, 'also', 'even', 
appear to be redundant.) 

4, by the locative (cf. 350, 2), e. g. 

a) ^^ta6J3^* 23=2r,>o, in (or among) sons the young one, i. e. the 


youngest son. zS^dJSv* )dF&o&e>3^o, the fit one among princes (is) 
the guiltless one, i. e. the guiltless one (is) the fittest of princes, d^ort 
s3oo, the ruby (is) the best of precious stones. 3o3o 
>ex)^c3o, of cows the black cow has most milk. 
,o , white cloth (is) the best cloth, 

U V V - 

>, he who runs (is) the quickest of them. 

&) ^e; SSSlilrt^ ffod)drt^J&^ 3J5S)srarfrf ^ocSjdrts'o Soewj, Arabian 

CO (Q 

horses (are) the best horses of all countries. 

ero^ do, the brown cow (is) the best of cows, 



rid Dei^orfo ts^rSrl), Rama (is) the most clever of the boys. ^^^. w ^. 

CO *J^ < 

i, the diamond (is) the most excellent of precious stones. 

w ~ 

most formidable of all wild beasts, ^v 


the diamond (is) the hardest of all things. 

house (is) the oldest of all houses. 

5, by the genitive as a substitute of the locative (see 352, i, c), e. g. 
to^aoo, the best of liberal persons. -d?dd dedo, the most emi- 


nent of donors, dro^d 3^ ^or, the most splendid of the witty. 

o x 

XXVI, On Syntax, 

344. The ancient Kaunada grammars which the author of the present 
grammar has consulted, do not use a particular word to express syntax 
or the construction of sentences; however the Samskrita term vakyavinyasa 
which expresses it, may be adopted. 

Regarding the construction of a sentence (vakya) karaka, i. e. the 
relation of the noun to the verb, is to be considered. Kesava says that 
karaka is on account of the verb (kriyanimitta), and that the case 
terminations (namavibhaktis) are suffixed by the power of karaka 
(karakavasadim). (Regarding karaka see 253,2; 357, i. 2, a). Cf. 
also 354, 3, a. 

There are six such karakas or relations, viz. 

1, kartri, the doer of an action, the active noun, the agent (cf. 
150), used in connection with a transitive or active verb (sakarmakaj 
or if expressing the agent's circumstances or state, in connection with 
an intransitive (akarmaka, see 148). It stands in the nominative case 
and is the subject of the verb (cf. 347, 9; 357, 2). 

2, karma, the object on which the action of the kartri falls, i. e. the 
idea expressed by the accusative case. 

3, karana, the instrument, i. e. the idea expressed by the instrumental 

4, sampradana, the recipient of the object of giving or of the gift, 
i. e. the idea expressed by the dative case. 

5, apadana, ablation, i. e. departure or removal from a fixed point, 
coming from, i. e. the idea expressed by the ablative case. 

- 381 - 

6, adhikarana, location, place of the action or state of the agent, 
i. e. the idea expressed by the locative case. 

The idea of the genitive case is not considered a karaka, because it 
expresses the relation of two nouns to each other (sambandhartha), but 
not the relation of a noun and verb ( 351). 

345. The nominative (cf. 352, e, a. 6, 6) considered by itself expresses 

1, liiiga, i.e. specification, e.g. 3 o, 'arf o, do^^oo 

oj oj 

{3, tfj&>6, rfjdo, ftci), jj-Sr,, Doric; 

2, artha, bhuva, i. e. sort or kind, state of being, e.g. >ac&o, 


, koodoo, es?oo3oo, ^crfjo; 

3, vacana, vacanamatra, ganane, i. e. (mere grammatical) number, 
numeration, e. g. &,{&, <oddo, kJSS3o, edro, arfro', s&J3do*; 


4, sambodhane, abhimukhikarana, i. e. addressing (see 140), e. g. 

When it becomes the agent or subject (kartri), simple sentences formed 
by it are e. g. the following: d^$* fco^do, the king (is) good, 
fttfd), milk (is) white, ssdo Odosj^Ovl, he (is) pure-minded. ?o 
thou (art) Kama. t?o ^?i, I (am) Nandi. 3^^ wdo, it (is) he. 
, these (are) males, usjo* ^cSo*, those (are) females. 


the sun rose, todro ZOF^ o, one man came, 'asjr 


two persons spoke. c3?sJo s3o^ c5c, the king was pleased, esrio 


he killed, w^o* ^JS'^3,, let them make! Jj^FJii, ^?V, bear, para- 


mount lord! 

It is to be remarked that when the subject is a personal pronoun, 
it is often omitted, as it is contained in the personal terminations of the 

verb (see 193 seg.)> e. g. -adFcSo, 'adtfS, 'szfc^ftS, J am ? 
3^f8, he comes; ?j8?c5oa3, SJ^ecS, 3oJ?)?a, thou wentest; 

, she uttered; ?SzlcJo*, r^rlrfdo, they walked. 

346. In sentences in which the accusative or object (karma, cf. 352, 
2, a seq.; 6,6. 6,&), i. e. the case of tilings (vastu), etc. on which the action 
of the verb falls, occurs, the things, etc. may be said to be: 

1, ishta, i. e. wished for, e.g. ^fdv'doo Jrtdo, he took the necklace; 
^oSriGuOo iJSeJ o, he put on the ornament; Sjprfo s&oacSo, he set flowers 


in the hair. 


In such a case also a double accusative (dvikarma) uses to take place, 
e.g. rtodosjo s^rfoo zS^rijsrso, be asked wisdom of the guru; cra^ofco 

f o^ > C4 

,23?&c5o, he begged a gift of the liberal man; ^odosJvBcrfoo >so 
idododotfoo, Vishnu asked the king of the Kurus for the half of 
(his) land; sjsbsjo 333^0 ^Cf s cio, he extracted milk from the cow; ?3sj 
he made them devotees. 

Regarding a double accusative with causal verbs the following sentences 
may be adduced: wd 3o ^^rS^ eixod^ 903jroc5o, the king caused 
(his) servant to go to the town; rU^^o ^>S3orttfo si)?3o3oo 
the cowherd caused the cows to enter the house; U> 
o&* >&3 9 roc3o, the driver caused the king to mount the elephant; 
!>3^f$o sssjo'tfdrssi^ Larorfo, the teacher caused (his) disciple to read 
the grammar (see 149 seq.). 

2, anishta, i- e. not wished for, e. g. 33-5)^0, he crossed a 



3, nivartya, i.e. to be produced (as something new), e. g. 5jo?5ako 
sl3e>&rio, he built a house; ^e^cS&o 35e&3o, he told a poem. 

w o ' 

4, vikarya, i. e. to be transformed, e.g. 3JOos3o ^3rfo, he cut down 
the forest; ^oJoo s^js^o, he split the fruit. 

5, prapya, i. e. to be reached or arrived at, e. g. eaod 
he reached the town; dod^o ?rorfro, he approached the tree. 

6, vaishayika, i. e. to be observed by the senses, e. g. 
cio, he. saw the sun; ft^si>o ^^o, he heard a song; 
he smelt a flower; sfrf^o c^O^cJo, he saw him. 

7, kala, i. e. relating to time (cf. 348, 29), e. g. e3&3oaorftfo 3$ rfo, 

. ^ 

he lingered six months; vlo^sl}^ 'S.cJro. he remained three nights; 

o o 

. he wandered about a nisht-watch; ^j^sS^oo ^eJ^drs 

v TJ 

, he studied (grammar) for a month. 

8, adhva, i. e. relating to space, e. g. wdrnj^rfs&o sJQcio, he ran 
half a league; doJ37Te)^)CS^oo rfrirfo, he walked three leagues. 

347. In sentences in which the instrumental case (karana, cf. 352, 
2,6. 3. 4, a. 4, 6) is used, the following specific meanings are considered to be 
expressed by it: 

1, karana, i.e. an instrument, e.g. ^JSddoSoo ^ario, he cut with 


an axe; rtcSoSoo ^J3?ado, he struck with a club; 3^0 &6>v s &do, he saw 
with (his) eyes ; tfozijrtJ3?o &o3o o, the cut off with a sickle. 

2, hetu, i. e. cause, instrumentality, means, e.g. kj^>rlao 3JcSdo, he 
obtained through service; ^rtSoo r00,rfo, he was impeded by an obstacle; 


z&rfao totOo, he lived by fate; d<3ao tfjwo, by wealth high station (is 
acquired); )2otoo fc^o, by learning fame (is acquired); 


o, by the knowledge of truth final liberation (is obtained). 

To this class of sentences may be added the following instances with 
causative verbs taken from the Sabdanusasana: 

, the domestic priest had a gift given by the king; 

, the king had the field ploughed by the 
gavuda; rfodo ^0 a^dre^o^* LaA)3o, the teacher had the gram- 
mar read by (his) pupil. 

3, samyoga, i. e. association, e. g. ^ortrfao "&$ o, he came in 
company (Sabdamanidarpana); sjort^o T$<)&> fcJ^o, he came accompanied 
by (his) son; v& ,o5oo z3dAj 3o0o3js> rf^o, Hari shone joined by Lakshmt; 
vusSooSoo ^ort^ro sSoS^do 33^rf?3oJoo, he on whose forehead is a cres- 
cent (i. e. Siva) assumed an ostentatious appearance accompanied by 
Ume (Sabdanusasana). 

4, upadana, i.e. material cause (cf. 350, 9), e. g. dodDo rfjscss) 
^OJoo, make an elephant of wood! 

5, siddhi,^. e. accomplishment (within a time, within a distance), e.g. 
sJJeJroSo s^o^drso S^8r3Fs3Je)03o^j, the grammar became complete within 
a month; 2jO?o3o 3^3 o ^oohtktSo, the treaty was finished in the rainy 

*_ if 

season; ^js ^ao sS^ddjs* t>>rfo, he read the veda within a cos; rre^d 


>o SDS! doo siQrorfo, he recited the treatise in the course of a league 
^ *=} 


6, bheda, prakara, i. e. speciality, particular sign or mark, e.g. 

^Dcio tfodoc^o, he (is) blind of (both his) eyes; ^sio tfora.o, he (is) lame 
ro u 

in (his) legs; ^o50oo s3j3?Uo, he (is) deprived of a forearm; tjslo^oo 
a>dFo, he (is) a Brahmana as to (his) caste; 3^3050$' k$C$o, he (is) 
good as to (his) nature (Sabdanusasaua). 

7, (vidhi, i. e. manner, e. g. 3 doSjrf fi^d^o, he walked in a quick 

3 o 

manner; 2^^ a^ Lad^o, he read in a beautiful manner; t3)rfo5jFi 


, he spoke in a clever mauner). Cf. adverbs expressed by the 
instrumental in 281. 

8, itthambhutalaksbana, a so circumstanced characteristic mark, 
characterised in such manner, characterised by, e.g. ^dora^o 


S'rso, he discerned the pupil by the (characteristic) water-pot; 
53feJos3{3* S3t3 9 c3o, he knew the boy by the tuft of hair (Sabdanusasana). 

9, kartri (cf. 344), i. e. the efficient cause of a thing (in the so- 
called passive, 315), e. g. t>ti3&f ss^ ?ros3o3oo 3jsd ^rfo, the 
breast-ornament was made by the goldsmith; ^^sis* <o o %t$ sJlk, 
d^ the poem was told by me. 

In such a case also instances with a double instrumental case occur, 
e.g. e$d?oio ws^rorl^c^ v&o s&sario*, by the king rice was 

9, jo 

caused to be made by the cook; adOoSo^^r^^o 3rsFo $&&$& sSfelo, 

Ci PO 40 

by Hari Karna was caused to be killed by Arjuna. 

348. In sentences in which the dative case (sampradana, cf. 352, 2 c. 
5, a. 5, b. 5, c) is used, the following specific meanings are considered to be 
expressed by it: 

1, sampradana, i. e. (simple) bestowing, e. g. zj^aapao^ rU)?do ^J3^o, 
he gave a cow to the Brahmana; o&3ri tp^s&s* 'SxkcSo, he gave alms 

^A 7? 

to the religious mendicant; zjSjD^ Z&tiSd&vk-tf 1 ( a^ B o, he gave a garland 
of flowers to the temple. 

2, ruci, i. e. being pleasurable or palatable, e. g. ^jaA)o 
sweet-meat balls (are) agreeable to the taste of a child; 

rice-cakes (are) agreeable to the taste of Ganesa. 

dtt&o&itao, alms-giving is a pleasure to the pious man. 

3, irshe, i. e. jealousy, e. g. 3>f> 3> doo^^o, a poet uses to be 
displeased with a poet; ^owfSo rdo&Notf ?3c&i?3'o, a bad man cannot bear 
a good man. 

4, matsara, i e. envy, e.g. ?orf3rl ^^^ S^rfoasj^, a rival wife uses 
to envy a rival wife; &dr?F ftdoric 6 r3rl?jo^D*, men of distinction use 
to envy men of distinction. 

5, hita, i. e. suitableness, etc. (the Sabdanusasana has ishta, i. e. 
desirableness), e.g. zJsioOori s^reo 3o3o, grass (is) good for cows; 
7f a 3Sldo So^o, medicine (is) fit for a sick person; oiisz3 3of( n5 


heaven (is) an object of desire for the sacrificer. 


6, bhiti, i. e. fear (cf. 349, 2), e. g. tttt --u.r^z 3*,e, a good 

TT _ W 

person fears sin; ajjOrt^o-rtoo <L&, a female elephant fears tigers. 


7, unnati, adhikya, (gurutva), i.e. greatness, superiority (age, in com- 
parison, cf. 343, i. 2; 349, s; 352, 2, c), e.g. d/a^^i^ 33o, this 


man (is) greater than all (or the greatest of all); ^j^tfjOoftt^^S* 'Jrirtfo, 
this man (is) higher than Mem; od&rl 3odc3* VQ^o, Hara (is) greater 
than Hari; r?rf^j8,rfj 3oOo3o CwSrk, (various) fishes of which one is 

L Q ^- o ^J 

larger than the other; sUiclOrt w->,3q,fSCj tefc;uO, Brahmanas (are) more 

-^ ^ e, 

respectable than Sudras; ^fifi 5^> aorso 33) , the ripe fruit of 

?*3 } 

Eugenia jambolana (is) blacker than a crow; Oe>^o>r\ ^si o -S-tt 9 OuOciJ, 
Krishna (is) younger than Rama]. 

8, svasti, i. e. well-wish, e. g. ?JdJ^^jr^ ^rt^SoJoj^v? w^j^So, =5 ' 

"0" PO 5J I-V A 

siodv^, uo^oo, zpsjs^^o (Ngv. ^sj^o), ^^o3oo, ^do, 2b;o, ^A^, ^ioortVo, 
^o?prso (a quotation of Kesava from Nagavarma's nighantu, our MS. 
p. 105), may everywhere accrue to the world desired objects, a state of 
well-being, happiness, prosperity, bliss, luck, joy, auspiciousness (and) 
good fortune. 

9, svabhava, i.e. natural disposition, nature, e.g. AJOSO^, s^oi-^c. 


to the lion (is) valour (i. e. the lion possesses valour); 3&fl ^33j^>^, the 
monkey possesses agility. 

10, hetu, i. e. cause (cf. 349, 6), e. g. ro3rto&fl?rto, by wealth offices 
(are obtained); ^oWM sJoofto*, clouds (are the cause) of rain. 

11, namaskara, i.e. obeisance, e.g. c3?jr\r ^^do^.o, he made 


obeisance to the king; rfodjOori^SriCjo, he made obeisance to the guru: 
he made obeisance to the Jina. 

o r 


12, pranyanadarasmarana, i e. contemptuous thought concerning, 
or contemptuous mentioning of, beings, e. g. ^je^Sdo c)s3 ^3^ s^jgrt ?2fS 

/^ vsi 

rfo, when misery happens (to him), he will count men (but) straw: AoSri 
^slslrarl fij&Jjo, when misery happens (to him), he will speak against 
the goddess of fortune (Sabdamanidarpana) ; ss^ff ^o ^^^ J ^ c3o > 
he counted him (but) straw; jej^o -&>^& 3^W3 ^^dri zortuio, Saumitri 
(a. e. Laksbmana) counted the rogue (but) a worm-eaten cowrie; 
ZS^tifS 6 ION^^^ wridojo*, thou countedst him (but) an areca nut ( 

In such sentences also a double accusative may be used. e. //. 



Credos wrtcSc, he Counted him (but) straw; writfo 4%o ^^CJD, he 
regarded him as (mere) straw. 

13, anishta, i.e. hatred, dislike, undesirableness, e.g. tJ^ofi >2a 
0^*' ^&,Sc, he poisoned him; s^ori s^oko do?3do, he whetted (his) 
sword against him; ^>vof\ Zo^^o., SjfcJ^jo& ; , the vajramushti-weapon 
(is) noxious to wrestlers; ^JS^^S^.o w&3o, famine (is) disagreeable 

"w vO 

to the world. 

14, sadrisya, i.e. similarity, e.g. ^&of\^o ^TO, this man (is) as 


deserving as that man; SDODrf^t* Zoosia^^ k>Cri, the (elephant) 


Supratika (is) equal to the (elephant) Airavata; rlfcfOofl rtsjoko ?o<3x2!o, 
the (ox) Gayal likens a cow; z^ oft ?o>j>3o s&osjo, a face (is) like 
the moon. 

15, pratinidhi, i.e. substitution, the being put or coming in the 
place of another, e. g. ?$ 3^ ^> ^^.^ rj^do, for honey sugar may 

*J "O] ~C o3 

be used; w vto^t ^uzU WOuOSo, for that poetical composition this 


poetical composition has been substituted; rt3^,tihil,ebf8 sis* S5=aO % o, 

' rr -o- ca -a- 

costus is used instead of Ricinus. 

16, ishta, i.e. love, e.g. S^of) dddo^'" r ^^o, he gave a boon to 
the devotee; =$$o3oori ToF^doo dj^^do, he made (his) friend glad. 

17, prati, i. e. regard, with regard to, as to, e.g. 


jj that in Kannada which 
(according to the opinion of some) is wholly insufficient with regard to 
(its) words, (there is) jattana and bedande, the ancient poets have proved 
by (their) renowned poetical works that now still exist. See 284 
(under dative ^o^o ^w^o); 287, under 2 (<odzl) ?o^.re?ji3s\o); 287, 

"O" ' ~ ' 

under 3 (^d^o ^ooioo). Cf. 302, 4. 

18, (gamana, i.e. going to, the point toward which movement is 
directed, e.g. jsj?5o srusDri 3oJSec5?l>, he went to the town; 

=$, 3dQoijo^ >, rivers flow into the sea; ou^ri) ^^ ^^df^o, Rama 

* u > 

walked to the forest). 

19, [arghya, i. e. price or exchange, e. g. 

, I gave this for ten rupees; tk>8>f( 3Jos^do, five sers for a duddu; 


waStf 3ol3, CjC^csj, dJ333e>cort lo^o ^fdo rfjeO^d, opium (is) 
very clear, one ser is sold for seven or eight rupees; >j3^ & ^JSj^o^ ^c 

^- * ^* 

for how much will you give (it)? oidzt) CJat-aOScfl tfJSCo^f?S, I will 
give (it) for two rupees]. Cf. 302, i. 

20, (matra, i.e. mereness, the one thing and no more, e.g. ^^Jort 
ed?o?$.:, a king only as to name; dJS3rl SDfS^j, a wise man only as to 
words; cf. 352, 4, 6). 

21, (dikku, i.e. direction, e.g. qrad;:^^ 22<$Ai> srof^C, Belgaum 
(is) to the north of Dharwar; cf. 352, 4, a. 3). 

22, [dura, i. e. distance, e. g. zpsidss)^, sS^rraO 3o>^;SdJ 
WcS, Belgaum is sixteen haradaris from Dharwar; 

that village (is) three miles from this village; 

<03^o. dOd, what (is) the distance between Bangalore and Mysore? cf. 

352, 4, a. 4]. 

23, sakti, i.e. power, e.g. s3os;o7*> 0^ o ^^, a wrestler (is) a match 
for a wrestler; $33oA?3o ?i^oqip"c, this man is able to mate with that 
man (Sabdanusasana). 

24, asuye, i.e. detraction, e.g. ^sjorort ^0^^ tt^JBoSortofioo, the 


Kaurava takes away from the reputation of Dharma; c^^oo^ zredrso 
z3jl^^^* t?6J3?^)roc3o. Ravana ascribes vice to Rama (Sabdanusasana). 

25, droha, i. e. mischief, e. g. adSoAe^o c3j3,^3o, this man (is) a 
traitor to the king; ZorSoioortSj^O ^i>?S?dc, the servant does ill to (his) 
master (Sabdanusasana). 

26, svaha, svadha, vashatkara, i. e. the three ritual invocations of 

hail and prayer, e.g. *3f\f{ rj^gss^Co, hail to Agni! &3,rttf ^^^^'SDo, 

oo y ^ si 

benison to the manes! ^ ori s33S^, vashat to Indra! (Sabdanusasana). 

O) "3- 

27, tadarthya, e. e. sake, purpose, material cause, e.g. sSjS^^, ^^ 

^*A ^ ^3 

Z2^NO, for final liberation knowledge of the truth (is necessary); ^ors 


^ 2^r^s, for an earring gold (is taken) ; ;i?7^ siodc, for a chariot wood 

rf- e ^- 

(is required); tts:3y^)i^J5,^, for pounding a pestle (is required) 



28, utpata, ^. e. portents, e. g. zot3^ (lit. regarding famine) ^s^cjj, 

"0^ *- a 

white flashes of lightning (portend) famine; Afi^^si* ^?5,oij 2or? e, 

OJ v3 

frogs' tufts (portend) the ruin of the world; ^::os3 =3*^0^0, red 
flashes, of lightning (portend) excessive heat of the sun (Sabdanusasana). 



29, [TOW, i. e. time (cf. 302, 2. 7; 303, i,a; 346, 7; 352, 4, a. 
5. e,c), e.#. *aci rt, to-day; ^rsoioo^e)^, in the evening ; 

for two years; sptfosj 3ort^?^, next month; &sb rtfl A at seven o'clock]. 


30, (o3J^rt c i, e. e. deserving state, e.g. drag's-, ^=^d^j, he who 

deserves honour; ^dsoO^so^Srfd^o s&drs^ 333:^0, she who cannot bear 

d ^ 

patiently deserves death). 

31, $d, . e. difference, e.#. 

, > 


(there is) a great difference betwixt this and that; cf. 352, 4, a. 2). 
32, (trades, j. e. cause, purpose, end, see 302, 7; 352, 4, a. 11; e. g. 
, why didst thou come? TW?O& so?2^o, I came on business; 

"O" G 

3oJ3?cS^j, I went to see). 



1, In 316 it is stated that 'to have', 'to possess' is expressed by 
etc. preceded by the dative case. 

2, Regarding adverbs used with the dative see 282 under dative. 

3, Some verbs are often used with the dative, e.g. rJj8oi>r 

from the sun we get light and heat; *>& 

. , , the tame cow 

CO lu **^ Ci 

said " because my master is poor, I do not get sufficient food to fill my 
stdmach". rfstf **.>, I found (it), rfrfrt oJodo, I know not. 3sr aoo^o 

x ' C3 

coScOo^o, he went mad. 

349. In sentences in which the ablative case (apadana, cf. 352, 2, d. 4, a) 
is used, the following specific meanings are considered to be expressed 

1, apadana, i.e. (simple) separation from, coming from, going away 
from, e.g. sSodc^rSo 3Jrco adjr^}, ripe fruits fell from the tree; F\o 
OJo^ cSo ^e;oCo^od;, stones rolled down from the mountain: ^Si 3 c3o^ co 

-* en o -" _o 

eo^o, he came from the tank; ioCsud ^orfododo^ fSo u)i^ o he fell from 

Q ' Cl ' 

(his) horse which was running; sjQd torSodo^ rs^o dj^o, he rolled from 

ca - ca o ' 

the cart which was moving rapidly; eniSj^cra-aJo^^rJo ^J" s oi:Dao, he 
hid himself from the teacher; rlodort^J^o ^e>ola.W,o, he went out of 
the way of the guru; S&Jftw^do ^Jo^j DJO^^O, a flash of lightning 
flashed from the cloud. 

2, bhaya, i.e. fear (cf. ;-J48. e; 352, 4, a. 6), e..//. wUSj^fSo c)^; 9 
, an inroad arose from the king: ^jSKSo^rS^csSdo, he was afraid 


of the tiger; sgCcii^rfo $?, fear (proceeding) from a tiger; srssid^c^o 
32tfG3o, anxiety (coming) from sin. 

3, svikara, i. e. adoption, making one's own, (acquiring for one's self), 
e.g. TO 3<>C(ba^e3o ^sreraSsij* wdodo, from (his) king the achievement 
(of his object) was got; cn)33BraC&>f&eSo C>t3o02oc3* 'Stfjrtffljsrso, he 
acquired knowledge from (his) teacher. 

4, ishta, i. e. agreeableness, pleasure (cf. 352, 4, a. 7), e.g. tisS^aij 
j^o nbajo sra^rododo, from Rambhe pleasure was obtained; srosjd^rlo 

he saved from sin; zo3d^ rto ?oe;3odo. he saved from famine. 

5, anishta, i. e. disagreeableness (cf. 352, 4, a. 8), e. g. 

imprisonment came from the enemy; srasSd 

o he suffered bewilderment from sin. 

6, hetu, i.e. cause, means, e.g. vodJSoertd^Ecio roO zo?i>do, wealth 
came from office. Cf. 348, 10; 352, 4, a. 9. 

7, udaya, i.e. springing from, originating (cf. 352, 4,a. 10), e. g. 

he sprang from a good family; o 

^skg, the Ganges rose from the Himavat mountain; 
wdodo, the sprout arose from the seed; &o7tc$^c$o 
the water proceeded from the top of the mountain. 

8, gurutva, perme, i.e. dignity, age (in comparison), e.g. 
, Balabhadra (is) older than Krishna; 
, Vasudeva (is) more excellent than Arjuna; 
oJoo, Sahadeva (is) younger than Nakula; 
fci?) z&o 3Jfe3o, this man (is) smarter than that man. (//". 343, 2, a; 
343, s; 348, 7; 350, 2, a-c. 

350. In sentences in which the locative case (adhikarana, fulhara, cf. 
352, 3. 5, c. 6, a) is used, the following- specific meanings are considered to be 
expressed by it: 

1, adhikarana, adhara, i.e. (simple) relation to site, place, e.g. 
33e>n) &*'*'' c3flo5oo, he slept on the bed; sSSSjtfj^dJSs* ^o^dro, he 
sat down in the basket-boat; do> dc3j3v* ^oSSorK"*, the cows (are) in 
the house; dodd SoOoJjsrttSjas'* vureo, he ate from a plate of wood; 


.cSJSs 1 * ^^tao, (there is) splendour in the disk of the sun; e^dJSV* 
, (there is) white colour in the flower; 3s)$36o3J2v* Sgl3do, he was 


born in a lotus (or sprung from a lotus); [s3o?2o&S:3> N, he is in the 

house; sdo3j they cooked rice in the jungle; 

M t L tj 

^;3os3c3, (there) is strength in (his) body]. 

2, nirdharana, i. e. specifying one out of many (comparison, see 
343, 4. 5; 352, 1,0). 

a) as to quality (guna), e.g. cS^dJSv' SidJSer&o&sjs^o, a fit one 
among princes (or the fittest one of princes is) the guiltless one; C3,orf 

, among jewels the ruby (is) precious; ^oCSort 
o, among cows the black cow (is) that which 

has (most) milk; ?o c3J3v* zS^fcloSJS'S.gj,., among cloth white cloth (is) 

6) as to action or being (kriye), e.g. rlO^s^Sd-Qv* -3^o ?s>^Sc3o, 

**. co 
among the runners this man (is) a strong-footed one (or this man is the 

most strong-footed one of the runners): ^?c3o3dv* -^o sSocxl.) ), 
among those who fight this man (is) a strong-bodied one; 

sSo 5e>s3^A, among them he who runs (is) a swift-footed one; 

C;^o eta o^Sj^', among ripe fruits that which drops (from the tree is) 


a mature fruit (or the most mature fruit of ripe fruits is that which 
drops from the tree); 

c) as to race (jati), e. g. dJSrfd&QS'* a^Cj^c* "JU^^JD*, among 
men males (are) chiefs (or males are the most eminent of men) ; 
Co*, among males Kshatriyas (are) valiant men. 


3, dravya, i. e. a fit object (considered by itself), e. g. 

among these persons this one (is) ours; 
^, among those persons this one (is) the hero (Sabdanusasana). 

4, pujyasadhunipuna, i. e. the introduction of persons who are 
good to praiseworthy people or are skilful in praiseworthy things, e. g. 
3s>o3J3s? Se>qk, (he is) kind to (his) mother; 3to3j3s?' ^3o, (he is) 
good to (his) mother; rtaoo^JS;^ ^Sofcio, (he is) true to (his) guru; 
^eSc&ffi^' 23e>K!o, (he is) proficient in adoration; 

(he is) expert in (drawing) pictures (Sabdanusasana). 

5, vishaya, i. e. a peculiar province or place, e. g. 

C3o, he whispered in the ear: sl/sri^JSv* cS^o, he was suspended by 


(his) mouth [o. r. ^j;o, he chewed with (his) mouth]. 

6, vyupaka, i. e. inherent property or substance (cf. No. i), e. g. 

., (there is) fragrance in flowers; ^Sr&JSv* 3^, (there 


is) juice in the sugar-cane; oitfj^v* ojf$, (there is) oil in the oil-plant; 
do$Jdo, (there is) sweetness in milk. 

7, vyavahara, i.e. engaging in, conduct or action in, e.g. 3z3,v* 

he engaged in austerities; ^sdU/s* <o?oCjo, he distinguished 
himself in (the department of) valour. 

8, kala, i.e. time (cf. 348, 29; 352, 6, a. e, c), e.g. sj 
fcekd), mangoes appeared in spring: slddjav" 


universal conquest (is) proper in autumn; (&o?ij 
, he read through the grammar in one month; 
, in one day the work will be done). 

9, u pad ana, i.e. material cause (cf. 347, 4), e.g. 
Cjo^drSoJOcS" ^C3 9 cJo, he ascended the decorated seat that was made of 
wood; [;3js?jC3 d3e>&u>d), that which (they) have made even of curdled 

10, [karana, i. e. means, e. g. 53^ NjloJool ?s$, we walk by means 
of (our) feet; =5?d) r&&)|^A we see w ith (our) eyes]. 

351. The genitive case that is not classed with the six karakas (see 
344), expresses the connection (sambandha) of nouns to nouns (cf. 35'J, 
5, a; for adverbs with the genitive see 282), which connection is of the 
following kinds : 

1, svamisambandha, i.e. connection of ownership, e.g. c 
the chief of the town; f5e)(iJ3zlo^oo, the chief of the district; 

, the house of the king; o^okd ^ucjjd, the horse of the raja; 

T, the books of the boys; ^osifoSSrf 36ra^, the wife of the 
' w a ? 


2, kulasambandha, i. e. connection of family or caste, e. g. jo, 
,, the property of us (i.e. our property); ojsl). ^JS?S^ 3 , our face; 
our son-in-law; <o^j, ^do^o, our younger brother: (3J3d^ 
, a Sudra's son; ^rcsSrf^ S^Jrlvo, a merchant's daughter). 
3, jatisambandha, /. e. connection of genus, class or kind, e.g. w?! 
a troop of elephants; vJCSodoJo ZjSiJo., a multitude of horses; 


, a flock of parrots; 5de; ^SJoo , the fragrance of flowers: 


^ra tS^o , the white of the eve: ( 3oorsAooij 3ur?J , the ripe fruit of the 

C^> 0' FO 

tamarind; wsC^ 3 o3j ^>o3j, the fruit of the plantain; C^vVdd, the leaf 


of the betel plant; $D05ool> s3oS3 9 , a dog's puppy; 
the cry of cocks). 

4, avayavasambandha, i. e. connection of membership, e. g. 
o., the branch of a tree; ^?SA}S*, the petal of a flower; 


^j, the stick of an umbrella. 

5, lakshanasambandha, i. e. connection of distinctive marks, e. g. 

& ol> dje>?jo a man with a cap; ^ v*cS Oe>s^o, a horseman of per- 

plexity (i.e. a perplexed horseman, o. r. ^tfcj or ^s^ 


a horse of Sindh; (^o^cS^o, a person of power, a power- 
ful person; cjsjrd SorsFSo, a proud soldier; cosri yx>3dd>^, friendly advice). 


6, sannidhanasambandha, i. e. connection of proximity or vicinity, 
e.g. ^ 3 o3o =&>?&, an outlet (in the proximity) of a tank; r\J3d ^oo^o, 


the place in front of a town; *$dS3 ^oo, the vicinity of that (i.e. its 

7, samsparsasambandha, i.e. connection of close contact, e.g. ^d 
^$0% young foliage on a threshing floor; >^d oo"5^?3, duck-weed on water; 
^JSe^ &j>, an ornamental tie on the arm. 


8, sambandhasambandha, i. e. connection of connection (occurring 
when two genitives precede a noun), e.g. ^J3^j^ ^rs z3^o, the god of an 
eye of the forehead (i.e. the god who has an eye on the forehead); Jj3tf 
2Js)^ S'Sc^, the lustre of the sword of the arm; ^oDcdo ^^j,0 3)dd, the 
lotus of the navel of Hari. 

9, seshasambandha, i.e. connection of remainder or rest, e.g. ijtf 
do 9 , the substance that remains in a balla; e5rf^3 doS5 9 , the young one 
(which was left) to it. 

10, vikarasambandha, i.e. connection of change of form, e.g. 
^JS^e*, a staff of gold; (tJ^c3oortd,-a ring of gold). 

11, (sthalasambandha, i.e. connection of place, e.g. 
sojourning in the forest; ^t^oij s-)^, dwelling in Kasi; 
dinner at one's house). 


It may be stated here that several genitives, one after the other, in 
connection with only one noun, are sometimes used in the following manner 
(from which use will also appear that the conjunctions ?roo, etc. are never 
suffixed to the genitive, see 284): 



rtdotiat i 


rodd ajoSfi awd 

9 - 

Sodd arerf^d j&tfa gttfjjFoarttfo n 125 

(Candraprabhapurana vn). They discharged the shining syringes of emeralds, 

pearls, sapphires, diamonds (and) rubies which (artificers) had made (i. e. which 
had been made, see 315, 2, under k) like parrots, swans, cuckoos, partridges 
(and) ruddy geese, against themselves, and besprinkled one another with water 
of various fragrance. 

crarfrfdrf d 


w to 

Rd add <3uAZif4fl n 67 in Jaimini v ||. 
The goddess of fortune continually remains in the house of him who utters 
friendly words, is grateful, is intent upon giving, is kind to others' wives, is not 
addicted to chase, is rich is honour, associates with worthy persons, never utters 
false witness, does proper works, does not hide (his) doings, engages in abundant 
agreeable things on earth (and) performs various virtuous acts. 

Compare also ^OJJo 5s>> cO^>o , the bone of the arm (and) of the leg 
(i.e. the radius of the arm and the skin-bone, Halayudha). Ce>ON ^\3^ 
ljs?Si 9 ?oo, show (me) the children of Rama (and) Krishna; 

23 (SS&tS, there is enmity between thee (and) him (Nudigattu). 


352. The seven cases sometimes change places (cf. also 253, i, a. 6), 

1 , a) the genitive stands for the nominative, e. y. aiotf(&)o ^^N 

Q v 

3 and tfcs3rka$d ?3j?o^ stand for aJo^O&io lsio 3SC^ 3 and iz. 

The author of the present grammar considers this statement of Kesava 
to be erroneous, as the genitives flsj^ and ?t 3ot3 stand before the nouns 

and ^J3 ^; see 188. (365). 

The Sabdanusasana has the instance ^ zo^oJi* for ^o zorfodc*, thou 

^- O O 

earnest, the proof for the correctness of which must be left to Bhatta- 
kalanka deva. 

I) the genitive stands for the accusative, e. y'. oit) 

and 3o^s><3 rfoeS 3 oiod^Jo ^o?io ^J^OP-^J stand for 

-5 O 

^JS^cCj*, O thou killedst me, and io^c3D^o 
. ca 



, does it ever come to (my) mind to forget the southern 

The author of the present grammar thinks that o?l and ^7>d are 
accusatives with final y, as he has indicated in 117, a, 2; 122, a, 2. 

c) the genitive stands for the locative (in comparison), e.g. 23>Ar(^ 
wej35o stands for ?3-$T\T\$&& woado, a supreme one among liberal 

m co 

persons; -Sirfd c3?s3o for u^dJSs 1 * cS^do, a prince among donors; 3A; 
=gO 23^;3>lF for cAo^dJSv zoster, a king among the witty. See 343, 5 
and cf, 350, 2, a. 

2, a) the accusative stands for the nominative (cf. No. 6, &), e.g. ^jra 

o stands for ^orsoVo (resting on eros 5 "" meaning also 'to possess'), 
one who possesses fineness. The Sabdanusasana has also the instance: 
d>3d^< ^SFo, instead of d?3d^ -sriro. Cf. 346. 348, 12. 

b) the accusative stands for the instrumental, e.g. s^^ s ?32Fo 
do, he worshipped with flowers, stands for j^sjjs*" w^FAjdo, he presented 
flowers in worship. See 347. 

c) the accusative stands for the dative (cf. No. 5, 6), e. g. ^fi&o 

zoSoSoc ^JSelc stands for rte?lo 20& ri ^JS^.o, he lent gold coins on 

ca eJ =^ a d 

interest; eSjs^sJj^* ?3^)Tfo for dJS^^^^o, the greatest of all (this 


second sentence is from the Sabdanusasana; cf. 348, 7); (d^dfl^o 3> 
sbe8 for 

for sSjs^. aJ> TJO thus also sjddo^^ ^^ 

d) the accusative stands for the ablative, e.g. 

he demanded business of the lad, for ^jsrs^te?^ r3o 


iJSr?.o. See 349. 


3, the locative stands for the instrumental, e.g. ^JSdOoSJSV' ^^do 
stands for ^js^OoSoo ^^do, he cut with the axe; ricSoiiSv* ^jsoJoc for 

.(aoJoo: ^^oSjSs'* =^^c for <Do5jo =^^o; l tfjdaA*e3J8V' 

CJ ' Q Q ' 

for =j^jriJSe)o =jSO&c. See 8 350. 

4, a) the instrumental stands for the ablative (cf. 1 17, a, 5; see 349; 
343 ablative and instrumental in comparison; 302, i instrumental 
for 'since'; 282 adverbs with the instrumental). 


i. in simple apadana, e. g. ^5 3 ooo 2o?3o stands for 

o he came from the tank; ^OSdDo 3oo3ja ^J di for 

' - t- 

^Je^vV^), from the head of the elephant pearls dropped; 
for sjjdc33 c?23 CiSJoao. a leaf fell from the tree. 


; erosi DrtoSorf aw 9 c3?i); rtcrt &>siraexxka?i 


|| by the beloved 

o v 

women of the Sabaras who were gathering the fine pearls which were 
loosened from the heads of the mad elephants, from the bamboos, from 
the heads of the cobras (and) from the tusks of the formidable hogs, and 
dropped on the massy rocks. . . . 

2. [in bheda, i. e. difference (cf. 348, 31), e.g. 
this (is) different from that]. 

3. (in dikku, i. e. direction, quarter, e. g. 

rtaj, Belgaum (is) to the north of Dharwar; cf. 348, 21). 

4. (in dura, i.e. distance, e.g. t? 
that village is five miles from this place; 

the jungle is a loud cry distant from the town; cf. 348, 22). 

5- [in kala, i.e. time, e.g. 2J3oJ3e>Da^ ^do c5^r^S3DOSj^j, it is 

wi *-^ 

long since you visited (me) ; ^=a ^ ^^ wd?i) d3d.?i), he (is) poor from 

* Q Q i >-^ 

(his) youth; cf. 302, i; 348, 29]. 

6. (in bhaya, i.e. fear, e.g. SojQcOj^ ^o^rf^o, he was afraid of the 
tiger; cf. 349, 2). 

7. (in ishta, i.e. agreeableness, pleasure, e.g. f^^J, srariarf c^^o 
c3<do, he saved me from sin; cf. 349, 4). 

8. (in anifehta, i.e. disagreeableness, e.g. siOO&o^ 20?^^3f)03J^j, 
imprisonment came from the enemy; cf. 349, s). 

9. (in hetu, i.e. cause, means, e.g. eroc3%?rt>?3 AiO JJf^Oj., wealth 
came from office; adUoajfl O?So3j zjdo^d, from learning comes good 
behaviour; cf. 349, e). 

10. [in udaya, i.e. springing from, originating (cf. 349, 7), e.g. 

WotfoCsrarto^ d, the sprout arises from seed; 


j. Kama was horn ot' Lakshmi]. 



ii. [in SDdra, cause, reason, see 302, 7; 348, 32; cf. also: 
?3 sld jdj, on account of (his) wisdom (he is already) a full-grown 
person; y^eida^ >^&>, on account of (his) right conduct (he is) a 
good person]. 

6) [the instrumental stands for the dative, e.g. 3;30^ *30rWj for 


3?oOr{ S33?ONO, a king (only) in name; cf. 348, 20. Observe also: & 
JSjaapfl), (be is) a Brahmana (only) for (his) sacrificial thread; 
3e>3J*)rfo, (he is) an ascetic (only) for (his) matted hair; sjjs^ 
$0, (he is) a gentle person (only) in (his) words]. 

" j 

5, a) the dative stands for the genitive, e.g. (Sd&dS&tlQ&o stands for 


Sajzijazicrioo, the chief of the district; ^JSzlrtJSciOwOo for =j3cSo3J3zio3oo, 
the lord of the umbrella; ojdrrrer^o for oidro&Drao, a heart's ruler; 
for &rfd>JSz!o3oo, the lord of the world; ( dJS^^, ^?S for 


6) the dative stands for the accusative (cf. No. 2, c), e.g. 3^oofl ^S 
stands for ^^,,^0 ^.AiCo, he ordered the pupil; e?=$ri vl^^Cjo for 

he informed her; (desJOrt rf$ ?*>3 P?S for 

v o B 

^ for sj-scSsj C9rb3 tnus also 

see 291). 

c) the dative stands for the locative (cf. 350, i. e), e. ^r 
stands for 3s>6o3JS<$>* ^^^0, he sprang from a lotus; 

&J o 

for 2S^J N cSJ5^ ^?^o, (there is) splendour in the disk of the sun; 


e3s?o for ^6J3^ t3^j , (there is) white colour in the flower; 

<O OJ V 

for cO^j^s^' ^^, (there is) oil in the oil-plant; (-d! yxoOF^ ^rawo, 
J for ^? y\^d as wo, ^33rt^orao.; sJoJSiurDrl eooaoaoo for 

aj w XT eo Q co 

6, a) the nominative stands for the locative (cf. No. 6, c), e. 

rjo 2Jr-o for tcrfo adrocSJSv* 2~r3 o he came in one day. 
o o o ' 

6) the nominative stands for the accusative (cf. No, 2, c), e. g. 
stands for 20^0 d^F5JOc3* "S^Fo, he stayed one 


year; ^^J sjjsado for ^kj^oo dorado he made a water-vessel (the 
first instance is from the Sabdamanidarpana, the second one from the 


There may be adduced the following ancieut additional instances (see 
i20, a, 2): ci>a4^%&o sJJS^" 9 oioo, if (they) speak, all of them 
do not know (proper) words [Sabdamanidarpana sub sutra 250 where 
the Mudabidar MS. has zh^^pdv doo slwtf t3 9 o3oc', if (they) grow 

passionate, they do not know what is to come]. sjjrf?3, , 

'', son, son, thou didst what is good (Sabdanusasana s. sutra 
^j ^S^oios^ Uti o, he came to milk t 
he came to see the woman (Sabdauusasana). 

399). ^j ^S^oios^ Uti o, he came to milk the cow; d3oc3 c&aerfo* ^3 o, 

, (a person) who did 
not know the direction, who did not know the place, who did not know 
the side, who did not know the three ways of beasts (Sind. p. 127). See 
also 339, 5 (tfjotforfjsraO tfo^SrO), 362, 2, b (3aa3J3%). 

In the modem dialect it is very common to use the crude base of a 
noun for the accusative, e. g. $vA >:!>; eru&U s&sz&j 

c] [the nominative is used to express time instead of the dative, etc. 
(cf. 348, 29; 350, 8, etc.; and No. 6, a), e.g. a-0?d si^D 
he came last Saturday; ^30^3330 doorttfo SS^rts 1 ^ f aj3e>doj 
^c3^, wSos^d, on Thursday the gentleman will come to make a present 
of books; ^rso, a^ ^ra^o 7&R -aoJS^s^^^ do^oioQoS^ aji),, ^rtji), 

to ' ^* Ci 

eight days (or for eight days) I could not go to school and remained even 
at home; esd^j '3, oid^J dtfo3Si 'aci^o, he lived here two (or for two) 
years; SoU3 adrf s3ooo23)c3^ zodod^o, early on the day of the feast he 
will come; & sSj^^, to-day ; ^f3o, to-day; 35ri>d-tfo, by day and night: 
S3 >3?3, on this day; ?lo^3>d ad?o, on Monday; *&> arfrf, one day, 
on a certain day]. 

353. The instances in 345 seq., as far as they are not in parenthesis, 
are taken chiefly from the ancient dialect (as it appears in the Sabdamani- 
darpana, Sabdanusasana, etc.), which regarding the meaning, use and 
interchange of the cases does not materially differ from the mediaeval 
and modern one. That there is some difference concerning the form 
of the seven cases in the three dialects, has been shown in 109 seq. 
The instances of the modern dialect in parenthesis belong- mostly to a small 
Kannada grammar of the Southern Muhratta country, called Nudigattu. 

354. Some special rules regarding the use of the singular and plural of 
nouns, etc. in or without sentences are to bo givi'ii. viz. 


I. The singular stands or may stand for the plural in nouns. Cf. 133. 

1, For the plural that conveys the meaning of a pair (yugala) the 

singular is used, e. g. for ^ftcdoorlortv* there occurs c3o3oorto, a couple 
of verse-lines. 

2, Further, the singular is used instead of the plural in avishta- 
linga, L e. when the base of a noun (in an inflected state) refers to a 
noun in the plural which comprises more things than a pair, e.g. d^cjo 
rV gsirarco (for ^3orV gsoJ^rsort^), the (four) vedas (are) proof; 
or when it refers to a number of nouns which are connected by the 
conjunction ruo, e.g. sJ.^oJJoSj 9 " ssasv^sjooo ^dJesSoJJoo ^>3 Q 0a 

^-J "u o3 rv 

o3ors3oco ^)lr ^e>dCco (for. . . ^e>cr3ort$*), genius, exercise, the service 
of the learned and the acquaintance with poems (are) the means for 
poetical composition. 

(That the interrogative pronoun s?^ which has no form of the plural, may 
get the meaning of the plural, appears in 262.) 

3, An optional use of the singular for the plural occurs regarding 
nouns of race, species or kind (jati), such as 

?, etc., e. ^. =aDe3-3^ or ^sjs)^ v 8 ", foot-soldiers, y?5 or 
elephants; similarly also ^f^D ) or ^rs^D, the pupil of the eye. See 

355, I, 3. 4. But 

a) If a jati noun in the singular is preceded by an adjective which 
is, so to say, its karaka (i. e. determinating the case and number of the 
noun, cf. 355, IV, 5), it always has the meaning of the singular, e. g. 
^N^^ra?2, such an elephant; ^j^eJo ^oCo6, such ahorse; (3e>% 23do, 
a straight finger; ggf&g^CM sfLrs?^ 2 , a beautiful face). 

6) If jati nouns stand in the singular and are preceded by an adjec- 
tive in the plural, they always convey the meaning of the plural, e.g. 

22ds*, straight fingers; ijs^ozijsj fci^o, big buttocks; zSfelcSj 


stout breasts. 

c) Observe the following sentences in which, either by a preceding 
noun in the plural or by a following demonstrative pronoun in the plural , 
the plural number of a jati noun is indicated: 

(i. e. ^^rl^^) fisiJOj ^se 



. e. 



4, An optional use of the singular for the plural further takes place 
when objects are to be counted (sankhyeya, sarikhyavastu), e. g. 3^ c3;3 
or 2^ d^rts*, the ten points of the compass; ;lx?o d>^o or oJe>C3o 
eSj-s^orK"*, the (mentioned) three worlds; dcj3C5o orto or ;3oJd3o ort 
rts?*, the (mentioned) three genders; ^^o, oioorto or ^ra^ 


the (mentioned) four ages of the world; ^6f03j dJSf^o or 

* the fourteen worlds; ?dcdod^ or -e^doioo^ris 3 *, the ten states 

09 o cp 

or conditions; (^-sixx, lori^ or ^35^0, 3orttfj7Wj, four months; 


or fjsi^o, 3ort^ort^j tJC5^, ifc is ^ our months). 

5, An optional use of the singular for the plural further takes place 
when numerals are counted (sankhyana, sankhyeya), e. g. i*& >W> or 


, one fours (i.e. four); -^doioo or 3?tfo3oort<g>' > , two fives 


(i. e. ten); sis^ ^J3&f)j or 3J^ ^J5S5or1v^', ten hundreds (/. e. one thousand). 
e/. 278, i. ~ 

6, An optional use of the singular for the plural further takes place 
with regard to nouns of quality (bhava), such as ^JS^r, ^^r, e.g. ^re 
c* ^jg^c" or ?cs^ ^JS^rrtv*, the penetrating looks of the eyes;, 

or 8 z^jrs'*; ^odj^s ^djr or 

oJ A 

II. The plural of nouns stands for the singular 

1, in spontaneous respect (i.e. in respect that proceeds alone from 
natural feeling, ayatnakritagurutva, prayatnam alladirpa gurutva), e.g. 

<0^j, d^sjlriv*, our deity; j^o, 33r\&, our father; oirfj 3>cxb<ff*, our 
ft e o 6- A 

mother: ^sJ^o^orteS our master; (j3fd^f ^t^dj^o, he made obeisance 
to the king). Cf. 257. 258. 261. 268. 

The modern dialect when referring- to 'God' uses ri53&> (see 355, I, i). 

2, in (considering) the excellence of gums, munisvaras etc. (and 

speaking or writing of them), e.g. rijujrts?*, guru; ^sOjrfv*, master (lord 


or guru); 


the illustrious svami Samantabhadra, of the world-famed poet svami 
Parameshthi (and) of svami Pujyapada give perpetual protection. 

3, Instead of the singular & tjosj^o, the three worlds, its plural 3. $o 

\^) * ^-/ 

Corf's? 4 ' has been used in Kannada. 

4, If two or more nouns in the singular connected by eruo (srus), 
'and' ( 284) are formed into a dvandva compound ( 250), the plural is 
generally used, e.g. SJO^NJO ftdos^o become dodA^orl^, trees and shrubs, 

33 OJooo SDOJJOO become &$ 3-3 ojj tf, father and mother, 
o o A 

become ossl^T? ,rso* Rama and Lakshmana, 


d&3jo sJtKpoOJo )ortrfooo become 

, trees, shrubs, creepers, grass, bushes, birds and antelopes; 
^oJooo become zo^oro^^ri^, e.^r. wsjo Wl^o^^rl^ 
, who subdued Baka, Kariisa and Kesi? 
Likewise in the modern dialect there frequently are sentences like the 
following: Odn&wart^rf^ 3d do rfjfe^, 3o!^ 9 oiJ03e> 6, only stupid persons 

> 9 <- ca vJ 

revile knowledge (and) wisdom; e)lD-soJo^^ DSrfotf^ 6rf 

y co 

rfo^yo, Kasiraja (had) two sons, Rama (and) Krishna; 

old (and) young persons; ^jjj^ Ce>rtrfS 

S3e)A 'aiio. ^J3^ ^^,do, it is proper to keep (our) paper, pens, books (and) 

clothes so that they remain very clean; 3B03osF3r!jdjoJotdC5JS?dOo 3oWc3 

^w^rfrf^ ^JS^df ^33^ 23?^J, (we) must do at once the work which (our)" 

mother, father, teacher (and) master order (us to do); ^o^odoSo^ 

^JSersrt^o sorl oiC^cdoj^ si horses, oxen (and) buffaloes draw carriages; 

Ca -* 

^^j.oi^D^^ori^o 3o>oo 60^:0^^, female buffaloes (and) cows give milk. 

Exceptionally also the singular is used instead, of the plural, as 
appears from 250; thus there occurs in the modern dialect e.g. aoo^orfdo 
^dj t 330&o33rtjrt3 3o?63 9 d ks>3o ^tf z3?^o, hoys must listen to the words 
told (them) by their mothers, fathers (and) teachers 1 '. 

l) It may be stated here that occasionally eruo (srva) is omitted, see end of 284; 355, 
III, U; 355, IV, 5; 357, 2, cf, and compare also the following verse: 

cS ^3 o5 j e^ cSo ri s: rf 54 c5 JB ? 

loojpOej^zS X$ t s3fl^5?vijr3337iO3 ? II will a night without the moon, a 

play without one's own wife, a flower without sweet nectar, a meal without curds (and) a 
congregation without intelligent persons be pleasant. Sarasvatimanihara? The modern 

401 - 


a) If in the modern dialect two or more nouns occur one after the 
other without erua in the singular or promiscuously in both numbers, 
their plural is indicated by a demonstrative pronoun in the plural added 
to them with the proper inflection, e.g. yds? 3os^>o 
dressed cotton (and) milk (are) of a white colour; 
is&k 'as^rtStf C$N w^s^d, oxen, cows, male buffaloes (and) female 
buffaloes are called cattle. ^dd?!) Wdf^ rfodorttfo 

tfdo 'addodfii sssrsddJ fcscfcoAoddo, the Pandavas overcame 

v co <*. C3 

the Kaurava, his gurus, (his) younger brothers, (his) friends (and) them 
who desired the welfare of those friends. Similarly the mediseval dialect 
has e.g. sssd dedzpfo^ds 1 & 3oJ3e3oo tfzSo3J3tfo ^gp&ad&^o (see 287 


under 2). 

&) If (especially in the ancient and mediseval dialect) two or more 
nouns are enumerated without eroo or STL as mere terms, and dJSCisTsrf, 
'having become the first', 'and so forth', 'etc.', is placed at the end, a 
demonstrative pronoun in the plural (always neuter also when masculine 
or feminine terms are concerned) follows the nouns and another one in 
the plural is suffixed to sSjscJerecS (the first pronoun being sometimes 
omitted), e.g. &3 sio^tf usdo %^ S5d?3 ^4 (siwrttfo) dJ3cSoe>5ii^), Si y a, 
Sarikara, Rama, Bhima, king, etc.; iu!^3^ ^j!^) 9 ^ e^C^ 9 ^^ *as3) s5J3d 
<2jsrfod) si)aBe33S.We>?i>^d?9ort^*) khalilene, chalilene, ghalilene, etc. (are) 


imitative sounds with hard breathing; erodor ^de3 ^orlO ^JS?c5osS ^?JS5o 
;3j3Cte3Ckd?s* ^\ vti. rfjgWa*, food prepared of urdu, kadale, togari, 

77 W 

goduve, hesaru, etc.; 

dialect has e. g. $eAcxij$?3 Ss?odoas3f3? Sios^, he who does not know justice (and) injustice 
(is) a beast. iKS estf **)> n^^Rrf,oij ftrt (4* rf$SSo 'fftioijjira ?J, God protects tbee in 

JQ M ^ / ^ cC * 

(thy) waking, dreaming (and) soundly sleeping. 

The following additional verses may be quoted from the Sabdamanidarpana: 


. See also the half terse 
in 272, 2 (fc?J3J tSusJj* etc.) and the verse in 364 (CT3JS3 So^ etc.). 



milk of cows, curds, etc. are called, gavya. 

d> =^>?GCl>do, leaves, fruits, etc. mixed with curdled milk. 


In the modern dialect doo^^d is more generally used instead of 
in such a case, in the following manner: 

. c; c 

d Sj do ; 

If a noun follows sfUicSsjarf or doo^j) ci, the way is as follows : 


Occasionally the pronoun suffixed to dJSrfej'sd (or doo^^d) may 
stand in the singular, e. g. y^rtdJS^i S3s5^ doo^dd). 

Sometimes only a single noun precedes doociSpCS, e. g. ?o^J zsDvloJo 
2^S^OF J30=^0 sjjso^ sJoo^d ^ vs^o^cS, a kind of leopard eats decayed 
ilesh (and) other things. aSsSdd o^^,^ doj^ds^rt^^ tfzfc ^JSra 6. 

III. The plural of pronouns stands for the singular. 

1 , Where two words are connected by the conjunction enio, ' an( i '* an( i 

both are demonstrative pronouns, if they are referred to and are to be 

expressed by one demonstrative pronoun, the second one has to stand 

in the plural, preponderating as to form and gender, e.g. 

oo become 

2, When two words are connected by the conjunction eroo, and one 
is a noun and the other a demonstrative pronoun, if they are referred 
to and are to be expressed by one word, the plural of the pronoun has 
to occur, preponderating as to gender, e. g. ^ododoSooo t?^^oo become 

3, When two words are connected by the conjunction en>o, and are 
personal or reflexive pronouns, if they are referred to and are to be 
expressed by one word, the second pronoun has to be in the plural, e. g. 
33^00 $>?<&o become ^5&*, ^etfosis* wj^oo tJsis*. 

Where two words are connected by the conjunction eroo, and the first 
one is a noun and the second one a personal or reflexive pronoun, if 
they are referred to and are to be expressed by one word, the pronoun 


has to be in the plural, e.g. sSRcS^cksk* ts^oo become 

355. Peculiarities regarding the use of the singular and plural of verhs 
in a sentence are the following: 

I. On the use of the singular or plural of verbs in connection with 

1, If c5?o3il), 'God', the honorific plural of d^S (see 354, II, i), is 
used by people of the present day (cf. 258 where instances of prayer 
are given), they put the verb in the singular, e. g. d?s50c3-> 3, (there) is 
God; d?rf& ske^OktfceWESA sira^os^, God causes it to rain; 

, God created the world; z3?ddo ^f( tf erases 
, God may make thee happy; c3^do dorfsj^o, God (is) great; 

UJ c^ tjJ w 

even God has made the terrestrial globe on which we are; all things have 
become even through Him; look, how wise, how powerful, how good God 
(is)! Regarding the use of the singular of a demonstrative pronoun 
referring to d^do, observe also the following instance: 


(see 341 under 'to fear'). 

Exceptionally, however, a person says 

If derfdo is used instead of cSd , as is occasionally done in vulgar 


speech, the verb is also put in the singular, e. g. esrf^ ;3oc&P0 d^sjdo 
tjdo^cS, an evil spirit enters his body. 

2, If a person is addressed in the vocative singular, the verb may 
stand in the plural, e. g. zSea^ods&o (o. r. an)^oddoo) 
O king, did you (or do you) not ask the kingly Asura? $5S 9 o&>o* 
wsioo^ 2r^J5Pai3s353oo.c5rS era (o. r. ssra), elder brother, do you 

W 03 v = 

not know that you and we ran together? 

Such is especially the case in disgustful conduct, i. e. in order to 
ridicule a person for such conduct, when the personal pronouns relating 
to him also stand in the plural, e. g. 

|| king, 



you have become poor; you walk on foor; nobody is with you; why (are) 
small thorny twigs in your pouch? what (is) the place of the temple 
where you repose? Could have befallen even you who do not give (alms), 
this indigency? 

[It seems as if the small grammar called Nudigattu, wants to express a similar 
thing, when it says that if an act of the subject is improper (holla), the verb 
may stand in the third person plural instead of the second person. Its instances 
are the following 8<3> wtiriosri ;3o?e3 ^ra 3d>rto33, after you have become 
king, should they (i. e. you) roam about ad libitum 1 } 3d?33, SCc 
Oking, should they (i.e. shouldst) thou become bewildered? B3o 3o?rt 
do they (i. e. doest) thou make thus?] 

3, If a noun of race, species or kind, i. e. a jati noun (see 354, 
I, 3) as subject is in the singular, it conveys the meaning of the plural, 
whenever it is connected with a verb in the plural, e.g. wfS ^JSo&rios^) 
(=t??Sr1^ cifco&cSos^), the elephants pushed; tfjcSodo&eSS'djs^, ^ e Corses 
ascended; 'crserav* ^&>o3), the foot-soldiers attacked; <j20o S^doJ^j, 
the oxen went; ti& JjSOcl>4, tne fingers (are) big; ^oS ZoJSdj^S'*, the 
words (are) imprecating; =5^ &zSd;$; ^wo fi>eAi^,s3; wtfo wrf s$); dd^u 

dooS5 9 c5;3) ; >oo?^ 3dfi fSjs^adtf ^E$? ^o^v^sS; also when preceded 

ro o* 

by tJ or & ( 264), e.g. ao3od?3 ^js?rio^, those deer went: 3so5ode3 
zo^o s^), these antelopes came. 

It is not uncommon in the modern dialect to use the singular of some 
jati nouns which seem to allow no plural meaning in the respective sentences, 
with the verb in the plural, e.g. ^^do vu^o,^ sssS, the water is boiling; 
eri^ &?&<36 We>ok> idj ajtfj^sS, if (one) sees that, water comes 
to the mouth (i. e. one's mouth waters); 'a.ddf&x ?l>^053e>rt =5^ ?tfj 

t P3 

, when (I) see them, eye-water comes (i. e. I shed tears); 
, the water runs; | A^ o^rrao3j3^ft3 ^^Oo W3oJ 

the water in a young cocoanut is very sweet; $5t^ ^oU ojje>cJs^, rice 

ty w 
became dear; ^1 estk e?s5, esf^, ^3)C^o, here is rice, cook (it); ' 

eo3otf ^J^o3jsc5^), corn became very dear; dozjtf 3oo sdoS? 
buttermilk is very sour; 5i)s3 ri ^^^), buttermilk was spilt; & d todo 

^d, fever comes; ^jl tdd w^ds^, yesterday fever had come; & d 

** 3 o ,3 

^^4, fever ceased; 1 sX^^rfrt^ ^o^2 c^03o^55; rain falls from 

those clouds; fc^dorttfo ^4^^J3d sra^ erurto^d?, if (he) cut devo- 
tees with (his) nails, will milk come forth? (this sentence is from the 
mediaeval dialect). 


On the other hand we find e. g. ^o* B$dodo, the water became 
clear; 3^rfo^j ^rtrs?*, the waters (in tanks, etc.) became clear; sJoC^ 5 
z3s?;3 $J5>o, land (the crop of) which grows by means of the 

water of rain; tfra^sjo ?do ^rfrfo, he brought water so that (his) eyes 

tilled (i.e. his eyes became full of tears); >edo aoOodoo^zS, the water 
runs; 9533, ^oSoko^d'S-, ?&> &zi), mother, give (me) water to 

drink; ;3X 3 ? ?do fteJo, si>oz3<$ ?0rl 3o&< 2&c5 353 rt, he left the 
water of rain and held the joined palms of the hand to the water of dew 

(i.e. so as to catch the water of dew); doz3^ sSO^o, buttermilk was 

tj <** 
spilt; d^SofcitfrfcS* ^rt<$ ^a?^, ?ockdo;3e, excellent guru, at once 

o3 ** 

remove the fever of (my) body! s&CJ^oSj^ cS o3oo. 

co v> 

a young crop without rain (is like) a motherless child; 

Sos)^o eodo^d, if (one) makes incisions 

with a knife into that tree, white milk will come forth. 

4, If however a jati noun as subject stands in the singular and is 
connected with a verb in the singular, it always conveys the meaning of 
the singular, e.g. ^dciocSo 36o?3, a (or the) swan walked; ^AdocSo 
?3j3?tf, a (or the) peacock cried; ssaSdorfo ^J)O N , a (or the) black bee 


hummed; =^0s3 z3$d>c3o, the (crop of) kalave grew; rU>?a 
the wheat was destroyed; qra^o sS^r^o, the corn increased; 
JjaeO^, the finger (is) big; j&S ^J3do^, the word (is) imprecating. 

5, Also where the noun is no jati noun, it occasionally happens 
that such a noun as subject is used in the singular in the sense of the 
plural, in which case the verb is to be in the plural, e. g. 53o?$o 3o$ 
^siF wcSos^), the minds became fickle. 

6, An optional use of the plural of the verb may take place, if 
some neuter nouns in the singular are combined by the conjunction 

srua fereo), 'and', e.g. a&o&otf srDfSdp ^r$Sr$ o3JS?rtoioioJ3 o3jser^i 

\ / v O f oT O*0 v 

c&Jr$ ^JS^^a cSJSdoioo^cS or cSjsdodoo^sS, by learning wisdom is obtain- 
ed, by wisdom propriety, by propriety honour. 

II. On the use of the plural of verbs in connection with pronouns. 

1, If some pronouns as subjects of a sentence are joined together 
by the conjunction 5A)o (5AJ3), and the last one is &tf (Wo, $e>c3*, c3"3fk), 
I, the first person plural of the verb is used or the 'I' has the pre-emi- 
nence (mukhyatva), e.g. t^rijo ^tfjsfo* w?l>o 


, he and thou and I were not connected with the slanderers of (lit. 
as regards) the king. e5^^J5 ^JS <ra<&3 3oJ3?j3^. 

If the pronouns are in reversed order, the same takes place, e. g. ^ 
riisis* w^j&sjtf Wrlio rfoeStfJSfeJcSrttf^, )8^s$, thou and he and I shall 


go to the town of Manikuta; w^osis*" ?l>o >^Jo ^fciri i&tf esi3 9 d> 


, he and I and thou knew and told the manner of the affair; 

si^ w^cfoo zSro^oSo,^, I and thou and he shall worship. 

2, If two pronouns as subjects are joined by the conjunction eroo 
(erus), and the second one is ^ (^?o, >^u), thou, the second person 
plural of the verb is used or 'thou' has the pre-eminence, e.g. w^^oo 
$?r&o ^Jsaac*' gsftazlajrasorfsr, &$oo rratfoJooo ^jsacSfi, he and thou 

oJ w to 

joined; when (it) happened, (it was) as if fire and wind joined for battle. 

If the two pronouns are in reversed order, the same takes place, e.g. 
^dJS)^ 5ffosi3* e?3f&o ^JS&d&o*, to-morrow thou and he will 

III. On the use of the plural of the verb, especially of its gender, when 
combined with nouns of different gender. 

1, If nouns of different gender are joined together by the conjunc- 
tion eroo (erus), that noun which conies last, is the chief one, and the 
verb in the plural has to conform itself to it as to gender, e. g. ?3^?S 
o&osis* Mtfroctfoas^ 3tf?o^oo fcJr^D*, the army and the queen and the king 
came; vfitf^tt ^d^osis* tftfAioJoJo to^o*, the elephant (or the ele- 
phants) and the king and the queen came; 
the king and the queen came; es 

), the king and the queen and the complete army came; 

2, If some neuter (here compound) nouns in the nominative singular 
(without the conjunction eroo, see 354, II. 4, foot-note) precede the verb, 
this has to stand in the neuter form of the plural at the end of them, 
all the nouns having to be supplied (adhyaharya, see 357, 2, &) for it, e.g. 

o. ...... IJ the beating of the blue lotus- 


garland, the band of the gold-zone, the striking of the pleasant left foot 
with the anklet's sound, the excessive threatening of the points of the 
raoving-about creeper-like eyebrows (and) the tremulous red lower lip (of 
the woman) gave pleasure to the king. 

IV. On the use of the singular and plural of Samskrita adjectives and 
their agreement with nouns. 

1, If a Samskrita adjective is preceded by a neuter noun in the 
plural (see 103 about Kannada gender), it may stand in the singular, 
e.g. si>2o?3 5Jo3od2>oJoForf<s> -ade^o* esqkj^o, the great riches of the 
great Indra these all (are) impermanent. 

2, If a Samkrita noun in the singular is followed by an adjective in 

the plural, it gets a plural meaning, e.g. sosi OJJFSJJ* ts$3 riorts*, riches 

3 '^ 

(are) impermanent. 

3, If a Samskrita adjective precedes a neuter noun in the plural, it 
may stand in the plural, e.g. rte3r?3 fc^c$$ori$> 5 rteortv*, when the 
cloud-resembling elephants roared. See an instance in 313, 4 



4, Regarding Samskrita adjectives and their use in general (and 
regarding so-called Kannada adjectives and their use) see 273. 
274. 275. 

5, If Samskrita adjectives (viseshanapadas, appositional nouns, with- 
out the conjunction AJO, see 354, II, 4, foot-note) in the nominative 
precede their ruling noun (karakapada, cf. 354, I, s, a), they receive, 
in construing (anvayisuvalli, cf. 357, s), the case of that noun, e.g. 

|i of which the construction (anvaya) 

. , x 

wo* o}3rto*, to Nripatuiiga, to the hero, to the liberal one, to the pure 
one, to the profound one, to him who possesses political wisdom, to him 
who is the lord of them who carry weapons who will not make obeisance? 

*C3Fofl, of which the construction is: ^ort^^^dorl 

, to Karna, to the quick one in friendship, to the king 

of the Kurus. 


356. On the order of words in sentences. 

I. From the simple sentences quoted in 345. 346. 347. 348. 
349. 350, it appears that the nominative (subject), the accusative 
(object), the instrumental, the dative, the ablative and the locative precede 
the verb or that the verb stands at the end. In 350, 8 there is a 
sentence in which the order is: locative, subject, verb; and in 350, 9 
one in which the order is: locative, the relative past participle connected 
with it, accusative, verb. 351 shows that the genitive precedes the noun 
with which it is connected. 352, 4, a adduces two instances in which 
the order is: (instrumental or) ablative, subject, verb, and two in which 
the order is: (instrumental or) ablative, verb, and exceptionally the 
subject at the end. 

Sentences in which the order is: subject, object, verb, are e.g. 

The vocative begins a sentence, or stands at its end, e.g. c>o3o, 

e> , 

n. The following- instances, quoted from the prose of the modern dialect, 
will serve to show the order of words, when there are more component parts 
in sentences than subject, object and verb; it must however not be expected 
to find uniformity, as every author is apt to use more or less slight 
variations according to circumstances. 

1, Regarding the accusative: a?i^ 


2, Regarding the instrumental: 


-* o 

3, Regarding the dative: 


C"3 *- w Cj) 

. , 

t9- V O Q O 

^-Ai ^ 

4, Regarding the ablative (in the form of the instrumental): 


_ ^y 

Q O Xj C& w 

9 w o e. o 

kJ arf 323o 

re a to- 

5, Regarding the locative: 




o eo 

6, Regarding site (expressed by adverbs): 2zo N 


. -6* 



7, Regarding time: w wCO 9 ^ ^s3j3^A^ ^ ^JS^Aj iricdo 

ro o IJ 

t3^J3, 2^o ^QOJJJS ^JS^ ^J3^4- 3oJ3^0 &>,& Z& 
0-3-0 - aj 

eJ 8& 


. (Cf. 

above sub No. i; wrrefl s. No. 2; -^ ^5? s. No. s; 203oja^?3arf s. No. 4; 
s. No. 5; oi^ riJ3, oi3e)S3s)rt^J3 further on s. No. s; ^s? s. No. 9; 


s. No. u.) 

8, Regarding reason and purpose: S5c3 

t3?r( azSjsiaw, t? 



9, Regarding condition: dJSnSdo 3dti3 dft zododrfo. - ><i 

2oto.^e ^ 


10, Regarding the verbs ^55*, &&* (3%, w ^.) see 332 - 
1 1 , Regarding past participles (or gerunds, 1 54 seq.) : rtrasJ3o3o 

^.^, u3\. *3 sraoo 

=<- or - 

3 rf^J. 

c5 s^o. escj^o. ^rso, wrf^o S5^ ^j. w 
o t ca' - 

ts e5dw^j ^ododoJo ^zSrt ^JS^arf^o. ^?2 cdo 


(Regard ing the present participle see e.g. the ancient sentence in 339,5: 


ca cs ca 

12, Regarding questions: 

43 o5)^? rtorra, -d? 

e) d 

<>:>> ri? 3? erusDri djsdri^o eo?3o ^3^0. ad?o 

,~ >, ~^. ^ -33*01, (how old art thou)? Regarding 

questions see also 265. 271. 283. 

13, Regarding exclamations: -S? 3ooc^>)r\ oisslo 2J3^?io ^ejrario^d! 

eJ d o aJ x ca 

'9 <i' ' ' 9 


III. As the works of the ancient dialect are principally in verse, it is 
obvious that the order of words in them often varies considerably. Kesava, 
the grammarian, also wrote his Sabdamanidarpana in verse, and says in 
it that, as the words in the verses of his grammar may be in irregular 
order on account of the requirements of alliteration (prasa), poetical 
measure (chaudas) and construction (anvaya), he has added an expla- 
nation in prose (vritti) to each verse, to which explanations we must 
refer our readers regarding his order of words in prose. 

Here follow some quotations made by Kesava from ancient poems 
which we give in order to show something of the license taken by their 
authors as to the order of words: 

1, The subject is placed after the verb, e.g. &s?3 3 adoioortv*, rte3r?3 
j^rf>$crtv' ri&ort^, when the horses neighed (and) when the cloud- 
resembling elephants roared. aaolis&o^ ^rf^&SsSjs.ej* r adro 
Bhima was like blacksmith who plied the bellows. wsOrOCii;^ >^ 

the sylvan deities continually menaced and checked. 

, that king was famous on the earth, 

, Brahma obtained the three worlds, doo^do ?2?Sjt5 J?t3o, 
f\, the sunshine increased, the forest-conflagration died away. 
j ^^JStdd Je3?3* o^d^* 3?3, this woman knew the whole 

manner of the sons of Pandu. 3o3oa?3 )P?^rtoo rftf dado, the wind blew 

o 9 

gently. y^Fc&rf^o ^sS ^ooA^oro ^C^eS, darkness had quite swallowed 
up the sun and moon. S^ddJS^ ^3JF^ a^^owa^sio ^S^ogss^o, 
in that town (there) is the light of the solar race, one of great valour. 

Bhishma was astonished and cried 'ah'. 
, a dazzling red colour spread about 
in the east. ?3zic$ocSo 3oo?3, the swan walked. 

2, The accusative is placed after the verb, e. g. ^odori^odoo 3^0 d?acio 
qidoJodoioo, Vishnu asked the king of the Kurus for the half of (his) 
land. s^fS 6 <023 o 3p23 ^ wt) dO^sSo^OJoo, he shot arrows at the enemy's 

IT &T <*5 

army (or river) that was" no river, ysjj*" aC3^|d^ whti& esS^S"?)^ 
^ rioOJoo, though we know (it), we cannot tell (you) the condition of the 
ruler, to^p^ ri^oo &0?fc3 ^drftj^doo, Arjuna quite alone overcame 




the force of the Kauravas. rfooSforfoO^o siraracS^ $* S50s3e>So>o3oo, till 


(he, or when he) suffered distress, he shot arrows at the enemy's army. 
3, The dative is placed after the accusative and also after the verb, e. g. 

zS^iotfoo* dozS s3ds3?5* S3d?joft3 o* the gods were pleased and gave a 

boon to the king. AOoJooo ^Octfooo **& sJOsJoosjrf ^J8?W j* &3$ 
o, the mountains and the elephants do not stand the point of the 

thunderbolt's bead and his sword. 

Observe also the following verse (cf. 241): 

4, The genitive is placed after the noun it is connected with, e. g. 

wsJS's the sword of the arm of 

Tailapa caused itself to be called Rudra, the fire that is to destroy the 
world, w^ojo do^doJood^ w^ do^cioJojo ^orfodoio ^o^s3ojooo sJOcJorfo 
r?Wo 2^osJ^^Oe)Sjo?5e), the elephant of Bhuvanaikarama ran upon the 


elephants, and upon the warriors, and upon the horses. 
5, Regarding time observe e.g. 

357. As the words in the metrical compositions of the ancient 
dialect are combined strictly to the rules of euphonic junction ( 213 seq.) 
and therefore are separated with some difficulty by a common reader, 
it has been thought necessary by commentators when commenting on 
verse, first to offer a padacche'da or resolving a verse into its elementary 
parts, as has been done e. g. by the commentator on the Sabdamani- 
darpana. Thereupon an anvaya (cf. No. 3 of this ) or arrangement of 
the words in their prose-order, without regard to euphonic junction, is 
adduced by them, and then they give the tiku or explanation. The 
grammarian Kesava, as told in 356, III, wrote an explanation in prose 
on his sutras in verse himself. 

In reading poetry the following remarks of Kesava are to be noticed: 
1 , It is required to use adhyaropa, i. e. attributing or assigning, with 
neya, i. e. logical inference, e. g. in the half-verse 

9 ^ 
^j ne>c3jcse>rt?oo | the sky became reddish 


and became equal in appearance to (the colour of a ripe fruit of) 
the Eugenia jambolana, one has to assign as the cause the redness of 
evening and not red dust, though also red dust might (under circum- 
stances) be assigned as the cause. If adhyaropa becomes wanting in 
precision (asamartha), being referable to two or more things, there is 
no (definite) neya (possible, as perhaps in the half-verse quoted above). 

Adhyaropa is also needed regarding the six karakas and the genitive 
( 344) in verses like the following one: 

wherein t^o, the nominative, is to be attributed to ^rforfS; w^tfo, the 
accusative, to ?3r3?kd $eJOe>c*"; ^o, the instrumental, to &ocSol>ort33o353 
De>cf; tf^otf, the dative, to qkd'&^rfrta^osio*; e^^eSo, the ablative, 
to JjsddJSrcl $orfo W^OFO; w3<3, the genitive, to 3drtc33oc3o; tj^&Ov*, 
the locative, to &o3osi> s3oS 3 ^dj: (He is) a great hero. What warriors 
do envy (him)? Who (are all) they that (through him became) intimate 
friends to (our) king? Who will come to war (against him)? If (they) 
attack (him), defeat will come (from him). This (is) the grandeur (of 
him). Indeed victory will appear (in him). Know Boppala! 

2, It is required to use adhyahara, i. e. supplying, which refers 

a) to the karaka, in this case the kartri or subject ( 344, i; 345), 
or also to a predicate of the subject, e. g. 

which case TSy*^ o is to be supplied (adyaharya) 
as subject: Why? will it (the kritibandham, ever) be accomplished, 
though (you) have promised the composition of the poem? 

in which case j3>i is to be supplied: Karna (is) a 
liberal person and this man too (is a daui). 

b) to the kriye or verb, e.g. 3$do3L^rfoo ^rfj^o^JS^dj?, in 
which case ysjo is to be supplied: (Is) Purushottama a mere man? (no, 

he is not, allam). qjo^al o cfoacre^F^? 3oO Sjidorio^^FN? in which 

case ye3o (wS5o*) is to be supplied: (Is) Dhritarashtra able, when he 
speaks? (is) Hari able, when he hastens? (no, they are not able). 
(See wqra 5 55noi>F also in 355, III, 2; 358.) 


c) to the adverb ^ of doubt, e. g. <!A>ei 3 sl>o2;3o? 

sSo, c3?s5?. in which case the final ^ of en}&5 3 &> which has disappeared 
in the initial $5 of e3o2s3o on account of euphonic junction, is to be sup- 
plied: Shall we not hesitate? shall we not fear? shall we not be 
frightened? shall we not bow to the injunction, king? 

d) to the conjunction rv>o, e. g. SJG&OO AjO 3>o3ooo 33 ^rso o rt3c&> 

in which case SAJO is to be supplied for AoO. 3$ 
-"A ' Q 

and rf,a: King Simbasena causes himself to be called (our) life and 
wealth and mother and father and eye and refuge. (See 354, II, 4, 

e) to vakyadipaka, i. e. the clearing up (of the meaning) of a 

sentence, e. g. w^rfosSsS*" es^?foo zo?3 o, in which case, in order to show 


that each one (pratyeka) came, wrf o is to be supplied; w^&>o tort zs 6 


esdf&o tort o, that person came and that person came. 


3, It is needed to use proper construction of words (vakyanvaya, cf. 
the beginning of the present and 355, IV, 5) regarding essjo, S953V*, 
9G&>, S553S?*, e353S7*, 3$)Cfo, that is to say regarding their use in so- 
called relative sentences. 

S5SJo, es^s?*, 5di (and their plurals) are anvayasvatantras, i. e. 
independent of another word, e. g. ^ja^^sj^ ^oO^o, he who has gold ? 

(is) well born, in which case one cannot say ysjo s!ta?i),tf,; 

, she who possesses beauty (is) a woman, and not 

,./; dJS&oJOri^o.C) e3e?ix that which has customary usage, 

gj fcj 

(is) fit, and not 

(and their plurals) are anvayaparatantras, i. e. 
dependent on another word, e, g. $ es^u S^rSoc? wsicS ^?sJoo, who 
(is) very virtuous, even he (is) to be served; ws3<* sj^d,^ &<$ 
who (is) a woman faithful to her husband, she (is) to be honoured; 

do sSG^ckrfdi C^F^O&o, what (is) beautiful, it (is) worthy to be seen. 

See 267. 316, i. 330. 

Also 3e)^ (and its plural) Kesava classes with the anvayapara- 
tantras, as it is to be followed by a demonstrative pronoun which shows 
its gender, e.g. 3e)c3 wdo 23dodo, he (is) a clever man; 33^* esds* 
, she (is) a clever woman; 33^5* escto ^Sdo, that (is) a large thing. 

About 330 (33?S*, 33rfo, 3D) 256. 259. 


358. In 357, 2 the grammarian Kesava's rules about adhyahara 
or supplying have been given; it remains to be shown how it is to be 
used also elsewhere, that is to say where pronouns (or their respective 
nouns or 'one') are to be supplied (see e. g. 254, 2, a d; 315, 2, k. I). 

This can be best shown by citing some instances, putting into 
parenthesis the words to be supplied, viz. 

rtv* the terminations which (I) have mentioned, 

do. z3?>, the goddess whom (people) call speech. aJ3)c$ 


, the threads which (people) have sewed, will be torn 


and the leaves become loose (see 315, k. I). ^S^aSo^o rtcir^o, kalte 
(people) having said (is) a donkey (i. e. kalte means a donkey, see 332). 
&&^pdv doo sira^&i'o&D*, if (they) speak, all of them do not know 


(proper) words (see 314). id$OJo SooWJ sjoo^oejej^datf djsSckcS 
, a cloth which (they) have woven after separating what 

silk-worms have made in the form of buds. 

rfo0 9 , a pit which (people) have made for catching elephants. 
S.kJo ?ookJo 3o ^J3& sstfcSd radcd <o?l)rto, if (one) measures (a span) 

Iw W &J w s ' 

with both the thumb and forefinger, it is called a pradesa. aJ3^r( sjsdQ 
w^3, a road which (people) are unable to go. s^ak 2JC0 9 , a place (of 
the body) to which (somebody) has applied a blow, sji& 

, what (is) the place of the temple where (you) rest? 

a6rso if (it) goes, (it is) a stone, if (it) comes, (it 

o Q TO 

is) a ripe fruit (i.e. what goes in one's giving, is a mere stone; what 
comes for it, is a ripe fruit). 2jdos3>rt aooOoio Sositf, 3J3rtos3e>rt 'SsOoio 
35e>ri, when (he) comes, (he is) like a tiger; when (he) goes, (he is) like a 
mouse. >& ^JScse) <3>s? WN6 tfr^ck crawo, ad?orf tck 5>ex>^d, if (I) 

*C O >- ^ co^^ 

come with thee to-morrow, my study will be interrupted for four days. 

S5>ri 3:3c36 ^kJo 3JS?rio^), if (thou) behavest thus, thou wilt be ruined. 


z3pl zodorfcl), if (one) churns curds, butter is produced. 
JSrad ^^o 3oJ3^o^c3, if (I) buy sweetmeats, they will be 

s Cd O "^"^ 

eaten. ^^ &>rt3t, tetfti ^Jar^ f($3$ dJsadS n ^3oo oi^esarf si^)rf 

-y C3 

tS^o, O son, if (thou) wan test to form friendship with people, (thou) 
must do so with much caution. 

, (we) must converse in love with (our) brothers. 

, if (you) teach (them) words, parrots will quickly 


learn (them). See e.g. also 302, 7 (o&eJ^S). 314 (the conditional). 
323 (fccSjiszi, etc.). 326 (o^&iszl, etc.). 332. 333 (^6, etc.). 

o^.tfo, (he is) good to (his) mother, rtodj 33^0 ssao^dre 

V *D 1j 

, the teacher caused (his) disciple to read the grammar. 

2oO, please come as far as (my) house. oktss&s 

, the master stood up to wash (his) 


V -JJ- 

hands and feet. 3ori?io 

what does that woman carry on (her) head? 
?$o .BScSo, Madana perceived "this man (is) a suitable husband for (my) 
younger sister". ^90 3e>o3o to&^ojj^* vu&^OJocSo, a calf does not leave 
the company of (its) mother. rtodoOrfr^ 3^0, the pupil (is) like (his) 
spiritual teacher. ^CQ ?3J3do^;3, we see with (our) eyes. 

^cis wC3o vlorl^orl^ ^s^f^ &&ri zS^sshaj^, you ought to have given 
(it, i.e. the money) six months ago. w ;3jd(&, o&s^ ^j5,^sja^> tOf^o, 
^5^e;o, when that physician asked "why will you not take (them, i. e. 
the medicines)?" The grammar called Nudigattu adduces also the follow- 
ing instances: esd?l> ero^^o^j, 3oJ3jlcdo zS^rf, he (is) a good fellow, do 

not beat (him), zj^Sorafio T^^cra??, ao^o,. dJ335s)OuO =^JSdo, the 
Brahmana is an honest man, give (him) ten rupees. ?o ?1 33e)OO 

, insipid milk does not agree with me; put 
(some) sugar (into it)! & =j?>c2 aodcSsftzS, ^y.^oio ^a, this axe is 


sharp; cut the wood (with it)! 

359. In 275 there are various instances of the modern dialect in 
which the verb 'ado, to be, is the verb of a sentence, e.g. w^rt^o ^^ ^dJ 


jj^sS, elephants are black; 253=^0 2^e3js^rfo S3C>, the penknife is beautiful; 
W ro^oJodo 2S^,^Qcra6, those women are small: aoJSrttfo 2oSids) 5^, 

t=9 "O" <J) 

the flowers are green. On the other hand we find there various instances 
in which the verb 'ado is omitted, e. g. arf^j ss3j3? sdj^ori^o, he (is) a 
nice boy; 035^^ rfj^ dJS^do, his house (is) large; etc. From such 

instances it might appear as if the insertion and omission of the verb 'ado 
were arbitrary. 

But the above instances belong to the present modern dialect; in 
the ancient and mediaeval dialect the verb 'acr* ('ado) is always understood 
and never expressed, if it is a mere copula to connect a subject with its 
predicate, e. g. vtifS 6 ado, he (is) a good man. es^s?* fcdv*, she (is) 


a good woman. 'arfv* jSfdd iJS'^o,,, she (is) the king's maid-servant. 
}1?cio, milk (is) white. wdc' ZO^CJD*, they (are) able persons. 
oLiOCXJo^j, they (the pearls, are) large. $?>& wv*, I ( am ) a servant. 
'ado, he (is) a servant. >o T5>s3oo, thou (art) Kama. o r^O, 
I (am) Gauri. d^.ort&fSs* slracStfo^j* ero^doo, among jewels the ruby 
(is) precious. sjjs^ddJS^ 3)dj3StO* enj^sioo*, among men males (are) 
chiefs (see 350, 2, a. b. c; 354, I, 2; 348, 5. 7; 349, s; 357, s). 

, this man as to generosity (is) a Mandhata. 
3 , the mother (is) one (i.e. the same), the father 

(is) different. 3?F ^odorio, whose horse (is) this? 

whose daughter (art) thou? Instances like these are the rule and -quite 


In sentences like the following Kannadu pe.iple would also nowadays 
scarcely use the verb ' 'arfdo o&e)d\>, who (are) these persons? 
d*^ o&?>d SorsS, whose wife (is) she? o&sJSe)^ ?>^^i, which (is) your 

t4 TS 

elder sister? 'S.rfdo Jirfo, 3)05joJo^do, y^^pe, this (is) your mother; is 

she not? esrfdo yrQ ^sjo,?i odo, they (are) brothers. 

ro eori 

In the following instance of the present modern dialect also the past 
tense of the verb 'ado, when a mere copula, is to be understood: 

the original language of the Aryas (was) Samskrita; from that, in course 
of time, several languages came into existence. 

360. It is a different thing, if the verb 'to be' is not a mere copula, 
but expresses 'to exist', 'to be', 'to have', when the verbs vu<s*, -ao* (ado) 
and the forms esoSOg, 5c3, 'azS, ws3, *asS, are used (see 196. 316, 
i. 2), e.g. 

if thou art, (there) 

is an empire; if thou art, (there) are the insignia of royalty and (there) 
are boxes (with money); if thou art, (there) is the white umbrella; if 
thou art (or be) not, will all these (things) exist? 

, (there) is money, ^ododrts?* ^^s^j, (there) are horses. 
, (there) is fame to him (i. e. he has fame), ssrfo*' 


they are present. 


to the north of that forest (there) is the mountain of Aiijanagiri. 
36^ d &?& We> erucso., (there) is a well near that house, 


fjjp 'S.cS^o. (there) was even one man in the boat. 


s3, (there) are many tigers in this jungle. 

(there) is God. rlx3o?o^ ortc3 uaotf o> ^rftfOddo, (there) were 
many servants with that gentleman, tf erd>o3Je>^fi ?& ^o, (there) 


is no water in the well. 3e)03oft?3 So^dO^, Jfa,6ftti ?toc>j^, (there) 

ro' ^ mr 

are no greater benefactors than a mother, (there) is nothing sweeter 

than sugar. rtxSpcSjSv* 'adrsSs?*, she is in the house, o^l^do roO ^do 
e> t. 

rfore^'^do r3^de3 lu^doo, as long as they possess riches, will not also 

W ^- 

scoundrels be honourable persons? 

In such instances the verb e/u$*, etc. are often also not expressed, e. g. 

=5^00 , (there is) fragrance in flowers. eodJSs?* s3tfo , (there 

s) white colour in the flower. srs&iSv* sJoqiodo, (there is) sweetness in 

milk. >;!> cSj3^ s i^Wo, (there is) splendour in the disk of the sun. 

zo ^ 

7$$ o3or?j sJso ^orsdsirrscSjs^ (there are) eight chapters in the Sabda- 

cp U O 

manidarpana. rtodoD^JSs?* ^3o^o, (he is) true to (his) guru. 

23e)C?o, (he is) proficient in adoration, wU, r s>)fi ss^rs^o^ej, for 

the cat (it is) play, for the mouse (it is) extreme distress, 

22^> rf^} s&e^^do, knowledge (is) superior to gold. 55 

r ap j^- PO 

rra3do, (there were) many players there. 

It will have been observed from the above sentences that the English 
terms 'there', 'there is', 'there are', 'there were', etc., used to begin 
sentences, cannot be expressed in Kannada, to which may be added e. g. 
ej^ortsjj 5 y^rlo Os3)o^cdoSo g;^3 Coo, (there) was born to him and to her 


Vikhyatayasa. ssd^re^^o cjs^ w^3 do, (there) occurred an inroad 
from the side of the king. 

Notice also the following: ^^ <ad ?j or ^Sr2, it is I. 
or jrasS^, ^ is we. esdd, ^sS^ soar? ss^esS, it is we, not they, who 

say so. aojc^oh -acrss? or adj^jn, it is a girl. 

361. In 154170 the forms of the past verbal participle have 
been given (cf. 'S^cS, W^tS in 8 338, and the repetition of verbs in 

ro ro 


It is used 

1, in simple succession of actions, the actions having the same subject, 

e. g. tw^do jjfej o, he was delighted (and) gave. s3oa& S^rtCO o, he was 


pleased (and) praised. sraa ^orSdo, he sang (and) danced. 

he begged (and) received. w&3rO ^rso, he sought (and) found. 


sior^cio, he saw (and) made obeisance. en)f|js5r\c5o, he ate (and) went 


to sleep. tfoac5orto&3 o. he drank (and) spit. DO^J rao 
o ' o ca 

he bathed, ate, drank (and) turned back, 
55)dro eoScdo iJS&S^O* d33ac3o, he ruined the country of Malava (and) 
made the women of its (town of) Dharapura (his) maid-servants. 
S3e>3 9 ^ecSo t e^o, like a gold-coloured young 

antelope the white (horse) rolled about, sprang (and) went. 

sv?ft en>reo ^^rttf^q, ^%t&> wdo3 e?2, I go home, eat, take (my) 

CS o O 

books (and) come, ui&kis dJS^ wdo^^, I will eat (and) come. 



;3, the water in the sea is heated by the sunshine, 
becomes vapour, rises up, joins together in the air (and) becomes clouds. 
sSJSJoOo 3dtii sdo^floktfj, dJS^os^d, they churn curds (and) make 

^* ^ 

buttermilk. rtd^SQcjs^osJo, he seizes the pole (and) plays. sjjsri:3 
^?do, he did not make (it and) went. tiZSd ^"sD ^rfjdo, he did not 
run away, fought (and) overcame. 

(It will be seen that in translating the past participle the verb finite 
in combination with 'and' has been used.) 

2, in manner, the actions having the same subject, e. g. 

he walked .stoopingly. ^dc3o 2J^ o, he came on foot. >fio ?fc3rfo, he 

tied (it) firmly. 3ori.3oA) w6c3o, he wrote (it) in an abridged way. k3;j 
\^ >j 

c&ro to6do, he wrote (it) commentatorially. 3^oioc3 siJe)3-)C3 wsddo, do 
not speak without understanding. 

3, in means, the actions having the same subject, e. g. ^Odjrso, he 


ate by wandering in quest of alms. ?&> ^jsreo 3fl ZJ3oorfj, TfcSo J3rsj 

t& * CJ Ci> 

3?1 We>dc3o, (one) may eat by begging, (but one) ought not to live by 
stealing. ri^ritfF^aoJSdcSj kaA)dFl>, he drove the cattle away by beating. 

4, in cause, the actions having the same subject, e. g. wt 9 afcc3 ^U,o, 
because he did not know, he was ruined. 3oodort?3o tCic5 ^Ur&, the boy 


was ruined, because he did not study. rir??3o ^-C^o ij , 3oorto 30A 

Cd cJ 

, the husband was ruined, because he sat (lazily); the woman was 



ruined, because she rambled about. s&C^fi 5cSt3 3 3oJSo 3 fi 35e>fc3 9 c3 
35e>tf, as if (one) springs into the river, because he is afraid of the rain. 

When a different subject from that of the last verb occurs, it is used 

1, in cause, e.g. sSra^o ^rao cSosiusi^ wcSodo, grief originated, because 


(he) saw the corpse, &o3o^o ^rao ?foa>5l3 s tJrfjdi, joy originated, because 

(he) saw the beloved woman. rTDS? >ero s^jda^ a6rao )^o . because the 

5 -*' 

wind blew, (there) fell a ripe fruit from the tree, sor? 2oJd 

because (his) money went, he became poor. aoe>;j) 3t& >35l;3?&3 9 


?33 <&, the king died, because a snake bit (him), and the poison rose (to 
his head). vocS dodd Sbaofosf &C3 9 =#033* ^> >CoJ ^.A, as if ( a man ) 

O oJ Q * ~"^ 

ascended the top of a high tree, fell down, because his hand slipped, and 
died. 3Jsj?> cSjS^d =^^3.^0, 3oJ5279 sJJS^cS =^'e3,^j, because nobody took 

M C^ 

care of the fruit, it was spoiled; because nobody cultivated the field, it 
was ruined, ro^d dssC^ SJ^rfo ?os3oSo^o, the lead-pencil wore, because 
(people) wrote (with it), ssd^fo t3?^ eo?i^ ro^,^, ne died, because disease 

attacked (him). $5^ wOoio ?5e3rio g^* wOfe3.cS ^jradfttfA^ Add 

co ro 80 O cd 

,, tne flower of a shrub which was put there in a pot, fell down, 
because the end of his garment touched it. 

2, in lapse of time, e.g. wsj^o 3oJ3?A eso&o adsS woSo^o, it is five 


days since he went. e5d?i^o 20^0 Wo Sort^oSo^o it is a month since 

a o 

the king came. 

362. The forms of the present verbal participle are adduced in 172. 
173. It expresses 

1, contemporaneous action, e.g. Nrto3oo wrfo, he came laughing. 36 
, he went calling. ^cSJsL^o 20^0, he came fighting, ^a 
, he beat chiding. ^^^ 3^do, he cut chipping. d 
WF^o, he came blessing. X>&fbr(j3 S^ecSo, he went shining, ^rto^ 
j, he spoke laughing. kz&2^ 3oJ3^r(od^^J <^d^) ^n^> rfo, he who 
goes running may stumble (and) fall, ^rto;^ 3rtaX sddeJos^,^, he prates 
(whilst) laughing (and) eating, us^orfo Soe)^^, atjfifl'tfj^ N^J^ ^od) 
O^O^S^cS, Rama dances singing, playing a musical instrument (and) 


g^tf, see, father! from that side (there) conies an old man putting down 
(his) stick on the ground (at every step to support himself). 

2, continuation (cf. 339, 6) 

a) in the present tense (see 313, i). 

b) in the imperfect (see 313, 2), e.g. -anJo^dro, he was shooting 
(arrows), crcreo^sto 'acSFo, he was eating. F^* Wo ^^ &>?& ^e>cs 
>r3>sJCo tS^zJj^dro, both of us looked about, did not see thee (and) were 
in anxiety (as to thee) up to this moment. 

tp?si>o jj Bhima seized the 
end of the tails of the two furious elephants, (and) whilst he crushed 
(them), was like a blacksmith who plied the bellows, the blood that caine 
forth from (their) mouth being the flame. rtrs5J3o3oj ^Fo, ^od)6oio?i)^ 
Soodi^o^ ^dc$c3o, Ganapati walked seeking- his horse. 

c) in the future (see 313, 3). 

When in the modern dialect the present participle has its own 
subject, it suffixes the vowels ^ or 'a, combined with a euphonic 53* (see 
282. 285. 286), e.g. sj^^ fcdo^eS 3JWd vu^akJ^d, the cuckoo cries 
even spring coming (i.e. at thd very time when spring comes, as soon as 
spring comes). sSocS>?oo^d do3o>c5 >? .ktf &riuzk3> ?!rto^0 z3?rf, 
do not laugh on account of love for (your) wife and son, (your) heart 
even taking pleasure (in them). 

363. The forms of the past relative participle are given in 1 75 1 79. 
Cf. 254. 

It is used to take the place of the relative pronouns in other languages, 
e.g. 33e>&ao, he who sang; ^?rio, he who went; d?azSvS she who begged; 
, he who considered; &?C$OFC$O, it that drank; CCOo*, those who 

rise; c?Sd 5^t)o, a place in which (people) played; &)& 3?ix, a (or the) 


thing which (somebody) had given; sSjss?^ ^jo*, tu e grass which had 
germinated; ^ srodo, the lesson which (somebody) had learned; ^?c3o 
, the place (of the body) to which (somebody) applied a blow; wrf 
, Vishnu who had become; sirac^d tfo&, a field which nobody 



cultivates; -S-^d sj^o, in case that (something) should not be destroyed; 

! * A ^ 

3edd ^&3o, an affair that does not end; 5e>c5 yso&Fo an affair which 

a " 

is not proper; )ftd Oo, a strap which has been tightened; sS^rf C3e>?3o, 

a gift which has been asked for; ^o^rfj* to?oOrodo, he whose affliction was 
removed; 3g^?& aookjrfddo, they to whom a son has not been born; 

W gj 

^JSdoo s&oSS'dUo,., an ox whose horns are broken. Cf. 267. 
About its use before adverbs (postpositions, 212, 6) see 282. 

364. The forms of the present and future relative participles are given 
in 180 186. Cf. 254. 

They are used in the same way as the relative past participle (also before 

adverbs, see 282. 365), e.g. ero*,o, he who is or has (see 185. 316); 


ssSS'sJV*, she who knows or will know (see 186); ^jscksj ^S^s*, a sand- 
bank that is accumulating; ^jsrtarf roja&o*, a lamp that hangs; sjSjaoi^ 


doS^ 2 , a rain which dashes; )?l>d 2,j)^odo, a chowrie which (somebody) 
waves; 23$s3 $, an ear of corn that grows; ^jsdsJ $0, a kettle-drum 
that (somebody) beats; ^do3oo ( d ^oSJo, a conch-shell that (somedody) 
blows; 3JO> ^>S5 3 , a stream that runs; >&s3 ^ads?, a trumpet which 
(somebody) applies to his mouth for blowing; ^rsu,d c^s&Pfcj^ortv*, 
perspiration which comes forth (see 253, 2, d)\ ^PCdo, he that nourishes 
or will nourish; j&O^Se)^, a woman who scares away (see 254). SorS 


TJrJSS^d So* 3^ wofo^J, the time in which (the cows) are milked, has 
come. See 273. 330, and.c/. 267. An additonal instance is: 



eroreo, ^js^orto || the black 


bees which hum, the wind which blows, the leaves of palms which wave 
about, the plantains which fluctuate in (the water of) the ponds, the 
small islands (in the river) which are cool, the herons which do meet 
together, the ruddy geese which mutually touch and kiss, the parrots 
which play about, the clever birds which utter pleasant words cause 
much pleasure to those who look on. 

After one or more preceding past participles the present-future relative 
participle is often used, giving it or them so to say the sense of the 
present, e. g. ^tf e;j5r sra^o, a tail which is long and extends itself. 


esfel ^JS^Clorf siacrfXSrtfelrtrf'S*, the doorkeepers' sticks which 

drive away and strike those who are dishonest, &$& 

o rtv'ddo the speed of the arrows that touch, knock against him 


(and) miss (their deadly aim). c5ozjFejOe>t33do fc)>3 d ^oi:* 3&ado 

3oJS?rt zSe^srlu^ c3, because weak persons have not sufficient 
power to seize the hand of very strong persons, to stop (them and) 
demand (their rights), they are obliged to bear quietly whatsoever those 

It is still to be mentioned that occasionally present relative participles 
are put in an uninterrupted series one after another, e. g. rt^ascraciisj & 
artoasSeSddaejdo^&Os 3 * ettrtg&,ota& c e^o,o, the suffix atiga is used 
(regarding) a man who seizes a pole (and) plays, (regarding) one who 
bears (or uses to bear) a lamp, (and) regarding one who carries on a 
betel-leaf trade. 



(king's) son's grand army which was piercing, causing to retreat, whoop- 
ing, behaving proudly, shouting, crying aloud, coming near, and 
attacking, striving, crowding, surrounding, closing with, standing, gain- 
ing the victory, coming forth, jumping up, advancing, beating excessively, 
getting entangled, struggling, rising (and) pushing in a good manner, 
attracted the attention. 

365. The forms and signification of the infinitive appear in 187. 188. 

Here follow some instances: erorso* 2J?d o, he came to eat. 3d5^ 
^erio, he went to bring. rf fcjtfdoo JTO^O* ^pertoi:*? e^*, <^s3 
c3?r qiCs^ 33F, which world doest thou go to subdue? Tell, Vidya- 
dharacakravarti! fajSaJoei. so^o he came to speak. ^ 0^s3,df!*5* 

O O Tf 

Sjjsjf|j3?F^,a?joo, tell to make large the heap of gold! rfjsrf^ cStfo, 
he (is) clever to make. ^J8fcSo* Xsioq^Fo, he (is) suitable to examine. 
, it (is) good to eat. &>^er ^s3ooJoo, it (is) time to see. 
, it (is) time to go. n>ris3e&3* (or v\3d?3^t>"), tell (him) to 
put on clothes. 3ds^t3< (or <idd^eo*) rfi^ci Se>z3?73qi^sl)o, tell to bring 


the force of well equipped horses. vosjjlds&o ^tosrf 23^ (or 
23^), do not cause trouble. t?rtao 23^8 dido, that is fit (or about) to 
become. aoozSorfdo yqir^^o, rl3o?3ejs3do, the boys cannot understand 
the meaning, $23 do 3oe>8ri 2ode3-J3^> do, mean persons will not come to 

the (proper) way. ^re^o eruaO^ 3oJ3eri>^\ 26^0, it is necessary for me 


to go to the town, soja^o re,s3 3o?3tf SoJ^rf^., tfsjjfl 33J cl ^JSfcldo, they 

- eo -d <o eJ 

ordered us to go home early, ^fi todO^, zodo^cS, I can read, g^s^) 

d&nj 23^*0, you must deliver. ^ '"^ 2^d 205o.)C5o, you may come in. 

twN> \ 

.js^ort^^d wd ersdtSj, you must not utter such words. 

c ^- 

zod ^^c5o it is proper for them to come here. See 8 315 


(concerning the passive); 316, 3 seq. 

The locative-infinitive (satisaptami; satyartha, see Sabdamanidarpana 
under its sutra 133) has been touched upon in 187, 4; 188, remark; 
286. It is the infinitive with the final vowel oi (see also the passive in 
315 wherein it is used, and 352, i, a). According to the grammarian 
Kesava it is used when there' are two subjects (ubhayakartri, Sabdamani- 
darpana under sutra 249), e. g. rreofos'o sissi d^rfo djfcS- c3o, when the 


singer sang, the king was pleased (lit. the singer a singing, the king was 
pleased). S3e>3 S3e>d Sj^rf^o WejZo&rio, when the actor played, the musi- 
cian sounded (his) musical instrument. 3 ^pri^ 3 23>ft =$Je>fe3.o, when 

O " 

the bard praised, the liberal man gave, eod ^reo, when (he) came, (the 


king) saw (him). 3v$ f e2>6 $&&&& ^ra o?3 sJo^o^JSd?^, when the 


earth quaked, when the spectators' eyes became tired (and) when the 
mind was afflicted. 

"Some authors", Kesava says, "do not hesitate to use $353* instead (of 
<0), but that is not proper", and adduces the following instances as 
wrong (abaddha): srodSjC^prttfca* ZoS^^do* ata>g,^3j3 JfcraAi?rf<33fte$r 
7? wrtv*, when (they) shampooed (his) lotus-like feet, king Sudrika was 
then comfortably seated. sooSo^ OaA)O* ^^?oa* o^ctas^o^dorV, 
when (they) desired the purple sunshine of evening, the trees of the 
hermitage appeared (see 120, a, 2). 

Kesava remarks that in the above instances ws3J3do (PJO* + O^O) 
would have been right (suddha), for which he gives the following in- 
stances: dro^o 2od&do &fl>{ftdo&tt>rUo, when spring came, the 

cuckoo sang, rj^s? )f?3e3ja^$* ^ 'SWwojJ, when the wind blew, leaves 


dropped down. 


According to that grammarian substitutes (udesas, as to use) for 
are atfo, ^rSrio, tfutfoo (vodo+sroo), y<^c, w^rio, ?3&:3o and also 

, e.g. ^ejdo^do ^do* ssrfoft fjjrtri) f 
, when (his) pride hides itself (and) is crushed completely, 


Skanda beats him so that he becomes ashamed. es3 w&F?3rto 
when extremity. comes, he bears (it) patiently, ioCsS?!^ oirfoo 
<W)wd s^po* ^fifc^ 6)ZJFdoilfi?dd?io, when (he) said "tell Vishnu to 
come (him) who appears (and) is coming (there) like the Anjanacala!" 
^^Okrf 3Je^ 3 ,o3J3v* V a6rfo ?j) iJatirto^rfjo, when the female companion 
said "remain near thy beloved one", and went away. L^rio sids^dodj* 

we3J32c3rt ^3^.0, when the assembly dispersed, he began to consider. 


(See 286.) wucSOcSFs' ^ridF^o ^aSo^sS^^'S'o^cSo, when he who is on 
high jumps down, jump upon (him) in order to beat (him)! 

, so that (his son) may receive a boon, he worships, 

jrto^rfo $co3^ao, when from fear (he) rushes for- 
ward (and) enters the pools of the Ganges. 'aa^Fob tizU S3& ^JSrso, 

oO J i3 

when he comes to meet (him), he embraces (him). 3?s3f3r!dj* ^dro, so 
that (the king) may give, he remains. 2*s3o3j3i2?2 s&o^orra&Ov* 3$ 
ZJSJr^rls^ -so*, be together with the fire-place when in (thy) old age 
grey hair grows. ^oao^oejs^Sjo ^jScdo&Oc^o, when the chief of the 
Kuru race spoke. 53e>d?3 &cdJ3^o ^)^o* o^rfjrfo, when the duck-weed 
was destroyed, the water became clear (see 286). 
when (he) came, he gave (him something). 

Kesava remarks that S5f2rto, ?5clo, r a?Srio, 'S.fSo use to express the 
present and future, tAidoo, S5?3J5do the past, and according to this his 
remark the sentences quoted above have been translated. 

Concerning Kesava's rule as to the use of the infinitive with final <j 
the observation may be made that Bhattakalanka, the author of the 
Sabdanusasana, does not take notice of it, because he quotes (as it seems) 
the following sentences regarding the use of ee? without raising any 

objection: n>co?o 33e>c2e3* wC?oo sSo^rfo, when the singer sang, the 

king was pleased. espr s2^E5* cysjioao^o, when the beggar begged, the 

liberal man gave. jS^jtfes* sjjjjrfo* tfe^eS ^PPCSocSo, when the sun rose, 
darkness went. 



In the modern dialect there is no particular rule regarding the use of 
(=yo*), although it is also employed to express 'when', e. g. =$f<s*e;j, 
when (he, she, etc.) asked (lit. an asking). k>> ^JS^^o, when (he, she, 
etc.) assented. <o?too, when (he, she, etc.) said, zjSsJOFffo o>fc:*3 t?tfo3 
doo 3j.2rt<) ?doaja> c3 &, when Dharma was ruling the kingdom, (his) 
subjects were happy. ^ 2oti^>j ;=3e>ok ScJS^rbJ^cS, when thou comest, 
I shall go. It is however more common to suffix wh (the past participle 
of wrlo) to es^o, e.g. ^^SJSA, a hearing having become, i. e. when (he, 
she, etc.) heard; rfjs^sj-sA, w^oJ^dOejh. 

In 188 it has been shown that the so-called infinitives ending in 
oi, 52^, S3t>o originally are verbal nouns. In modern poetry the form 
with <o occurs occasionally, see e. g. the verse from the Dasapadas quoted 
in 366 under remark a. 

366. About the conjugation of verbs, (nouns, pronouns and adjectives) 
in the present, future and past see 189-204. 

Some instances are sS?o?loe>&ic3* <3Z3 3 tifs 6 . ^rfc ^ss? wckr&o >oi&e 


Ari, the king of spring comes; to-day (and) to-morrow (there) is no life 
for him who is separated from (his wife and other dear ones), ^oorto^) 

ort<s*, there are also devouring large 

fishes in the ocean. p;3.>s?J3 ^orso 23$J?> zi, if thou art, the white umbrella 

v eJ A 

is. ?i^o, dJ36?^ 25jap&3 8 CXSiO f fc$6{, are there (any) deities like you? 
s^ds'o, Taraka frightened the three worlds. 
53o?o3orodo, he caused the kine to eat grass on the 
banks of the Yamuna. &33gta33tic33ie>r$^ c^ojrfo, he increased in 
force like fire that has obtained an oblation of ghee. s5S5 9 rfs?* 33>?3o^ 


NJSwd i'i3^t>djf3* -^5^, this woman knew the whole state of the sons of 



| I shall 

know, Prithe will know, Krishna will know, the sun (or Indra) will know, 
the very wise person Sahadeva will know; thou to whom (didst thou 
make known)? When will nobody know, king of Anga? 


.. O 

u a e-rv o 


cradoijo ^rJjiflLd^OJo&ftzStSe)^ sl^SDZ&^r?* || She was 

O O O * Q 

saying U I will give thee a fully ripe fruit as a present, female parrot, 
quickly I will give thee a bunch of flowers, black bee, ever without 
stopping I will give thee a soft shining bud of the red lotus, swan, and 
I will give thee fragrance, cool wind, if to-day (you) search, bring and 
place my lover near me". 



o d^ 

si>oi| sjo^b^wo || In front the moun- 

tain Mandara appeared to the eyes of the deities in such hugeness that 
(they) said: "did it touch (or) did it not touch heaven? did it place down 
(or) did it not place down (its) foot on the top of Rasatala?" -g^ tfrf sJotf;^ 
S527S alj^fa^ ^f^Ar^QO, Isvara's mind became agitated, the army of 
the Kinnaras ran away. sJ^Orod^ 5JoJ3dd?3o3J3v* tS^rtrd-w , a dazzlingly 
red colour spread about in the east. ^a^HJ^ SL^io, lustre came in. 

o 200JJO tt 'a^j ^jsad t^aoioo II "With haste 

A A - 

he will make a crop like a farmer who does not remove the weeds (and) 
sows ; the wife examines the young plants, sighs deeply (and) reviles the 
way in'which (he) has done it. $JSd^033e)o FkartosJo" W ClJS^ort Xfi 


^ B rt3'sq5rsl)o, the king told the messenger the meaning contained in his 
own mind. ^jndcriooSrtoo $o&a?3 S)rfjrt3o rlsiaoo the cuckoo cried 

nicely, the wind blew, 

darkness had quite swallowed sun and moon, thunder-bolts came down. 

d! o3J2?rtc3j3v* wd dJS^sJoo^oo SeaoO^oo, in this manner (he) will 

remove whatsoever sickness. 33e>>tfo,o fcjrtsS^rfo tfsJo^Sirfo, Brahma 

ti p 

rules the whole world. 



\ Ringworm will 

disappear in five days when (one) rubs (it) with dried cow-dung, rubs, 
in a merciless manner, the root of Senna and also Emblic myrobalan 
in the juice of a well-matured lemon, and applies (this medicament 
to it). 


a) In 195 the contingent future of the modern dialect (the Nudigattu 
calls it samsayarthakriyapada) has been introduced. Here follow some 
additional instances: esddo ^>$ ZO^D do, they may come to-morrow. 


L^o^ 3oJrtjs3sSf3o tOz3> >zjdfi), he who goes running may sti mbie (and) 
fall. 3oo> AjoSo^^ <od>OrO3j, a tiger may withstand a lion. Oe>cdoc! 

in the king's house a dinner may be obtained. 
-Ssrt wdo&cra <3o, he may be coming now. 

Dasapada 9 || When (one) teaches (her) the duty of truth continually, 
could it be pleasant to the mind of a female servant? When (one) tells 
(it) the real nature of the soul manifoldly, could it be known to the 
mind of a donkey? When (one) has drawn a figure of pure gold, if (one) 
kisses (it), could it speak? When (one) applies a mark of musk to the 
forehead, will it possibly not cause a nice appearance? 

6) The past tense, as remarked in 194, is not unfrequently used for 
the present or future, e.g. $3o3v%, c3)^o rj^tfo, alas, I die (or shall die). 
3$, know I shall certainly give, ^^o eo???l>, ^^ 


I come, walk on! e3<3rto&>o5o3:>, ^ oo>3-0, dinner will 
(soon) be ready; put the leaves (used as plates)! SJS^j eje>s3 dJsrS^ 
3f3, dJS^o e53 9 akt3rf fcirttf 33, he who knows (proper) words, brings a 
ruby; (but) he who' does not know (proper) words, brings quarrel. (It 
may be mentioned here that sometimes the English 'is' is expressed by 
WOfo^J, it became or has become, e. g. SoJSg^oSo^o, it is late. 
^a, it is morning, ^^cdjo^ej^c-soao^o, it is evening, oj^o. rtpl. 

So U 

what o'clock is it? &;$o rtfl,aS3e)03o^o. it is one o'clock. wC3o s3d 
o eJ 


it is half past six o'clock. 3o3,dzl) ^e>yj rtrfo3jso3J^j, it is a 

* d 

quarter past twelve. =5-3^0 3&3o 36^, rt?io&e>05j3o, it is a quarter to 
ten; but wok'Er, jra^o, ao^fejo 3Q>&> Ws3, it is four minutes to five.) 


c) The present tense may be used for the future, e. g. 

3 o., . | I go into the 

"Q 1 Q ^J 

garden (and) bring (for ^s3ro, I shall bring) thee, sister, a bunch of 
fresh flowers (see 215, 5, 6). 

The Kannada grammar Nudigattu says that in speaking (wsoija^o) 
the form of the future does not occur (in modern Kannada), in its stead 
the present is used, e. g. for o>o3odo <j3e)$ wdosjdo people say 

Also when in the modern dialect the meaning of 'to use' is expressed 
either by the simple future tense, as zj^Sorsdo acSD^o sra^rf rfjssiorfdo, 
people say zja-a^pdo a^s^o ?TS^ sissj^os]^, or by the continuative 
future tense, as w^sdipdo 4^ ?3\^ siJScli^dosJOo, .they say ZTO,a^ 
rado ?^^CS *t3 ^js^o^djs^d (see 313, 3). 

A few additional sentences are: ^33$ aoJSfrtoJ^, I shall go to- 
morrow. ^^dj t3?^s)C56 ^Je^oji^N, if (you) want water, I shall give (you 
some). >?;3) zodjd ^^^ ^do^^, I shall stay till you come. ? 

?i6 N?ldo jraew, ad?od iodo a^)o^ cS, if (I) come with thee 
. o -3 

to-morrow, my study will be interrupted for four days. 

367. The forms of the imperative appear ID 205 208." 
The following instances may be given: 


c5* 'ado siraC^o, let me do it! 
33-?>z2s3 3ox! zon?3s3 3jsefie3! 3e^s3 rWsssd! hum, black 

bee! cry, cuckoo! blow, wind! aoD, ^^, hear, ll.iri! 

11 It may be remarked that according to the SabdAnuDHsana the imperative with final rt. 
etc. includes asis, blessing, beneJiction; vidbi, ordering; nimantrana, biililinj; ; Araantrana, 
calling; adhyeshana, soliciting; samprasnn, questioning 1 about or considering what is to be 
done; preshana, urging (an inferior); viji'iapana, begging (a superior); aj lApana. directing 
(to follow a rule) ; prarthana, praying. 


e3Jse=aclEs?*! jj Look like a 
crow! Step slowly like a crane! Hide with the stratagem of a tortoise! 
Stand like a spinning top (?)! Be roaming like a bee! Swing the 
sword-weapon-bow (?) whilst resembling a shining flash of lightning! 
In the manner of a scoundrel learn all well (and) become a teacher in 
the world! ^^ &&> or ^^ <,o*, be thou! 
, sjorts? (o. r. sodos?) ! 

|j Remain, daughter! 
Have the vain grammarian and the vain disputant and the rustic as 
their aim excellent poems which are (only) the aim of the mass of very 
clever poets? 


JS^Oo ^^j^w^o || When the pond 
took the waters that fell from the hands of the young women who said 
"take! take!" and all at once sprinkled, it became reddish-brown water 
on account of the filaments (of lotus flowers) that became loose and 
were scattered about. ^toe)>, 'aOfi w>, brother, come here! 3oA?, 
eruakM ^d, sister, go to dine! ^orts??, ou>?S 'SiCo, daughter, be 

"C" O 

joyful! c3es3e>, $$,&. en)c3 0?dJ, God, save me! 

L v o 

We>d, sSooe^frart^ofS! (J3ed, ^^J3^di)s3JS^?S? J! come thou who 
walkest like a female swan! see thou who hast the fickle eye of a 
partridge! ^^ ad, be thou! 

y^qiO^ao >roo, listen (thou) to (my) respectful petition! d& 

^ *"*n\ 

s^cSf^o, save (thou) me! sjorto^ 23ee3^ z3 eSe^dj, even pray (thou), 
pray (thou) again! 

, may he give! ado ^F, let him (or may he) bring! 
2ooqio, let the wise man worship the gods ! ^o^o3J3v* 
let him perform the religious observance in the 


evening! ui^o^o $J3?fc:3orto3,>, may the hungry man eat! 

lrersrf^fSFS* toft?5ofl, let the teacher instruct the boy in the sastras! 
S3e>o* Crests* todort, 53o?F5* ^?drfO(3 kdotf, the son may read the 

grammar, or he may read the veda! zora.^s* en^^rtortoSo, let the ser- 


vant work! sjd?^ < acSo 5&>z2ort, may the king do this! 

c&tf, let the people do thus! }si)A?3o tp^orfjo ^orfort, may this man 


give us alms! ^d^sqte* y 3C3ao 35lftF& d?ortto, may the king cause 
the countries to thrive in that manner! s^dd-ias* fco> C3e>coo 



, may soon the life that is usual in the veda, become thine! 

C50& dJSCaO, may God have compassion on thee! 
let him come in! (see 316, 10. u). 

J5Oo do, may the Jina give us joy! 

3s>rtodo ^sjors^jas? 6 , let us altogether attack 

Phalguna! esdo* <ow dodj* ^?rt^ wg So^qio^od^o, let all of us now per- 

00 1 *^ ** 

form a horse-sacrifice! ^^QJJO, what shall we do? 'aj^o. k;3rt ouJS^JS^rs, 

^j ^ 

let us now go to (our) house! 3$ o3o3i.elcdo^o, $?tfj, let us ask the 

Q CN) ^ 

permission of (our) father! 

TOc^dr^o^rfoo ?jsjj ^,o, make ye ready the troop of beasts (and) 
elephants! rbdort^TO, s&ida^ oO^ori z3^^)o =2rZpoioo, guru, delightfully 
communicate a story to us! rfo^^De), %, dfdOfixaSJirtCJ'D, children, 

praise God continually! ss^, 'S, wfi 0, brother, come here! ?^ 

ro' co ^=L ' 

sir, sit down! ^J3^a ^^, see ye! 
&cS' ^4^, give ye us the desired object! 
'ado dje)0j Oo, make you this! 


may they (or let them) do (it)! 

may the wise put their trust in true knowledge! odo, ^jrioh^o* s2rg o 

o FO 

^orfoT^, may they give a female to our son! erf do 2j3ol>&, may they (or 
let them) write! 


s^o* 'ado rfjsCOo do, let them do this! wrfdo aoJaertosjdo, let them 

368. The forms of the conjugated negative are given in 209. 210; 
cf. 31G, Regarding bhavavacanas combined with 'ao see 209 
298. 299. 316, 2.13; cf. 254, remark i. 


Here follow some modern instances: wddo &ir( wsddo, they do not 
come now. oiwas* 3$ ricraarotirfrfo, o^ssto, der?d)? <&& 3"<i 

*^, \*v* < v ^ww^w^^w <3\c5 J^P Qj uuw 

much shall I praise the virtuous conduct of Yudhishthira? He did not 
utter abusive words even against his enemies, he did not look at the 
wives of others with a wicked eye, etc. 'arfj. r3e><3o ^e>W 3 ^o, I shall 


live no longer. dLodoJo Oq5;j9c5dJ3 oifloSood Bdrtc5o, even the king's 
chariot does not go without oil. d^ddo ^o> ^JS^.OJS o^3e>0 sJos 
^JSc^o, though God gives a boon, the officiating priest does not give the 
boon. d^dOrH 3s?o3jc5 cos>^ djsdjs^do <xift,rtj8 fSO^^?) rtc3o, acting without 
God's knowledge is never possible for us. ssd^jd 'SoStj. zpsdsj 3.>d>cc) 
S3>rtc3o, he cannot bear such a load. De>s3ur& erusOri 3oJ^rl>53So Rama 


does not go abroad. zp$$ 3oJS>ddJ3 Z^oio 3J3^riC>^>, though (his) be- 

^X * CO 

wilderment goes, (his) fear has not gone, ^rs^ ^^J5 55?lt), I have 
said nothing. 

XXVII. On words corrupted from Samskrita. 

369. The Kannada language consists 

1, of words that are peculiar to the country (desiyas) or are pure 
Kannada (accagannada, which are represented by fat types in the 
Mangalore Dictionary), 

2, of words that have been borrowed from Samskrita without any 
alteration (samasamskritas, see 70), 

3, of words that have been more or less corrupted from Samskrita 
(apabhramsas or tadbhavas, see 74. 79. 81. 82. 84 89. 218. 219. 223. 
273. 370), regarding which it is to be remarked that they may also (in 
speaking or writing) be used in their original form, 

4, of some words (about 21) that exist in Kannada as well as in 
Samskrita (tatsamas, see 71, and compounds with them, 252, 3) or are 
as it were Kannada and Samskrita. 

Of these four kinds of words the language was made up at the time 
of the grammarian Kesava and his learned predecessors. 

Afterwards during the reign of the Musulmans many Hindusthani 
terms were introduced, and also Mahratti words became naturalised in 


370. Saiiiskrita words which only change their finals when natural- 
ised or used as declinable bases in Kannada, have been introduced in 
74 79. 81. 82. 8489. 

Samskrita words which undergo further, so to say more essential 
changes when adopted by Kannada people, i.e. the real apabhramsas or 
tadbhavas, are now to be considered. It will be sufficient for learning the 
way of their formation frorii the following alphabetical list in which all 
the Tadbhavas especially mentioned by Kesava as such (about 800) are 
included, the terms in parenthesis denoting the original Saiiiskrita terms. 
Final a of Samskrita words is represented by <o. 

($33=5^ or yorl^j; & (vz* or eej^) 

IT ^i - UZcr > Jo-^- to - 

(3oO?o); S5^sS (S55|^^0); ?5^O (?5JO); <J3d> (?5qi^); SSa^ (557- 

; ?5oior1 (^oiis^rl,); ydoad (ad-); 

; cf. 


; Cf. yd); 

see 55^^; ^ort^ (ssorrsd); -acrto (3oorL); 
; ^^^ (^ ); 


o); ewti 

ro^); ^us^ (ero^y); erosi^ or 

; trt 


^oS^J (^)0^); =^eJJd (^JS?0); ^U 

a (^3^); 3r^ (SJ^); ^^ (*c ); ^ff.* or 

3r| (^CP); ^1 (^ZJ5); tf^O (*ir3); 
; f/. 






or rre;3 


or rU^drl. 

or = 

; rra^ (r(363); 
; rrasS (7Te>zp); 


o. r. 

^WjCS O^ra);-.^^ ($,); Zc^ (252*0,); 2*^ (^^); Scdod (&^>d); 

33 ($3}: &X (&3 ): eD^ feSoSor); t^O fdO): n ^D^?3 fejD^?3): 2^^^ 

O v 'O''' O V >Q)'" O^'Q-' 

o. r. 

; c/. 

?wOci; C/. 2!?^); tea* 

or C^ 


o. r. 

d); e2rtotf or 

; 23edri, o. r. e^Orl (^dtf); t2?s3rt 
c/. fcio^); wort (cijort); 

see fck>d> 2iJ3cl) o. r. 



or perhaps d 

^o*); ^rf (3eJ) ; 


or JS 

fa); dort (a^); dortos; 



f33*) ; sirtdra 

\ **v 






; cf. ^O); 






?^o or 




; cf. 3oe)?3); S5 

. or . 

ej w 

^sio^; c/. ao?jjr9); Sb^M, o. r. 

sS^ff, or perhaps sg^W ( 


o. r. 

?, or perhaps 

d or 



); zora (sSrsr); 20^ (rfAr 

(zo,aot; c/- 

); zou^d (cjeord; c/. e3JSm)); 


rrad or 



- 437 

; rs, see wrs ; ^ (fcooj); si)tf, or , 

(si>tfoej); sjozc (s^o^g); sk^C (rfj^d); sjozcj (si>*); 


ejV ft ' \ ^ C& ^ 

3s? (rfocSro): si>?i (dori); s3o?lc& ('s&rfa'h si)^ 

o \ \ Q" * V o / 



or GJS^ si); Sj^ ^raS; Sjoo^ doosu; c/. 


rSj or ^ora (s5o^, o. r. sSoppv ^o^?o ("oSofSSl"); sSoi^o (;3jco&3j); oSo. '. or 

; c/. d?^); d 
; Ue)rO (0>3 


perhaps ^rfo,j ^do^; c^rfo^ or eras&Sw 

I or ^>r\ T? (sjDfVxr) : ?JZaC3 fS79oji?iV t> fs^SjO jc) 5>Sj0.v, or 
A r\ ^ 3- ' z? ^ ~B ' ' t) > ii ' O 

(^>De>eJ); Sjtftf, or perhaps also d0 9 ri (5Jfe3*); 

^'^) ^'S^ "D/ 5 

3 );^(^^ : 

; rfcS (^); rfra (sfira); ^ra (sjrfj; sS^a or 

; Sl^rt 

, o.r. 7^ (Rl^w); ^ZOorf (^ZJ); (^F); 

); SlrfJi 


(33o); 73e>&, 



3o?odc$, see 




ra and 

Or ?3 


; 3o?od (g?oO); 
, cf. 


; 3oC3oio 



(3irSr) ; aJ3^ri, or perhaps agjatf^rt (?3^^^, c/. 
Regarding compounds with them see 252, 4 seq. 
In the Sabdanusasana there are the following additional tadbhavas: 

orl)5 wd 

(Soortoe;^); ewrt 






3oO (^j?); Ss^d (ob^d). Of these 91 tadbhavas twenty-eight (riz. 

?j d, a^s, Z3e>rl, e^d, AA, Jed^ [as l 
[as steal, ac^, dorl, 

f \ o 

, a^crfo, ^r^, ?rota, Aiortd, ?3e^) are in the Dictionary. See 
also the Sabdanusasana's words with 63 in 231. 

It must not be thought that the tadbhavas mentioned by Kesava in 
the above list and the Sabdanusasana, are all which Kannada contain*: 
Kesava himself knew more, e.g. 3J!^o3jri, 3J33o, etc. There are many 
others, as the Dictionary will show. It may be said that most of the 
tadbhavas are used in conversation by all classes of Kannada people. 

XXVIII, On the doubling of consonants, 

371. As in Saiiiskrita so also in Kannada a doubling of consonants 
takes place which properly does not belong to the department of grammar. 
It is now found mostly in ancient inscriptions (sasanas), more or less 
also in ancient manuscripts. 


The grammarian Kesava teaches such doubling in the following 
instances in all of which it is optional: 

1, in the dative plural where ri is preceded by c s , e.g. d^rtr, ^6 
3fiF ( H9, a, dative), \ 5 c5otfr ( 132, a, dative; 240, 5); 



2, in the past participle formed by cjo preceded by c*, e.g. 
?:5oF, 55^oc3or, 2^djr ( 155); 

Q Q Q 

3, in the present-future relative participle, if rf and r) are preceded 

by & or es tf , e. #. s5^3F, tfoSsir, tfjatf^F ( 180, i), , ,, 

<J^ S F, W33JF ( 183, 10), -as^F, ^3JF, ws^F, JJ^F ( 183, i. 2); 
and also, if that is not the case, e.g. JjS^sJ , 22<^, o^,, ^Q ( 183, 


4, in compounds after a repha, e.g. ^Areo, saasS^F ( 246, a), 

A to <O 

and also when there are no compounds, e.g. d? F" 9 c5orfo, ^J^F^riocSo 
( 246, a). 

His other rules regarding the doubling of consonants ( 109, a, dative 

*, for ^; 194 536 o etc. for essSo etc. in the present tense; 198, 3 

for ^^o in the past tense; 203 3: KO for ^oo in the present, future 


and past tenses; 205 = for ^ in the imperative; 215, 7, d the doubling 


of ?j*, f?*, 3 s , OoO*, ^' in declinable bases; 215, 7, e that of 0&* in 
certain verbal themes; 215, 7, / that of $*, pg^ ^ oij f , ^* in the 
negative; 248, 3 where a following consonant is doubled after 00; 
and 273 esri^ for yriO^j, etc.) belong to the sphere of grammar. 

Bhattakalanka in his grammar Sabdanusasana (sutra 65 seq.) expatiates 
on the doubling of consonants, giving e.g. the following instances: 




A 5^~ a 


~,o, toerso, 
" a 



o ., 
v; t 

(o. r 

ti -d 

eoo , wd^j , yti^JS ?rs,o, eS^j^o r, tsrto^r, 
' " 



io; - 3&ft r, 

A A 

, , , , 

A A A O 

o, -S-tfosiFofcS irt^o, ^?jrl^ro, dor1o!jo o; 33080 J^F, 
. * A 


o; . 

A A A ' A A A 

A r\ A 


A A A A A 

^ A A A 

3o, szre o, ?szjt)!Oo o ; _ojs , m v, , o, 

.3 ' A ' A' A A, A O 

^3 A A A A A O 

0, , , 

3. A ' A' A A' A 

3, : ' -A A A A A 


. A A A 

A A 

P A A 

., , 


IT & 

Professor Max Midler gives the following instances on the doubling 
of consonants in Samskrita in his 'A Sanskrit Grammar for Beginners' 



p. 59: g^c- (for W^F), w,3o^c5* (for fc,3^), dcir^ (for rfqJFtf), da^ F 

e & 

Je (for d^rJ^, it is shown). 

His general remarks are as follows: "According to some gram- 
marians any consonants except r and h, followed by another consonant 
and preceded by a vowel, may be doubled; likewise any consonant preceded 
by r or h, these letters being themselves preceded by a vowel. As no 
practical object is obtained by this practice, it is best, with (the gramma- 
rian) Sakalya, to discontinue it throughout." 

372. An alphabetically arranged list of words (compounds and 
others) which are contained in various places of the Sabdanusasana, the 
numbers referring to the sutras under which they are found. When a 
word is explained in the Sabdanusasana, the explanation in that grammar's 
generally Samskrita form is adduced immediately after it in the list. 
If a mere number is added, it denotes that the meaning of the term is 
not given by Bhattakalanka and is not known to the author of the 
present grammar. 

. Tadbhavaof wrfJuU. 160. ertriftS. A washerwoman. 190. oo 
rra. A warrior. Sec under rfriodonsa wc^dsS. 80. Cf. ^ortos? i n Dictionary ': 
etfo^. ^dor-^ofcs aajonaQrftSrtfarao aa. Working in leather or skins; the 
making ready or decorating horses etc. 425. 6H& Wfld^. A man who is at the 
head of, or engaged in, eafr tf. 425. eafc tfort. = wz& vsoio . 425. eotf^. 80. 

ta Za lo 3 

(Tbh. of eo2>o2r?). eSJdoJJ. SS^ssso ^JwJTOOsJdsJo. Producing dissension or 
disunion of others. 407. S5ydoS3ri. A man who practices tsSJ^oSJ. 407. 
Jd^. 67. (Cf. e563j3fi8 in Dictionary?). erfsJ*. A female who carries her 
mistress' betel-nut pouch. 200. ^QcOJ^. The lower part of a spear. 348. 
wdo^j'?. sj^rflesjg. A man who practices cooking. 545. <9d>Ari. A man who 
cooks. 410. ecfrrt. = ecfcftrt. 410. cseSrf. The act of touching, etc. 561. 
erao,*. 441. ei*. Dative of e. 265. wddcse^. Grief, page 101 in the 
following verse: cicj^icssesa ^e^oJorf^MO^ ecjo 5 <o^esjo ^J)o25 djsoao^ 002^0 [ 
3tf$ L)?ijc5'' SA^) 2Jo s5c:'^c^Sy^Jsy?oo fk^j* ^OT 53^^ || There is no pillage, 
enmity, captivity, grief, weeping, and poverty, cheat (?), fraud, bribery, theft, 
slander, hunger, famine, blame, destruction, weariness, trembling, sickness in 
that district. w?)J)J?o. Tbh. of $z>J*. 138. erfoyo^.. Not to be passed 
beyond; not to be disregarded. 441. orf^. 80. erf^&Jj. ^93. l n that 
manner, so, thus. 437. azSriort. Tbh. of ezp^ort. 151. estos^Tk. A joint- 
bed. 73. wdSjrtv*. A king's daughter. 248. edda^cgj. A flower-garden. 


73. wdo^. A flower-bud. 95. oSaS^. Tbh. of erfrrf.. 147. 3*. Tbh. 
of536r. 147. MOadr^. = edad^. 147. e3z>. Grinding, etc. 561. ejjoda^. 
Six cubits. 355. tsejrirre^. A male who has a flower-like eye. 402. 
MurlatFdB. A flowering amaranth or barleria. 74. e 
73. wdriosoDo.. A woman who is hasty from necessity. 195. 

fo. 195. w^j. 473. 515. (It appears there as a verb together with 
^ato. 473. e;jc 67. ecyzsrf. akd.fcrfs. A vile man. 296. 

o3 *A ' 

Tbh. of Wrfd <lt 140. wrtd. 3n3. At that time. 19. 20. (CJ/l wrtdo 
in Dictionary). wSJ^a. A male addicted to play. 423. wU trass* #. Addiction 
to play. 431. Wko. ^^oatfrs. Either-or. 20. wtfrtoO. Aoris. An 
elephant-killer: a lion. w<^. Leaving upon, etc. 557. 
Vehemently, etc. 20. woJ^8. = woi^rt. 20. eoS^. Selecting. 556. 
5593^8 Ba^lS^QvMt Placed at the head of, etc.; being engaged in or occupied 
with; etc. 425. wri^F. (WSJOF). An able, great man, 88. 352 in the following 
verso: ^JS^oroSo^ w 3jo$oi>o e'&i) SKS* 3ejQy Sjoitfd 

fit e- *> <" a 

rfj^A 5JU53JF tf96y6QdM 2j5-^03JO 23?!r{j3E80 |I. WC3A"? (i.e. 

A male who is inclined to play. 545. ^o*,- Sinking in a fluid, etc. 140. 
80. (A sweet cake?). ^^- In a crowd : greatly. In a verse under 

65, and in one under 193. ^(8. Dative of ^ 265. nsirf^Uj. ^o. Thus, 

in this manner. 437. "Sl^rl. A smile. 95. 'g^Sra^ ( . r. 'Sl^SJa^). A sweet 
mango. 55. '95 i JFC3 > <r . In the sentence eru35393,oi>rf^do sdcxiod^ ^ort:' 
221. ariraa. Twopairs. 93. 94. 'a^r^a. Two choultries. 93. 
Two ends of a garment. 93. -anars. 90.101. (Two armies V, see 
333^). adJ8rS. Two points. 92. 'SOrtJC. wajj^jc*. A rat-killer: a cat. 
547. *& Giving (*^)^3). 579. ^^. Bringing forth young (*awij). 
579. yy^cSj^ea*. A rising river (sro^^^j ijses*). 333. en)JA. Tbh. of 
J^KJA enjs?. Eating. 557. eruraOrt. In the sentence "^ 

m D ^4 

214. erus^&i Pulling up by the roots, destroying; a disease 
of the external ear. See tfu^&S erurf^. s^^o (?). How? in what manner? 
437. eru-^ik. = yucfo; 437. en)^. i. = u^. 437. GUrSL 2. ^JS^co. Silently, 
quietly. 437. enjrf^rf. The state of being high. 431. euSaaArf. A man 
who abstains from food. 407. erue^a. Tbh. of ea)33 6J. 160. suirfri). Tbh. 
of eruSrf^. 133. eroS!^. So much as this in an intermediate manner. 441. 
CA)rt. tfssr. ^ suffix to denote a maker of. 410. WUK'^O*. 140. aus*^'. 
140. uuu'y. 140. eruts^. 140. tfus&jrf. A great eater. 415. 
arfri. = sAfl&Jrt. 415. enfl&Jsrffi. Feminine of eA/3Jdrf^. 196. cnfl'^o. 
441._eru3^. Crying out, etc. 558. i^03*. Tbh. of o^oaS. 375. ort. A 
stupid etc. female. 197. <orfA^o. To cause to reckon, etc. 541. jws^^i^. 
Eight gavudas. 351. i^. tJ^j^JS? ssoa^. Eight times. 351. 3rfo : Uj. ^^o. 
How? in what manner? 439. <o^,- = ojrf^SJo. 439. JdrfSoJJV*. A second 
female. Plural <o33c3oi>^o j . 185. .odyorf. aaoiai^ *- A wind-eater: a snake. 



546. lOdKo^s. Two times. 313. odooa ) ' ff . Two knives or swords. 359. 
<os3or. A female buffalo. 444. <ow^J or <oy3>x. A particle used in smarana, 
vicara and amantrana. 21. <07 ^ ? |- The fragrance of flower-leaves. 73. 
.3*9333. A mat of (or for) petals. 73. <07te|re. A place of petals. 73. 
dri^tf. A ring of petals. 72. )Vrtew. A young calf. 87. otfcfcewseB^. A 
herd of young kine. 87. <ocs^. (ts^r, <O#F). The gigantic swallow-wort. 140. 
160. *Q. 140. *>o. 140. (Standing up?). ^wdafe^. An upward look, a 
high view. 332. otfoaS. A heap, a crowd. See <o^os*._- aafodA.. Tbh. of 
a^)d!>. The eleventh day. 160. ac^sSd. Seven gavudas. 356. 633^. 
X^ad^s. A male who has seven hands. 356. ac^. 70^3303^. Seven times. 
356. fcrtoi Bursting forth, etc. Plural z-rtoirt^. 560. 2^e3?e^. Rising, 
etc. of the body. 335. fcorad 67. z-^sj. Pulling or rubbing. 561. 2- 5 

A female sheath-maker. 201. z-rfFOfc*. One hand. 90. 101. 
One stick ; one arrow. 101. ^rUFra*. One span ; one sword. 73. 
One end of a garment. 94. 2-epaFAd. One thousand. 94. 2-^rd. 
One head. 358. fcorfo. Trembling. See under edawo*. 2^ =cl>o. In a 
verse on page 78 beginning ^dw -- k< ijs?ij. An inner garden. 101. ^ 
A quarrel of the inland country. 73. 2-*- 566. (A verb from which 
is derived). &:& 566. ^^- A good pearl. 71. s-^S^ri. 71.- 

A fine string of pearls. 333. 2-^ort^. Good Kannada. 55. *$ 
0^- A male who has been born in a good village. 420. Zotfj^Orf. A male who 
belongs to, or has been born in, a good village. 419.' i^oo&TW. A fight in 
which one runs. 344. Ldo^os?. A person addicted to reading. 140. $-$ 
Loving. 573. keJrisa&F. A female servant, in the sentence wdrfort?^ ^r i,w 
rid Lt>rt53aFoiio ff oioo* i,^do. 34. Ldsso^. The business of a olekara. 
431. ^o^jnsea 5 ^. = ^o^ns^'^ i n Dictionary. 431. ^o^o^Qri. sao^sads. A 
brazier. 416. ^^^- ^^ *5& ^etoo^o^.? sraroios | ^3* '^rorfr^. A male 
who makes a decision that is not to be disregarded. 441. ^^j^* A- strong 
bone. 339. &S3. A strong, or rough, man. 403. ^c&nsQ. Great grace- 
fulness. 340. ^doeSja^ESrt. A great wonder. 93. ^djoart. Excessive love, 
etc. 296. 5*swdod. A male who is blind of the eyes. 301. B^oto. Tbh. of 

160. See however s^oijdd -- 3ri?l>. To be angry with, in the sentence 

. 214. ^eSobdd. Tbh. of ^ra.^cra.d. 378. 5^, 

sJ H >3 to 

cad. = s'eS.dodd. 378. ^eS.oJowsd. = ^^oj^dd. 378 


An eye-ball. 346. S^SJJ^ (tfcwstojtff). 55. ^^0^0^. A water-lily-like 
eye. 95. SF'ZSS.SJ. The pupil of the eye. 89. ^^^ A male who has eyes. 
403. s'aSFtf. A man who has ears of corn, etc. 73. s^|oi>. 80. ^^6^. 
A man born in the Kannada country. 420. 421. tf^&S. A Kannada woman. 
190. s'm'Srt. A poet. 410. a^ooei rt^Ok*. A fragrance-sucker. 308. 
546. tfs^e*. The wife of a blacksmith, etc. 199. ^^. ^or^sar. A 
male who does any act or work. 412. tfd^e^. A man born ia the country of 


Karahada. 420. tteaSaiS. A woman born in Karahada. 196. *333s>3rf. A. 
man who resides in, or has been born in, Karahada. 419. ^3^. ^SwJ^d^r 
3*0*0 3^o a'aoijtfa'j' eia as. Black colour, (as that of) cloth, blankets, etc.; 
one who has a black colour, one who is black. 402. 403. #0*3^. A man 
who has a black colour. 402. &Qv- A female who is black. 194. *&> *3-> 

I rt.353Q$dJar5jfS ?foit>rf zre &^5l$;5o73 dJaazJe as. The word *3J denotes a 

Q) < iS ^> _ : 2*) 

likeness (or form) made of bee's wax etc. (surrounded with clay) in order to pour 
out (the metal) in a fluid state (into the form), when one makes statues of gold, 
silver and other metals (i. e. a mould) ; or at the construction of a house, etc. it 
denotes the first (or principal) post erected at an auspicious time. 296. See 
afco. ^rire^. 344. (Could it be ^rir^ ? Cf. 23drtrc| under ddrir^ ?). 
A black pool. 334. ^e^Q. 330, in the sentence c3sd 3v3oQ, ; (perhaps = 
a 3^3338, a quarrelsome female). steal sadsv* 4^o, &od,g. Who has been 
born from the feet, a Sudra. 420. &^Q- A mutual fighting with stones. 
331. sio 2, ^ i . A superintendent of (precious) stones. 425. ^y^r!. = Sro^cJo.. 
425. ^ej^es 5 . A plantain hard as a stone. 70. &<2, Q - Stone-rain. 93. 
g^o. 569. (A verbal theme from which ^3^ comes). stoc'j^o. A forked 
horn of a bow. 83. ^sc&nsra* O r 53Ct>orR>ra\ To see a wilderness. 380. 
530Jo^?. A person addicted to take pods. 414. ^DCJ^. Fruit having developed. 
Plural sao^oriv*. 553. saexuo*. n^^os. A village. 419. 53UJ39rt. A man 
who resides in, or is born in, a village. 419. ^^n^' ^ ma l e lame in one 
leg or in the legs. 301. ^eSs 3 . A tank with a channel. 305. "3^^. A 
man who has feet. 403. ^a^;A. A fleet person. 223. esc^d A black 
belly (?). 91. *^ Tl ^,- w.\derirf*. ^ roa i e W h h as e y es iit e fi re . 3n._ 
-S-^^o*. A small pile. 53. *3,tf. *esS'0tf. A small orange. 337. *^.- 
Low condition, etc. 368. 3etf. Making close, etc. 557. -3-isJrtJ2?o r . A small 
stick or arrow. 87. "o^- Tbh. of ^^- 158. -o-XjodSo*. Red new leaves. 
343. -S-K^c:^ or trti-bVZ. A certain imitative sound. 140. 03*. Uprooting, 
etc., that may stand for 2O*. 478. &cc-3sj3 or -S-^^rS. A certain imitative 
sound. UO. *C3 s 8s. 368. ^c 8 ^. The abdomen. 90. 368. -^cAe^rL 
An inexact sollige. 93. ^^- Tbh. of *o*. HO. *o^jrtd^oi3. To cut 
with the sickle. 300. *JOsJ. Boiling. Plural tfoQsfortv*. 562. tfjaoiesJ. A 
potter-female. 199. ^oao esS. = ^j^esS. 198. tfcojjrt. ffosfo^saF. A potter. 
412. tfoa^ree. A potter. 384. ^oesjrioJj,. A male who has a small hand or 
small hands. 97. tfoeidoS. A small house. 369. *o*. ejJoSotrf waoia; a? 
en)33^S3re;o i?^8. A mind deprived of strength by fear or shame. 441. 
A man whose mind is deprived of strength by fear or shame. 441. 
A woman with a short neck. 328. *>>* A suffix used in S?sj, ^^33 and ^ 
545. ^^ Bending. 557. 3^2*. Sharpness. See under - 

A sharp warrior. 90. BrJjrir^.. A sharp knife or sword. 345. 

90. SvasB,. A structure where boiled rice is to be had (?). 90. 

l\ Jj 

c|. A female with red eyes. 111. ^onsok*. A red unripe fruit. 342. 
A red kind of rice. 343. 'to 3. A reddish elephant. 343. ^0. 
A red flame. 343. ^zSJS^eS. A red cadjan leaf, etc. 341. tfoasog. A purple 
twilight. 343. tf~w33. A dishevelled head of hair. 83. *=&*& = tfdaidd. 
83. ^c|orto. d^zia^o. The red cocoauuttree (=z3^orto) ; (or a red plantain). 
341. 342. tfci*,. = rfrf*.. 343'. tfcfcO.= tfrfoo. 343. ^. Adeaffemale. 

** "8 to w ^ 2o 

197. ^So,^-). A red seed, in a verse under 193: see it under sracjB 

tO * O !0 

a^waorirfo. Burnished gold. 341. Cf. 3^3* in Dictionary. 
A red lightning, in the instance flsoaAs^ ^a^oili. 218. ^dJo^AS. 
A female weapon-maker, a woman of the weapon-makers. 192. ^o3j^z&. A 
handy earthen pan. 305. ^w;i>F. A few times. 441. 5-s?o&^rf. Companion- 
ship, etc. 432. tfo. 140. ^o 3 - 140. 3<fiv>o&S.8?tf. A crying peacock. 
344. tfttfra. Tbh. of ^ sJra. 155. *<. 67. ^.cos^AS. A Concan 

<M j 

Brahmana female. 190. foosfcsseS. A crooked staff. 379. *8osfcB^E8. 
= ^jao^ozsse?. 379. ^aotfo^r. A bent eyebrow. 372. ^JS^OrtS. To cut 
with an axe. 300. &adye33. A stain on the throat. 305. ^Jaw&J. 00$ 


cB^Zl cd>FTOO On.. Jumping and other surprising art. 441. ^Jsyc? 3 . 140. 
g*. Water from the end of a tank. 82. &s:O3&o>. 
wd oiw^djss?* odo. A fight in which they mutually 
strike one another with sticks. 331. ^JSt^-TijS. j^ona^o. The top of a 
mountain. 82. fytiti. Playing, sporting. See wcjo.*?. ^%o3o^. A woman of 
the Kshatriyas. 190. a^s. 140. riao*. 67. rt65. Tbh. of ^H. 143. 
rtrf^. rtrf^Seirfo. Tbh. of rid^. 408. rtelarf. A man versed in arithmetic. 


408. rtrao^s. Valiantness. See under rfjfcdonsw. itt*. Tbh. of ^**. 
160. rts*. A false woman. 329. Cf. rtd* in Dictionary. ri^ A 3. A female 

seller of perfumes. 192. fid. See under rtd3fc3rt rftf^rf. The state of a 

decent woman. 430. fid^i&i See under Tldsyfi rtdd&3rf. fid na3 zsooSjrf 


i>?^s ^^ sci)o^. A man who is engaged in (the business of) a certain water- 
engine. ^SD ndsSJ ^ donarc** ^ao6? ^^d 5JoJjFJcra033 ^.oJj^jssS^? d^s^e^s 
^^Soiio^s. Or one who is engaged in the guarding which is made in a fort, etc. 
by wandering about from watch to watch, etc. 441. fi3orr\o. ^JsScost^?. The 

plant Bignonia suaveolens. 76. rt>. A cow. See 233-^fia?, %fi3? rtc: s fijyfi. 

A man who bruises bamboo rods, etc. 548. rt^rUo*. Boiled rice of the stick 
(i. e. boiled rice which has been turned with a stick?). 89. fic^rteoO ( . r. rtc s 
rtjac^O). 73. ne 3 3&3ri. fics* <$& oo^jracra.sSabrtf'o? sdjs.t^^dcso ^n* ero5J3Js 

u la "o 

3 O3. A Domba. 441. nsSsses. A charming man, in the instance fto nsa 
^eso. 80. narfftS. The wife of an oil-maker. 190. AckriG. To cut a tree. 
380. Adonaoda*. The unripe fruit of a tree. 380. nzfcorta. = ntfcria. 380. 
Aert. sjO-^.sosrs^s. "With a whirl, etc. 20. fiores'dj. fi^3on>o sJ^ajrf,^ s. 

^ ^ e) jj 

The most excellent of properties. 296. See ^do. rtodir. Cuffing. Plural 

552. ritf. rt^o. A seizer or taker. 414. rtJ2-*c*. 140. 

Tbb. of rtjasunsd. 378. *>*** ( I \> 3 &< 3 *> rt j A< ' T l^ 3 *> Seizing, 
taking, accepting; using, putting on; etc. 414. ri^rraa. A gainer or winner. 

383. rt<raooOrf. A knife (of the length) of a span. 55. rttrf^tf. The length 
of a span. 95. rt-Qario. 140. rtjstra^"?. A tubular vessel of the throat. 
346. (Cf. rt.e?53$, rtJ83o5S3* in Dictionary). rto <?. = rtstrac5^. 346. 
rtjscrfo^. Tbh. of fo>t3o35*. 129. r^a. A female servant. 240. (See rt^a in 
Dictionary). ^"?. Tbh. oftt*&. 140. $>30rt. (= naOrt or ^Ort in Dictionary r). 
See 'Sio^aOrJ. _ tf43rta<. A frightened cow. See tfrfrfr^. _ ^SJ^. ^sors^jotfo 
acQert^&staFaj^Ea ritfa^NO. A term for the perfuming (of the body) which 
is performed with an unguent of sandal, saffron and other fragrant substances. 
441. tity^- 33^aF?s*. A man who performs that perfuming. 441. (Cf. 

in Dictionary). ri^skTb. Tbh. of tf^aoTf. 133. &*&. 140. 
. A golden seat. 55. zJ^Q^. Cutting off with the nails, etc. 570. 
*. = 1 j?on33J3 tf . 342. 23Jd. S^S^FO. Manifestly, clearly. 20. o 
^oasoeS. 343. 0,^. Beauty. 430. ^tf. 105. #a. 105. (A 
crested female? or cf. 8*^3 in Dictionary?). i?4. Tbh. of ^^r. 376. 
sa^o4). Tbh. of diJ^.oi). 376. Pdj8. Tbh. of rf^dri. 160. 

A man who makes eaupadas. 410. tf4da9Tt =* t*rfOlt. 410. 
Sharing in, or entitled to, a fourth part. 376. ts'atf. Four-fold; of four 
kinds, in four ways. 376. e^io^. Deceit (?). See under e^scio* arttf. 
Tbh. of riV^eJ. 143. arttfsara. A male who is clever in quarrels. 292. 
tsrttfa^. A quarrelsome male. 402. sort. Tbh. of dpotf. 143. 
A man who has a sacrificial cord. 402. adj. Tbh. of d^^i- 143. 
A man who has fame. 402. atfa. Tbh. of BOB. 140. ssrari-^. In a verse 
on page 77. Cf. aarfa-^ in Dictionary. ssStf. Tbh. of oijs^o^. 141. 
tsjtt'rt. 140. KJsajnsSr. A female gambler. 201. es^doil. A male gambler. 

384. tsjsrfo23ara. A man who is expert in gambling. 305. "* 140. 

Afemaleyogi. 202. o<c^rt. 140. sa^oij. Tbh. of s^ofcTi*. 134. 
zss^oij. 134. d|J3 ? U.= Brt'. 143. 402. (Is d^o^U in Samskrita 
Dictionaries?). d^jSo^. A spring, a jump; springing, jumping. A^JJ3o^?5. An 
imitative sound, in the instance &pooj3 z-?5^F. 20. a3E3D37)d A mutual 
fight with clubs. 331. oaeJ. In the instance tartoa oseS. 531. See *erto 

R3e6. ai^^. In the instance SKO aas^^o. 80. Cf. 52^*0? dja^rrt. A kind 

of adverb. 49. cfja?^<3. = dja^rt. 49. z^jtftf. The bearer of a banner (?), in 
the instance rfoQdo* cptfa'c*. 65. ^^ re - Cutting, paring, planing; a cutter 
an abrader ; the divisor employed in certain computations. 533. 
441. 3d zo3- OWP^e^eraqJri. Bluntness or perplexity of speech. 20. 
Tbh. of ^rfo. 149. ^^O. Tbh. of i. 147. *&*= *& 

147. ^soco*. 140. 3*)Fdj. Bringing. Plural ^Jfaonv*. :. 
Joining head to head. 570. itfsotf. RcsFciJCS^;. Decisively, certainly. 


20. id. Sprinkling, etc. Plural ^sSortv*. 562. i'Prtrao^. The redness of 
young leaves. 73. ^3. 140. sses'rt. Becoming dry, etc. 565. ess^d. 
The tree Terminalia bellerica. 82. s^rtitij. 90, in the verse 

| 33<$r\. Suffering, etc. 565. ^^ s or 33j. The palm 

(and other plants or trees). Plural 33K v* O r 33cwrtv f . 140. 193- (See the verse 
quoted under SssoB.) SJMJA. A woman engaged in (gaining her livelihood by 
the produce of) the palmyra tree. 193. saeoAS. = sacwn. 193. 3rt. = art. 
378. Srtore^. Tbh-of t,^^- 376. A^rt. AUjcS. 49. See aU,<3 in Dictionary. 
Sdd. Tbh. of?, 3d- 376. Sdjarf. Tbh. of ^3.}oa>. 376. Sewtf. Bartering, 
etc. 557. Sort. 3J3^^EB3^rg. \Vhirlingly, etc. 20. Sad^^s*. Tbh. of % 4 
296. s$3o. What is thin or delicate. See &$3ou?bew 
00*. 55. S9sJ. Becoming clear, etc. Plural acsJorfv*. 562. 
Bright lustre. See the third verse on page 100. !>rt. = 3ri. Tbh. of 
378. ^osS A wicked, etc. female. 197. 3x$do (?). See *)dJS 

eO 10 N ' 

Tbh. of &XJ30,. 160. ijssinarfj. A jungle for kine (to graze). 87. 
An oscillating staff. 344. ^rtsJ. Taking. 561. s^otr. 140. ii^PS*. A 
mass of gold. 332. ^or. 80. (Of. 3u^ in Dictionary?). is^^oo 5 . Tender 
green grass. 66. *^tfrio. Delicate lustre. In a verse on page 100. *^^ 
?ke*. A thin or delicate belly. 55.347. ^^=. i??iJ^o. o^^^r as\ In 
an unfirm etc. manner. 20. 3. 197. (It is a term for a certain female). 
3d& Tbh. of ^oSjs?:^. 160. irSord. A tree (used) fora chariot. 302. 
is*. 3<i3J. Plural Jcrtrv* O r iwwrfi?*. 85. iJaU ( rt. ^ros^rg. Excessively. 
etc. 20. ^Jsdsj. Smearing, etc. 561. 3ja33. Swinging, etc. 561. i^so--. 
^s4^S3S ^oS-ee ro. Kine persons. 361. $Jd3\. ^cisaosc^. Xine times. 
361. ijsoi^. Becoming wet, etc. Plural 3ja aborts*. 553. ^^. Shining, 
etc. SjatfsJortv*. 562. i*C3. 140. ^t&oAS. A female florist. 191. 
iijsO^. A big male. 403. Sjsosras. A place of appearing. 87. i>aec5 s . 
140. &QCCJ. 140. %^Jra. Having three pits (?). 376. ^^?. Three cows. 
See ^ojsetoj^!. _ ^^jja). Three faced ; name of an Arhat. aj^ra. Making haste. 
534. ^S3d. Tbh. of ^ v 124. tfiksato. Page 65 in the instance ddo* 
qf&^neaelo'. C/-. aaesj^yi. in Dictionary. ^^w 9 . 140. drfoQj^o. To satisfy, 
in the verse under 474. df^^^. Having a stick, etc. 402. cta^rf. Tbh. of 
d^jyi ^So^o fiac&atalt tioatoea ^.$-8. A mint. 378. ^*. 140. s^Art. 
A man who sells corn. 405. ^3. Tbh. of -^iW. 160. 3c4-. 140. nsrf 
^J3d. A very liberal man. 65. Qrao. Qraj ^S &tato>jtatogj3dd>i&<durc>a 

* w& w& 

The (savage) bodily power of a man who is without fear and deliberation. 441. 
Qeaotf. ^cajJ*. A man who is possessed of that (i. e. Sra^), a wild or savage man. 
441. 3;s3?rt. Tbh. of a;333;^tf. 373. QAa (OtAcS*). Playing, sporting. 
See c33^y. ~;a?^. Tbh. of a^oissdo. 377. rfj^ojx Tbh. of P^OJJ. 377. 
Tbh. of P,3oJ;. 377.__doaojtf. Tbh. of P,3ww. 377._rfj3rt. Tbb. of 


378. stops'. = d)Z3D3. 377. djs^ok. = do3oi>. 377. do3oi>. = dj 
377. ctoaoo*. = cfcsiwtf. 377. e53fift^. A female who worships an 
idol. 111. d<3rt. c3?ddo SndJSo. A man who makes idols. 410. <3d$rt. 
= dtart. 410. c3<3)?A3. A woman who makes idols. 192. t3<33 y . Sacri- 
ficing to the gods. e33B. Tbh. of e53s f . 129. cSjscs.3^. A man in whom 
faults are. 402. ^J & . See under ds^dl. A certain coin, a drachma. PjOfcaso. 
Two night watches. escort. A doorkeeper. 418. tftforto*. A person who is 
addicted to receive money, etc. 383. $333^. A rich woman. 402. tfsard Tbh. 
of tf^ r - 123. ^^ F< Holding, bearing, supporting; a bearer, supporter, pre- 
server. 93*. 466, in a verse. (Cf. na 3 in Dictionary?). rfrt^ae. 353^? 
o^o 0tt$xtof< 33. A man who is proficient in laughter (or jest) or addicted to it. 
423. oSrtea^F. A female who is proficient in laughter (or jest) or addicted to it. 
201. rfstf. Being extinguished, etc. Plural rf^rfrtv*. 568. cto<xft>&. To 
bow, etc. 534. rfdrtitoj. A muscle bundle (?). 332. rfA*. A man who has 
cW> q. v. 441. ; rf^)do)7Jo. Slight anger. 101. sirfoaQdj. Small power, etc. 
91. citf. N^ *%& aojjsa 33^33 s^aoass^ra 33 e3<rero ns^o. A body become 
decrepit by old age, sickness or artificially made poison. 441. c^o*. 
k^9 . A plant, a herb. 424. factor!. ^c&mnac^. A man who uses herbs, 
etc. 424. cWdon. A woman who uses herbs, etc. 193. cracfcAS. = 33&>n. 
193. c3303^)ri. Four gavudas. 351. 33^^. A male with four hands. 
A male with four heads. 97. saw^es. A male with four 

arms. 294. 33>o. 3333 0^3*. jsaa^g. A navigator. 441. 32C3O*. 140. 
(Cy. tSwo* in Dictionary?). TOca^cfc. A district to be ruined. c33C|UjijCi}, the 
district was ruined. 82. jraeo 3 .^. A district-weight, etc. 90. ^^ Not 
false, firm, in the sentence ^303* dcfo, S^^o rfo^cjzj afa* or rf^rf^P?. 461.- 
S6j|j0jj. sado woij. A long extent (?). 339. saoto^d. A long or large head. 
345. SC&rtEo^O. The pupil of a long eye. 53. $cfori|L A female with long 
eyes. 29. 194. ftdinao*. A long foot. 327. oJdotSDO*. A long row. 93. 
sdo&sdoJjiT*. A fomalo with long braided tresses. 328. asfcd-joix. A man 
with a long body. 53. Ss^JSo^. 80. ftrfJSE?oJj. A man with a long forehead. 
328. acfcdc^. A man with a long back. 329. f&cfcddO. A female with long 
fingers. 29. 194. S^J^e^. A long pregnancy. 87. $oi>ort. A man who 
practises or observes religious observances. 401. 407. $33. Tbh. of S^SJJ. 
160. StrtFcl. KSJftrtFao^o^do. The opening through which water goes out. 
90. SKCtoFtf. s?0o ijatf. To wash with water. 292. R?30FsSrt. Buttermilk 
diluted with water. 92. 5><3oFC&O3ra. The place of a water-pool. 87. S^F 

fe3r!. SKO* rgs KUO 3ds:33,73;us i ^dSD.aj33 J?R! a33i 33 7oO3,ck.3drai?y8. A man 
~ 6 "o t) - 

who is in the habit of practising with water : one whoso habit is to cross rivers 
etc. on rafts or also otherwise. 441. rfo&ft^oix A man with soft thighs. 
?aJjv ff . A woman with sole thighs. 182. 5fcri>v\3e3rt. 72. 
A door (which is so narrow that) one has to squeeze through. 7:2. 


{3?3sj. Bearing in mind, etc. 561. rSdow 5 . 140. cSdsasrf. A neighbouring 
man, etc. 332. <8^. To seize land, etc. 381. 3oa. srcSoa^e. 381.- 
cSdascD*. A firm condition of life. 74. Se^es. 140. c35|jd. Tbh. of 3?^. 
124. <^^- One of the chief officiating priests at a Soraa sacrifice. cScTooarre. 
A sunny place. 73. cStriurU,. The disk of the sun. 82. 3&&3. Swallowing. 
561. rS-fc^. (&ec3 f ?). A verbal theme from which 3><33> (3J83> ?) comes. 
569. Aotfnazfc. A wilderness (full) of flies. 332. ctood. 140. 
Seeing, sight, etc. Plural etoccfcrf**. 549. c^oo. Tbh. of 3330. 160. 
or sjs^cl See ^3 in Dictionary. 49. sj^rUdo. A bird's nest. 304. 
tf~. Tbh. of 33,53^?}. 160. 3Jrfe:3re t . The sun. 537. 

Green, unripe fruit. 341. 3joz33oi>. Fivefold, having five parts or limbs. 
376. rfUjrfrt. A man who resides in, or has been born in, a town. 419. 
A female silk-weaver. 192. 3ti,7ft>&. = JjJJ,?33>A3. 202. **&>,. 

eo w eo 

ztfarirfs. A side, a faction. 441. *JM&*. *& (i. e. 
A partisan. 441. Caries. Tbh. of ^^3^. 407. 
A man who eats the remainder of the food left by his master: a servant. 407. 
iftfd^. A female commander of an army. 200. rfraorto*. A man who receives 
money (as a bribe?). 414. sj^. Ripe fruit being produced. 557. rf 
A man who receives ripe fruits (as a bribe?). 414. sJraDcS. 80. 
rfdo s^rfo ri^^r&^tAflt 33 | ^^ars*. A man who makes a dwelling place or 
abode-, one who makes verses. 441. Qo*, in Br-e^o* srf3o ? , a variety of 
sounds to join (?). 585.-^. Tbh. of ^ A path, a road. 142.-^^. Tbh. 
of &$&, A path, a road. 130. rf^. 431. sSe^^sJ. 431.- sJoi)3*. = adoiosio 
in Dictionary. See u^a^oi)?^. rfoQj^tfj. ad^ rfosej. d^si^o. Ten hundred, a 
thousand. 363. tfo&jao^o*. Ten persons. 363. sJoDJ^. dsJaaOBj^. Ten times. 
rg. Quickly. 20.-33dwJrt. A pearl-merchant. 424.- 

Tbh. of g^. 147.-5rf3*or(. Tbh. of rfo^ort. ISl.-Ses'rt. A drummer. 

A man with a board-like chest. 
328. - do^EB. Tbh. of 2*e^cxbrf. l60.-^^C3 ff . 140.-333*rf. SJS^^SSF. A man 
who cooks, etc. 410. <Bs*^*rt.TO*rt. 410. 411. 3335\><?A3. A woman who 
cooks, etc. 192. 353Cl>ri. A singer. 384. SJ^oJjrfd. Tbh. of 
378. ss^oJjnDd. = 333doijdd. 378. 333 a. See ^ESFS. (Is Tamil. 
an army, meant?). naoix Jumping, etc. Plural sssoj^orts 15 . 553. 
Fighting. See saaads*. ((y. Tamil. 333i3J, to fight). 353^'dra'. art>3o5i?O3 A . A 
woman addicted to quarrel. 82. ssaeod). A jumping iguana (?). 82. 3533F3. 
A Brabmana woman. 202. - 333dr^. = csdF^. 202. 3333Qn. A female of 
the caste of snake-catchers. 192. 3333>rbsD. A snake-killer: a mungoose; a 
peacock. 547. B3^>r& A snake-eater: a peacock. 546. ss^d^. A male with 
a snake-ornament. 441. (Cf. sS?^). 353*^. Tbh. of 333?N. 140. 160. &o^ 
esorto. The hind end of a garment. 9'3. fc^d. The back of the head. 349. - 
A seller of long pepper. 409. 2>5tf.l Tbh. of &<&#. 140. 160. 


Tbh. of tftadds^ 133.- 3t*waQ. A speaker of lies. 329.- 
Fixing, as an arrow, admitting, etc. 557. 3&>3GA3. A female florist. 192. 

A hind leg. JJ69. -s5raS^rf. One who has a wife. 402.-tfrart. 

areo 3^*^o d,XB5 s . A man addicted to, or occupied about, women. 
424. sScs'ftoTto. A man with a moon-like forehead. 327 . - sto^eSokv 6 '. A 
woman with a moon-like forehead. 182. 328. 330. aSca^. 140. 
132. 33<tt3tf. l n a verse under 140 (page 100): cae^c&sv* 

. 3prto3. Entering, etc. Plural s&rtSrie*. 560. . 

3z3jy*. i, a river; 2, an ornament (cf. ro^)St^; z>z in Diction- 
ary). 311. 4ftfe^. An ornamental dress. 441. 4P^tf. A golden staff. 
93. 333^:3^. A male who has a (big) belly, in the instance ^P^d^o 
402,-^praO?^. To cause to fight, in the instance ^praSAd? 6 e^oiio 
537. J&ra^zk. To cause (somebody) to make (something) fight, in the instance 
5 WrSobo dJ3^63rtS!c3 s wcirfo. 541. c&re^JF. = jgsraQTio, i n the instance 
jSoix> ii<do. 537. ^P^rt^o. A sheet of gold. 93. 3s*$3. Joining, 
etc. Plural ^pa^rtv^. SGS.-JfiJ^orte^. A golden stone. 55.-*rf^rt. A man 
who is addicted to, and busy with acquiring, gold. 424. ^^S- 67. sJJiio^v*. 
Beating; a blow. Plural sSpoJJort^. 555. igpflsj. Nourishing, etc. 561. ^s 
An outer tie, etc. lOl.-JSpesrfob*. The upper part of the hand. 101.- 
An outer fort. 101. ^pajtortFEj. sSseadJza'rf 7lc|. A swelling at the 
posteriors. 73.-5^^^rfr^. Cows of flight (?). 73. -Jgpsujtf. Bearing on the 
head, etc. 557. ^"^ w<3. A wonderful elephant. 46. ^^ tsaSQ. A new 
choultry. 91.-*^ tfrfco. A beautiful antelope. 93.-5Sarf zsrf*. New cloth. 
91. ^prf iJ3^. A new balance, etc. 101. s2P^ iJ3?y. A new garden. 101. 
55570 z3ci)dA)*). Fine loose pearls. 87.- &* 3rfJ. A new camp. 87. -3&* ^o^- 
A new pool. 87. 30^ aja^Hjj. A now artificial structure. 87. ^^^^. A 
new woman. 169. J&3?3;3&j. A wonderful mountain. 92. J^P^^^. Beautiful 


sugar. 89. SJWrto. (A verb from which &&$ comes). 3Spt3^. 140. Plural 
jgpcjjart^. 574. ^P?^- Name of a man. 80. JJP*rl Tbh. of 
160. &W*. Used as verb intransitive in the sentence s& 

463. ^pteades 5 . Parts to bo scattered. 193 (in a verse). - 
Oh! woe to me!; unexpectedly. 20.^^. See Ji 

33 OJJ rf^TJ* ^33 . 

<P ^p V 

. Pratisthana denotes the eating of the remainder (of the dinner) 
of him (i. e. of the master), one (who does so) sitting down in the very same 
place in which the master has eaten, risen and gone. 407. ^93^2. A female 
of noble birth. 191.-Urt*a3F. A mindful woman. 201. Urt^So*. A tiger- 
skin. 379.-Wort^. A man of Bangala. 420. w^dstfoiiv*. A woman with 
round breasts. 328. W^r?. A man on the road, a traveller, in the instance 
u^rirfo wcsOa^o. 536. -Ud*. A female who beats; or a lean female. 


A woman of the north. 182.- zoSrS-feV*. To take a cudgel. 
380. 20<3A7k. To cause to make beat, in the instance 2J3AAd> &;3oOorf 3 . 

Go a 

541. wraao. 80. (Tbh. of 3J&3 5 , trade?). "raoo. = aorsKJ. 80. 203. 329. 
(Tbh. of rf,S? c /. Ud3). u^d^aiJtS*. w^^do siofcs*. "Water, milk, etc. drying 
up. 333. 344. WS^ a3J8** ^dosto, dJ^da^eSs. What is born in the sky: 
a flash of lightning. 420.- uaJ^<2. a,3,$Fg. Quickly. 20. Uofc. Z0o5^a3j8*, 
zjo3^oi>. In the evening. 278.- wd^. Tbh. of *,* 147. -"d^. A road 
whereon (somebody or something) comes. 332. 20es 3 53S3 6 . A naked foot. 101. 

A vain man. 172.- wa^v*. A vain woman. 172. ue"3v. = ueM 
^fdo. Coming. Plural utfoFsfortv. 572. -^9. Abigmountain. 
A man with a strong hand. 331.-^^. Strong effort. 66.- 

A great villain. 66. uwo asoft. A man of great exertion, etc. 329. 
. A great valiant man. 66. ^esao^. Abundant duck-weed. 66. - W3 
sWjfi. To seize the pot-stone pencil. 898:~W^Oft. = r to^a. 381. u^rraca 1 *. 
The making and selling of bracelets. 431. wa'^tfrto. A regular lustre, in a 
verse under 140. uw. Living (?). 140. uc^d. 140. uo?*itx Living, steady 
lustre, in a verse under 140. waridca. Tbh. of s^tfdca. 408.-W3rfdrfrt. A 
grammarian. 408. araACrt. A doorkeeper. 418.- ^SAOTCJ^. = wartOr?. 425.- 

Tbh. of asrtotf. 140. wad^. Tbh. of n^d!>. 160. i33Q. = ana. See 

twrioTkGD*. rtrtrfrt^rs. A hollow of the sky. 346.-^3^srt. One who 
resides, or is born, in the sky. 419. W3roJK^ra^. The swelling of a wale. 73. 
flesh, in wsttSoijadodo. 82.-W3CO-3ra. A place of living. 90. 
A happy living herd of kine. 87.-tfcrrt<?. Tbh. of ^onaO. 140.- 
In the second verse under 468. flstort. ^J3^o. Silently, quietly. 
20. - Od^c3. = aa^rt. 20.-239|. A rough manner or custom. 369.-*&" 
32|ojo. A man of rough manners. 369. ^(3. Stiffly, in ^3 ^^?^to. 20. ^^?J- 
Tbh. of ^03^- 160. 233^- Tbh. of ti.OMX UQ.-t.Mtf. A white man. 403. 
z3?-&. A white woman. 194. zi^oJj. A whitish male. Instance aS^odoo zort o. 
102. aofcv*. A white female. 39oi)V* rid^a. 102. Plural za^oJo^o*. 884. 
239C3*. (A certain verb). 507. (Of. && in Dictionary?).-^. 140. Cf. 8fy 
in Dictionary ? z3c&3jrio. 538. C/. ^ff^rfo in Dictionary ? aukdj^rt). To enter 
an abode, etc. 38^ 8*>4wt>.tctx3j^7to. 380. ttttirt, A lute-player. 406.- 
3d. Tbh. of 9ao. H4.-a3ec: 4 . = ^3?do, of which the plural is z3dort*, a^v 
or 5e^*. 233.-Oca>crac8. A halting place. 55. 6y. 3<cao^9._3e33 i ra. 
gare, 2>i3d. A camp. 87. 3o wd. The consonant . 66.-2J-5rtS. Tbh. of 
147. WJrtJ& =jjjrt3. 147. JO^^j. '^rfSj5. Deception, fraud (?). 415. 
^^)3ja0?. A man living on deception (?). 415. aJJS^oA. A woman living 
on deception (?). 193. Uc^ofiS. = zjjs^n. 193. - 20JS^oSr^r( = UJ3^)ri. 415. 
eSortao*. TleoJ^r-S-drss. A sunbeam. 341. ^orfo*. rfjacxSjF^^tsJws. The sun- 
stone: crystal. 342. tf^- Hot. See z3ii tfjsc: 5 , 23^jO. a3^rtJ863 ? . Hot rice. 
343. -ddd. ^wijlFg. Manifestly, clearly. 20.-t3tiJO. A hot flame. 343.- 


A hot potsherd. 336. 341. 343.- tf^dv*. A fierce female. 102.- 

.. A hill-miide. 371). - z3Ujcrrarfo.= i3Uj,narfj. 379.-t3yo.dett'. A 

to jo tj M W 

hill-stroara, or a hill-path. 379.- z56JJj*^.= zi Holes'. 379.-^- 80.- 
rtg,. (Originally 23djirU|x= ddrtr^. 83. 23da;t*>. A frightened iguana (?). 
82.-ddrtr^. (Originally tfdrtFfJ). rf*irto. A frightened cow. 83.- tf&^ao 6 . 
The skin of the back. 80.-tf?%0. A hot flame. 343.- diSjB.tifc. = tfzSs trio. 

"^ '-CO 

343. riaojBQ. tfjtwiziJri. Hot ashes. 341.- 23-? (or tftfO). A rain of white 

10 C9 e* to 

colour. 93. dtfd (or z3tf). #oJo^33adFs. Frightened from fear, etc. 20.- 

White cloth. 223. 347.-3<Jrt*. White flax. 336. - z3fy A white 

female. 197.- 23w^. 140. tfcs 8 . 140.- z3<dofi. A woman who deals in, or sells, 
roots. 193.-23ion^.-23don. 193. z3^rc?. An impediment of roots, etc. 
90. 3rio. Hotness. See 23<?Jje, z3s^(dj. e3rfoO. A hot flame. 334. 343.- 
?3^J3dj. A hot potsherd. 343. skooaO. A trader. 329. e3ooJ^dd. A man 
clever in spying. 305. &Qtfo- &{C3~;i>ON3^ajra3 ! &j3Q3,qi,;jz3rfs. An old dirty 
piece of cloth, mat and other things. 441. ^jarfos'. 3a* (23jsrfo) rf^s*. A man 
who puts on an old dirty piece of cloth, etc. 441. z3.efy A vociferous woman (?). 
197.-23*cy. 140.-z3JBC#. HO.-^^raAS. A Brahmana female. 28.190. 
Deception, fraud (?). See *> ifcajK 60. C/. dJt3|S3rf in Dictionary. - 
^. A washerwoman. 200. - dorfJSo*. Water of a pool. 380.- d^aj^ea*. 
To fall into a pool. 380. ^rioaw*. = dorfiaj^o 5 . 380. rf^^. Bonding, etc. 
^orf^do. 579. Plural noc^orttf 5 . 554. ^ocgjcc'. 140. See ^ra.c^ in Diction- 

& & 

ary. ^orfrf^^ri. rf^d^diE^^aiiO ( BSr. A man who composes the madanavati 
metre. 412. do^JOai. Tbh. of dotfjeas*. 129.- S^rfrf^o. The articles of a 
house. 89. 3od3rO&3ri. rf^a^^js? audj^^ as. A wood-pecker; a wood-cutter, 
a carpenter. 548. 3odrtQ. To cut a tree or wood. 382. 3JtfortQ. = J&cJrfQ. 
382. aodotfje drt. A foolish laugher. 66.- ^orforrtjacs 5 . Rice with a drug in 

it. 379. 3od> Forte co*. = SJdjrrtjaa*. 379. So"*. 140. z&rt- Tbh. of ^ras5>. 


143. rijaotfdeS. Disregard. See under Ttoodonaes. iiraortao*. The splendour of 
a mango. 348. Srao&Stf. A small branch of a mango tree. 348. Sjaosiado. 
A cluster of mangoes. 348. ^efo^e?. 348. dJa^oA. A talkative woman. 
193. 3a*>AA.;to*on. 193. ^JS^orirfri. A talkative man. 415. djsdojrtov*. 
An opening bud of a mango. 332. aras&JSy The flower of a mango. 348.- 
dja^fsc*. A couple of mangoes. 348. siraOrt. SJ39o3oo ^psJ?ioao. A man who 
worships Mari. 413.-^^^J. Another iguana(?). 82. 3J3rtJ8?F3. A staflf 
that measures a fathom. 90. drae33Qrt. SJaonwads. \ male florist. 416. 
A female florist. 192. sfta^rfrt. See 

Tbh. of ^^add. 160. Jftatfo. = Sjatfd. 140. ^Ja^^J. 488. 3a,B.. An artificial 

tt Sj 

structure. See $prt-. rfj:tt^P. ^Jacj^do &?<y;jo* ^<^ort. A man addicted to making, 
etc. 545. -3jaw^. 140.= 3Jaa > B. Sec also the following verse under 193: 

saw v* s^d QAVSO^ o^rDo || . - Jisaoes'. An artificial stream. 87.- 


Becoming great, etc. Plural OJrfJrf**. 560. - aioafcsw^ezo. A. fire-fly, 
etc. 344. -OJ^. Past participle of ^8. 482. 506.- ooOrf. Pounding. Plural 
562.-S.JQtf. Tbh. of a^e* IGO.-^ 8 ?- (A certain verb). 566.- 
A bhava noun of 3^. 566. aJ2orfo. a3d"g 3j*3g?&e 33. A fisherman; 
a crane. 547. 3oo^. Tbh. of 3o:>a>. See dodoj?r. riJO^S. Tbh. of 3oo. 
147. Sojs^S&rio. To cause to rinse the mouth with water and spit it out, etc. 

Instance : aoosk'SAAdo do?Acoo aeso. 541. sioo^J3,S. Three crores, etc. 

* K, * 

10>. dMrfj^t*. Three kos. 68. aoortotf. Closing, etc. 559. 

A budding pomegranate. 74. pJftjHto^ortO*. A cluster of buds. 73. 

Three bankers, etc. (?). 94. 3ua;33- Three choultries. 93.- 3oji>f raorto. Three 

Jo to 

ends of a garment. 93. 3JJz3^,. Three halting places for travellers, etc. 68. 
s&oraaatf. Three thousand. 94. 3oozSj3 ?Q?o. 94._3oora;>. 935* FO. Violence, 

V m> ct eo{> 

audacity, etc. 423. s&oraj^B. A man disposed to violence, etc. 423. 
Three heads. 360. ^^^,,^. Three ties, etc. 101. 
A knot from the root to the top. 83. ^^^^^. 
. Three spans. 68.-^o^Ao ff . The first sunshine of the 
morning. 536.- ^ok- a,??* 33033*. Three times, thrice. 360.- 30)0^09. 
Eighteen feet-, (or three bumblebees). 68. ^ojodsa^v*. Three servants, etc. 
68. SoooJjjO*. Three persons. 360. aw 52^0*. = SoooJ^o 5 . 354. 
A cluster of thorns. 73. 3:u?<:3 ( or sjo*?3). A prickly garment. 93. 

A bundle or cluster of thorns. 66.- soJV^fto*. A door of thorns. 72. 
Prickly ends of a garment. 93. - sojcwonrio. To immerse (u. tr.) to 
let go down, etc., in the instance 20&3,rto rt^.d^v 5 sypwo sooaooAAdo. 536. ^-wcs. 

u w - - 

Three heaps. 353.- ^o-etfoj^. A male with three hands. 97. 
Three parasols. 353. 3\xala&k- Three spans. 353. 
A female of the east. 140. Sojsddojx A male with three heads. 352. 

Three cows. 352. slxoew^oix. = ^jjartoix. 97. 

t> t> 

352. 3M3i>rd. Thrice. 88. 3oc3.. Tbh. of dj8. 160. See . 

Cu Cu 

in Dictionary. 3oreArt. A seller of black pepper. 409. sSoole^o*. The skin of 
the body. 89. 3oC?i). To cause to chew. 62.-^^ol> g . A man with a soft 
hand. 331. sSodsrt. A tender bud, in a verse under 442. ^sDde*. A 

S i\ 

gentle, etc. woman. 59. s3oe3s3Foi). A man with a kind heart. 14. ^^^f 
okv*. A woman with a kind heart. 182. ^^^- SoO^o. Black pepper. 
140. 33tf. 140. ^Jtw^Oti. A man who has been born in a superior village 
or town. 420. ^?^J30 ff . A superior village or town. 420. ^^^- A 
precious pearl. 66. ^ Je i^- An excellent colour. 92. sSo?^^- An excellent 
word. 92.-s3j3^5j. Scooping, etc. 561. Aoc?. 140. -3&1&3. Tbh. of 3a< 
tfrf. 143.-^?0^. Striking, etc. dJS?do^do. 579. Plural 3a<a^rfv*. 569.- 

Striking, etc. Plural sS-otdorte*. 549. stecri^a. A deceiver, etc. 

^^^.- A man who is guarded-, one who guards. Instance : tf^3^ 
ndodo. 402. drfcxJjra. Tbh. of tfssoi)?*. 160. oa^^osoio. ^fonadcqioaas. A 


chief of horsemen. 295.-O3W93 ! C39. 140. -00. Tbh. of i>Q 159.-doo2l (A 
feminine noun). 197. es'.atcirf. A laugher, etc. See 3od)tfj^t3rt. _ uorirt. woiiOo 
8<L7io;3c. A man who lives by taking bribes. 401. 415. wo'^A. A woman who 
takes bribes. 193. wo^n3.= oo^n. 193. oo^^rfrt. = votfn. 196. we8. 

A deeply designing woman. 197. -:&,*. 140. (= W3orl ?).-yrfort. Tbh. 
of era^o^. 160. wa^&i. Lasciviousness, lustiness, lewdness, dissoluteness. 
3rt v Tbh. of SrtF. 153.-^. 80. (Qf. wj in Dictionary V).-3d?rf. A man 
born in Varala. 420. -3^o. TfctoatfFg. Clearly, manifestly. 20. - 3< o. = doo. 
20. )3dc3&. To pass over, etc. 59. a^naw*. To see the moon. 382.- 
a^Jorrae^. = at^nsra*. 382. 3*53^. That has poison. Instance: 
402. -deo. Tioba^Fg. Manifestly. 20.-3 i od. Tbh. of aaa33 . 140. - 
Tbh. of 3,d. 140. rio3. Tbh. of $3.). 140.- rfew. = rfrw. 

v-/ W f" 

= 7irej2r. 441. ^J. ?jf80^rgj s!w^ ^ozo s^jssaoiida&^dt^. Two words 

ra rs r-a A ?i 

which denote the particular limbs of a hump-backed and dwarfish man. 441. 
Tireo^. (A man who is small:) a man who is hump-backed or dwarfish. 441. 
rf^rtUrf,. A man with an umbrella. 402.-Jfcfc3,x Tbh. of ^ 147.-^*. 
Tbh. of rf^w. 1 60. Ttoodonao. A combatant, in the following verse under 

384 : 3oaronda?3 rtreo 33o s'jsoi ^Jd^yoJjjrfdjsv* 3j6JruJUdo I rfjsos'o^ rfdido 

u& ^ 

nsearf ^J9o?rdf?oSo rtcs^^rfrf MMftfcka^o \\ a warrior's valiantness, sharpness, even 
the disregard of the combatant who pushes away fierce soldiers in a vehement 
fight one has to call the essence of valiantness. rfdSr^r!. Tbh. of ^ 2J 'l 3i - 
406. A man who binds, confines or checks the voice or tono(?). ?33;3f|A3. A 
female saravandiga. 192. tiQtt. Tbh. of ?O^FSJ. 147. Ttoda?^. A garden 
of young plants, etc., in a verse under 193. - ?5A;3<sod. Tbh. of 2SBg?a)l 138. ^ 
?&tf. Tbh. of tiv. 139. aads^ Tbh. of TX>$&. 143. ?33^?. scioraaws. A 
man addicted to contracting debts. 545. asoesjoara. A place where calves are 
in a row or in rows. 87. ?33AdFe3oi). A male with a thousand heads. 356. 
saAdJStF^. A male with a thousand arms. 356. *>rf^. With the sound of 
splitting, in the sentence Art^ aftdi. 20. AOdd, *3c33d, AOuad. Tbh. of 
378. Cf. *0oi>ricj, etc. in Dictionary, and Axdodd, e tc.-A3O33o. Tbh. of 
296. *^. 140, in a verse near the end. A?oijrfd, A?o3oa3d, A;oio^3d. = AOdd, 
etc. 378. *w^i. 82. A screaming iguana (?).- *<3- Tbh. of && A female 
who is disposed to, etc. 160.- ^?^oortsj. A split cheek. 55.- atv^ofc*. A split 
capsula, 193 in a verse. Asdis^. A split abdomon. 91. &>r\3. Fearing; 
tearing off. Plural TkAaort?*. 554. &o$f\. A female collector of customs. 
191. -*>*. Tbh. of ^- 160,-^oJ^. Breathing, etc. Plural 

A woman with curled hair. 194. -?^^. With the sound 


of ]>ouring, dropping, etc., in the instance 3^3 rfj3do. 20. 
82. Tojsoiasre. Tbh. of ti>37X> rfo, SJSS^TOO. A cook's place, a cooking place, a 
kitchen. 378. ?to*. sado sdjdrfo sa. A time, a turn; making known, 
announcing, proclaiming, apprising, publishing, relating, communication; 


information; representation; delivering, giving, entrusting; an offering, oblation; 
dedication. 425. rijac^soi^. ?oJSK 3 J8V w^a^^o. A man appointed to proclaiming, 
etc. 425. rfJSKi'Soa^. A female rfjaw^oj^. 195. rfjscsjrt. = ?ojac5'3oj^. 425. 
A female banker, etc. 190.200.-*!%. 67.-^^. HO.-^rio. 140.- 
or jS3dfy A general. 426. -3?^. Drawing water out. 569. *. 
Tbh. of ^t|. iGO.-toaoj^. 140 (where s&siHa' is separately adduced). - 
go. &oft&>d. A kiss, or the affection, of a daughter-in-law. 101. 
See 80^- - ?^33rt. Tbh. of ^r. 123.-?^/. One who remembers or 

recollects. - ?J,durf tf. See ^dart._. aJ63.rt. Tbh. of ^* 145.-aJart. Tbh. of 

i?9 89 63 CO ' 

154. aSO* Tbh. of ^S^. 1(10. aMO Scratching; spreading. 
aosarci. Tbh. of aSa^r. 123.-^^^^. Tbh. of rf,?ra^rf. IGO.-sso^. See 
ajas 07!. - Sodoi). Tbh. of^oJo. 160. &* Tbh. of A * (A sa). 150.-&>cSd. 

oo 5) o QjJ ty \ i^J TJ/ 

Tbh. of S)53ci. 145. 3eJ. sou^zos 5 3333$rg ^d&0 aa^A'tr !39. i, The bodv; 

fwi i CO Z<3 rf J 

2, the front tuft of hair. 312. aoe^aoO. aosj^oo a6ydoo do^ a^w 
i, A fight in which they mutually trample on the body of each other. 
soyjjo?^ Ldjsrfo &2^)C33 oiwddav* esdo. 2, A fight in which they mutually 
seize the front tuft of hair of each other. 312. 


The numbers refer to the pages. 

I. Kannada and Samskrita letters, syllables and words, 

wherever required with due diacritioat signs. 

a. i. The final letter of many crude 
nouns and pronouns 34 36. 46. 47. 
60, comprising masculine, feminine 
and epicine words 37. 45. 47 49. 
51. 207, and neuter words 41 44. 

a. 2. Sign of the nominative singular 
of the words under a 1. 42. 43. 48. 
49. 60. 61. Cf. 218. 

a. 3. ( = a i). Sign of the accusative 
singular and plural of the words 
under a 1. 42. 43. 50. 52. 53. 62. 63. 

a. 4. ( = a 2). Sign of the genitive 
singular and plural, in the singular 
occasionally suffixed by means of 
one or more euphonic letters (see d, 
n -', iua 2, ana i, da i, da, na, ara i) 
42. 50-60. 63. 65-75. 80. ' Cf. 

a. 5. Sign of the vocative 81. 82. 

a. 6. Sign of the infinitive 122. 157. 
160. 161. 324. 

a. 7. Of the imperative 149 seq. 

a. 8. In Tadbhavas 31. 32. 

a. 9. Taddhita suffix 29. 36. 200. 

a. 10. = am 3. 127. 

a. 11. Vulgar form of va i., 115. 

a. 12. Becomes a 24. 189. 212, and 
changes in 6 47. 51. 53. 58. 111. 112. 

am. i. Sign of the accusative 41. 43. 
47. 48. 50 - 54. 56. 58. 59. 62. 65 - 67. 

am. 2. Masculine pronominal suffix 111. 

am. 3. Termination of the third person 

masculine singular 88. 127. 
am. 4. In the imperative 148 seq. 
am. 5. = adi 213. 
am. 6. And, etc. 266 seq. 
akarmakadhatu. 89. 
akaranta. 31. 
akum. = akkum. 147. 
ake. = akke. i. 59. '60. 62. 63. 73. 
akkara. 5. 
akkaramale. 5. 
akku. = akkum. 147. 
akkum. Of agu 111. 147. 
akke. i. = arke. Sign of the dative 59. 

60. 62. 63. 73. 
akke. 2. Imperative of agu 111. 150. 


akshara. 5. 
aksharamale. 5. 
akshararupa. 4. 
aksharavritti. 30. 
aksharasanjnakara. 4. 
aksharasarijiwrupa. 4. 
aksharatmaka. 4. 
age. i. Sign of the dative 53. 
age. 2. In the formation of adverbs 

169 (and adjectives 
ankitanama. 30. 
aftke. 22. 


- 458 

angtkara. 176. 

acetana. 37. 

aSSagannada. 5. 432. 

atiga. Taddhita suffix 203. 

adi. = am. 213. 

adiga. = atiga. 203. 

ade. = are, ode. 167. 271 seq. 319 seq. 

an. I. Augment 61. 62. 80. 

an. 2. = ana i. 60. 

ana. 1. (an + a). Sign of the genitive 

58 - 61. 

ana. 2. = ana. 111.282. 
anake. (an + a + ke). = ange. 61. 
anakke. = anake. 61. 
anattanim. (ana + attanim). = aninde. 


anada. (anafda). Sign of the genitve 61. 
anadinde. (ana + da -f inda). Sign of 

the ablative 61. 
anim. (ana + im). Sign of the ablative 

58. 60. 61. 

aniga. Taddhita suffix 203. 
aninda. (ana + inda). = anindam. 61. 
anindam. (ana -f indam). = aninde. 60. 
aninde. (ana + inde). Sign of the abla- 
tive 60. 61. 
ange. (an + ge). Sign of the dative 58. 


atisaya. 302. 
atisayatara. 310. 
atu. = adu i. 74. 222 seq. 241. 
attanim. Sign of the ablative 41. 

attaninda. = attanindam. 50. 
attanindam. = attaninde. 41. 48 50. 

52. 54. 67. 
at tanin de. = attanim. 41. 4850. 52. 

54. 67. 

attu. i. = atu. 74. 222 seq. 
attu. 2. Termination of the third person 

neuter singular 127. 

atva. 32. 

ada. = ada. 111. 142. 

adu. i. Demonstrative neuter pronoun 

singular 47. 58-60. 112. 222 seq. 
adu. 2. Termination of the third person 

neuter singular 127. 157. 
ade. i. Sign of the negative participle 

106 seq. 111. 
ade. 2. Third person singular neuter 

133. 135.. 

adhikarana. 381. 389. 
adhyar6pa. 412. 415. 416. 
adhyahara. 413. 
adhyaharya. 406. 
adhva. 382. 

an. annu. Verb 352 seq. 
ana. i. Sign of the accusative 60. 68. 
ana. 2. = antha. 248. 
anaksharatmaka. 4. 
ananunasika. 16. 
anitu, etc. 257. 
anibar. 241. 

anishta. 382. 386. 389. 395. 
anu. i. = am 1. 43. 47-51. 53. 56. 60. 

anu. 2. = am 3. 127. 
anu. 3. = am 2. 218. 
anunasika. 14. 16. 
anuloma. 11. 
anusvara. 16. 21. 
ane. i. = ana 2. 248. 
ane. 2. = age 2. 
aneya. 256 seq. 
auekakshara. 79. 
anekaksharadhatu. 22. 25 - 28. 
anekaksharasabda. 32. 34. 35. 
anta. i. = antaha. 188. 
anta. 2. 109. 141. 
ante. On dit. 136. 142. 358. 
antha, etc. = antaha. 188. 248. 
anthavanu, etc. 188. 189. 


antyalopa. 32. 

antyavarna. 28. 

antyakshara. 28. 

anna. i. = annu. 49. 53. 60. 

anna, (annam). 2. = antaha. 188. 248. 

annal. Feminine of annam (anna 2)- 

annu. = am i. Sign of the accusative 

43. 48. 49. 53. 56. 60. 65. 66. 68. 70. 75. 
anne. = annal. 188. 
anya. 88. 
anyakartri. 89. 
anyatotisaya. 302. 
anyapurusha. 88. 
ayonya. 310. 
anvaya. 407. 411. 412. 
anvayasvatantra. 414. 
anvayisu. 407. 
anvarthanama. 30. 
apa. = appa. 110. 117. 118. 144. 
apabhramsa. 30. 432 seq. 
apadana. 380. 388. 395. 
appa. = aha. 11 J. 117. 144. 188. 243. 
abinduka. 187. 
abhavakriye. 106- 
abhtkshana. 363. 
ame. Taddhita suffix 200. 
ay. i. Past participle 103. 142. 261. 
ay. 2. Termination of the second 

person singular 127. 
ay. 3. Five 212. 252. 253. 
ayatnakritagurutva. 399. 
ayi. = ay 3. 252. 
ayila. Taddhita suffix 204. 
ayte. Third person neuter singular 133. 
ar. i. Sign of the nominative plural 

51. 70-72. 136. 

ar. 2. Plural of am 2. 111. 119. 218. 
ar. 3. Formation of the third person 

plural 127. 
aradesa. 32. 

ari. = iri. 159. 

arir. = ar i. 51. 70. 

arisamasa. 215. 216. 218. 

aru. i. = ar i. 51. 52. 71. 72. 

aru. 2 = ar 3. 127. 139. 

arugal. = arga). 52. 

arugalir. = arugal. 52. 

arugalu. = aruga). 52. 

are. = ade, ode. 167. 271 seq. 319 seq. 

arkal. = arga). 51. 70. 

arkalir. = arkal. 51. 70. 

argal. = ar i. 51. 

Argala. 3. 

arghya. 386. 

artha. 29. 313. 

arthavyakti. 216. 

arthanurupa. 30. 

ar. i. Augment 61. 

ar. 2. Six. 252. 253. 

ara. i. (ar + a). Sign of the genitive 
5860. 62. 63. 73. 

ara. 2. = ar 2. 252. 

arattanim. (ara + attanim). Sign of 
the ablative 62. 

arannu. (ara + annu). Sign of the 
accusative 60. 

arali. = aralli. 59. 60. 62. 

aralli. (ara-alli). Sign of the locative 
59. 60. 62. 73. 

ari. Verb 339. 

arim. (ara + im). Sign of the instru- 
mental 58. 59. 62. 73. 

arinda. = arinde. 59. 60. 63- 

arindavu. = arinde. 59. 

arinde. (ara + inde). = arim. 5i>. 

aru. Six. 212. 252. 253. 

arul. = arol. 59. 

arol. (ara + 61). Sign of the locative 
59. 62. 73. 

arolage. - arol. 59. 60. 62. 63. 

arolu. = ar61. 59.62. 


- 460 

arke. (ar + ke). Sign of the dative 58. 

59. 62. 73. 

al. l. Sign of the locative 42. 54. 67. 
al. 2. Sign of the infinitive 120. 121. 

125. 324. 

al. 3. Sign of prohibition 153 seq. 
al. 4. Defective verb 160. 
al. 5. Euphonic 265. 
alagi. (al + agi). 426. 
ali. i. = alli. 43.44.49- 

70. 75. 
ali. 2. = alim. 151 seq. 153 seq. 333. 


alim. In the imperative 153 seq. 
alu. i. = al 
alu. 2. = al 2. 121. 125. 159. 324. 426. 
altu. alte. 362. 
alpaprana. 14. 

alia. 160. 161. 291 seq. 293. 339. 
allam. 160. 291. 
allada. 361 seq. 
allade. 106. 293. 360 seq. 
alii. Sign of the locative 42 44. 

49-54. 57. 60. 63. 66-68. 70. 75. 
ava. avam. avanu. Masculine demon- 
strative pronoun, nominative singular 
38. 47 seq. 112. 218. 222 seq. 234. 
avadharana. 175. 
avayavasambandha. 392. 
avar. avaru. Plural of ava 51. 52. 112, 
and of the feminine aval, avalu 51. 
52. 71. 72. 218. 234. 
avarga. 14. 
avarglya. 14. 
aval, avalu. Feminine of ava 38. 53 

seq. 112. 218. 222 seq. 234. 
avikara. 39. 
avikrita. 39. 

avu. i. Plural of the pronoun adu 47. 
73. 112. 218. 

avu. 2. Termination of the third 

person neuter plural 127. 157. 
avu. 3. Taddhita suffix 200. 
avugalu. = avu i. 73. 
ave. Third person neuter plural 133. 
avyaya. 31. 39. 160. 164 seq. 179. 260 seq. 
avyayapada. 260. 
avyayalinga. 33. 37. 39. 261. 
avyayfbhava. 213 seq. 
asravya. 147. 
ashtu, etc. 257. 260. 
asamasa. 187. 
asamasate. 30. 
asu. = isu. i. 89. 90. 92. 
asuye. 304. 387. 
asvaravidhi. 5. 
aha. = apa, appa. 111. 117. 118. 144. 

145. 243. 
al. i. Feminine personal suffix 46. 71. 

111. 119. 218. 249. 
al. 2. Termination of the third person 

feminine singular 127. 
ala. = ana i. 60. 61. 
alu. i. = aj i. 46. 71. 
alu. 2. a] 2. 127. 
a. i. Sign of the accusative singular 

43. 53. 56. 60. 
a. 2. Sign of the genitive singular and 

plural 42. 44. 48. 49. 52-54. 60. 65- 

67 - 69. 189. 305. 
a. 8. Sign of the vocative 81 seq. 
a. 4. Of the imperative 151. 
a. 5. Demonstrative pronoun 217. 230. 
a. 6. The final letter of a few verbs 

97. 107. 
a. 7. It becomes a and e in personal 

and reflexive pronouns 74 seq., may 

take the place of a in some verbs 

24. 157, and in Sathskrita nouns 

changes into e and a 31. 


am. i. Sign of the accusative singular 

53. 58, J89. 305. 
am. 2. (an). Nominative singular and 

plural of the pronoun of the first 

person 74. 75. 222 seq. 
akara. 5. 
ake. Feminine of ata, atam, atanu 38. 

67. 112. 218. 222 seq. 234. 
akshepa. 176. 
akhyata. 88. 
akhyatapada. 30. 88. 126. 
akhyatamarga. 126. 
akhyatavibhakti. 126. 
aga. For agadu 160. 
agadu. 160. 337. 339. 
agama. 41. 105.125. 207. 
aga. = aga. 160. 
agi. 200 seq. 

agir (agi + ir). agiru. 244.247.248. 
agu. 334-336.339. 
agutte, etc. 136. 
adu. 367. 
ana. 111. 282. 
ata. atam. atanu. = ava, etc. 38. 47 

seq. 112. 218. 222 seq. 234. 
ada. Past relative participle of agu 

111. 243. 

adesa. 117. 177. 208. 
adodam, etc. 278. 
adhara. 389. 

adhikya. 302. 307. 308. 385. 
ana. 111. 282. 
ami. anum. 282. 310. 
anupurvya. 300. 
ane. i. = ane i. 248. 
ane. 2. 134. 135. 
apa. 117. 118. 
abadha. 366. 
amantrapa. 81. 
ay. = ayi. 103.261. 
ayila, Taddhita suffix 204. 

ayta. Taddhita suffix 29. 204. 

ayla. = ayila. 204. 

ar. i. = ar i. 71. 

ar. 2. -ar3. 127. 139. 

ar. 3. Plural of avam and aval 72. 230. 

235 seq. 
aru. = ar 3. 72. 
ar. aru. Verb 340. 
aru. Six 212. 253. 
aru kriyavibhakti. 126. 
artu. 235.241. 

ava. Interrogative pronoun 110. 217. 
avam. avanu. Masculine singular of 

ava 38. 47. 72. 110. 223 seq. 235. 
aval. Feminine of avam 38. 53. 72. 110. 

223 seq. 235. 
avishtalinga. 398. 
avu. Plural of am 2. 75. 
avudu. Neuter singular of avam 58. 61. 

110. 222 seq. 234. 
avuvu. Plural of avudu 73. 
ave. i. Interrogative pronoun 223. 
ave. 2. 134. 
asu. 339. 
aha. 118. 243. 
al. = al 2. 127. 139. 
ali. Taddhita suffix 29. 204. 
i. i. Final letter of many verbs 26. 28. 

88. 91. 92. 95. 107. 121. 122, and 

of many nouns 34. 35. 45. 46. 66 - 70. 

i. 2. It forms the nominative singular 

i. 3. It forms the vocative singular 81 


i. 4. Sign of the locative 42. 43. 
i. 5. Sign of the instrumental 43. 44. 69. 
i. 6. Its being euphonic 23. 24. 28. 33. 

90. 104. 249. 250. 
i. 7. Its being a formative vowel in the 

past participle 26. 137 seq. 


i. 8. Appears as i 24, and becomes e in 

some verbs 29; changes into u 91. 

101, and into a in some verbs 95. 100. 

In some nouns it becomes i 36, e 36. 

210. 211. 213, e 36. 210, and u 211. 
i. 9. Proceeds from i in Tadbhavas 31. 
i. 10. Sign of the second person singular 


i. 11. Taddhita suffix 204. 
im. Sign of the instrumental and 

ablative 41. 43. 48-54. 56. 58. 59. 

ika. Taddhita suffix 204. 
ike. i. = ige. 56. 57. 59. 121. 
ike. 2. Taddhita suffix 200. 
ikke. i. = ike i. 57. 59. 121. 
ikke. 2. = ike 2. 200. 
iga. Taddhita suffix 29. 204. 
ige. i. Sign of the dative 50. 51. 53. 56. 
ige. 2. = ike 2. 201. 
inke. = inge. 59. 

inge. = ige i. 55. 56. 58. 59. 64-66. 
ica. Taddhita suffix 204. 
icu. = isu i. 89. 90. 92. 
idu. 367. 
itaretara. 310. 
iti. Taddhita suffix 46. 204. 
itu. Third person neuter singular 127. 

137 seq. 
itti. = iti. 46. 
ittu. = itu. 127. 137 seq. 
itthambhutalakshana. 384. 
idu. Demonstrative pronoun neuter 

singular 46. 58-60. 222 seq. 
ide. Third person singular neuter 133. 


in. i. ( = inidu). 210. 
in. 2. Two 253. 
in a. i. = inannu. 65. 

ina. 2. (in + a). Sign of the genitive 

55.57-60. 64-66. 80. 
inattanim. (ina 2 + attanim). = attanim. 

58. 64-66. 

inattanindam. = inattanim. 58. 65. 
inattaninde. = inattanindam. 58. 65. 
inannu. Sign of the accusative singular 


inali. = inalli. 57. 59. 65. 
inalli. (ina 2 4- alii). = inol. 56. 57. 59. 


inim. (ina 2 + im). = irii. 58. 59. 64 - 66. 
ininda. (ina 2 + inda). = inda. 56. 57. 60. 

64. 66. 

ininde. = ininda. 58. 59. 
inibar. 241. 

inol. (ina 2 + 61). = 61 1. 56. 59. 64 - 66. 
inolage. = inol. 59. 60. 65. 
inolu. = inol. 59. 65. 
inta. i. Another form of inda 263. 
inta. 2. = intha. 188. 
intaha. (intu + aha). 188. 
intha. = intaha. 188. 189. 
inda. = indam. 43. 44. 48-51. 53. 54. 

56. 57. 59 - 61. 63. 64. 66 - 70. 75. 80. 
indam. = im. 41 . 43. 48 - 53. 59. 65 - 67. 

69. 74. 

indavu. = indam. 43. 49. 50. 59. 67. 74. 

inde. = indam. 41. 43. 48-54. 58. 60. 

66. 67. 69. 74. 75. 
inna. = intaha. 188. 
innu. 273. (Cf. indu). 
ip. Two. 252. 
ippa. = irpa. 118. 
ir. i. Sign of the nominative plural 51. 

70. 71. 

ir. 2. Termination of the second person 

plural 127. 136. 137. 
ir. 3. Two. 178. 211. 252. 253. 
ir. iru. 4. Verb 332. 416 seq. 


ira. (ir 1 + a). Sign of the vocative 

plural 81.82. 

ira, (ir i + a). = ira. 81.82. 
iri. = ir 2. 127. 
irpa. Present-future relative participle 

ofir<. 116. 
irba, etc. 258. 
il. Defective verb 160. 
ila. Taddhita suffix 205. 
ill. i. = ali. 54. 55. 57. 60. 
ili. 2. Taddhita suffix 205. 
ilia. 159. 161. 285 seq. 293. 331. 332. 

337. 340. 341. 
illam. 160. 285. 331. 
illada. 111. 331. 
illade. 106. 359. 
illavu. 289. 

iva. ivam- ivanu. Masculine demonstra- 
tive pronoun, nominative singular 

47-49. 222 seq. 234. 
ivar. ivaru. Plural of iva 51. 52, and of 

the feminine ival 51. 52. 71. 72. 234. 
ival. ivalu. Feminine of iva 53 seq. 

222 seq. 234. 
ivi. = evu. 127. 

ivu. ivugalu. Plural of idu 47. 73. 
ive. = ave. 133.135. 
ishta. 381. 384. 386. 389. 395. 
ishtu, etc. 257. 260. 
isu. i. Causal suffix 23. 89. 91. 118. 146. 

It is however used also in transitive 

and intransitive verbs 90. 118, and 

appears at the ondof repetitions KM. 

The way of its being suffixed to final 

a 171, 172, and 6 173. 
isu. 2. Verb 342. 
isu. 3. Taddhita suffix 201. 
iha.^ippa. 118. 144. 145. 245. 
ili. 20. 
i. 1. Sign of the accusative singular <>^. 

and of the genitive singular 68. 

i. 2. Pronoun 173. 217. 230. 

i. 3. = ay 2. I'&seq. 

I 4. Verb 342. 

i. 5. As the initial syllable of a few 

nouns etc. it proceeds from i 36. 210. 

211. It takes the form of i in the 

verbs i and mi 24. It becomes i 

in the personal pronoun ni (nirii) 

i. 6. Final i of Samskrita polysyllabic 

nouns becomes i 31. 
ikaranta. 31. 
ike. Feminine of Ita 38. 67. 222. 229. 

ita. itarii. itanu. = iva. 38. 47. 79. 222. 

229. 234. 
in. = in i. 210. 
ir. = ir 3. 211. 254. 
iru. Sign of the plural 71. 
irshe. 384. 

ili. Sign of the locative singular 68. 
isu. Verb 90. 342. 
U. i. The final vowel of many verbs 

27-29. 88. 90. 91. 102. 103. 160, and 

that of many nouns 33 - 36. 44. 45. 

u. 2. It is a kind of augment in the 

nominative singular 67. 68. 
u. s. It is the sign of the nominative 

singular 55. 56. 58-60. 62-67. 
u. 4. Its radical character as the final 

letter of nouns 64. 65. 69. 
u. 5. Its euphonic character 23 25. 28. 

33-35. 42. 44-46. 57-60. 62. 63. 

66. 68. 90. 95. 114. 212. 
u. 6. It changes into ft 36, 6 29. 99, 6 

36, and i 118.211. 
u. 7. The final u of polysyllabic 

Samskrita nouns becomes u '*- 
u. s. Taddhita suffix 203. 
u. 9. And, etc. L'IUJ s, v/. 283. 


urn. And, etc. 266 seq. 400-402. 405. 


uka. Taddhita suffix 205. 
uke. = uge. 121. 
ukti. 33. 38. 
Uga. = uka. 205. 
ugi. Taddhita suffix 205. 
uge. Sign of the dative 69. 
ucita. 40. 

ufcitaksharagama. 170. 
uni. Taddhita suffix 205. 
until. 130. 376. 
uta. i. = ute. 108. 
uta. 2. Suffix of the present tense 126. 


utam. = ute. 108. 
uta. = ute. 108. 
utu. = udu i. 222.241. 
utum. = ute. 108. 

ute. Sign of the present participle 108. 
utta. i. = uta i. 108. 
Utta. 2.= uta 2. 126. 135. 
uttam. = utam. 108. 
uttaraa. 89. 

uttamapurusha. 89. 126. 
utta. = uta. 108. 
uttum. = utum. 108. 
utte. = ute. 108. 
utpata. 387. 
udaya. 389. 395. 
udu. i. Demonstrative neuter pronoun, 

nominative singular 46. 58. 111. 112. 

218. 222. 
udu 2. Termination of the third person 

neuter singular 127. 138 seq. 157. 
udum. 271 seq. 
untaha. (untu + aha). 188. 
unna. = untaha. 188. 
unnati. 385. 

upadhmaniya. 16. 17. 21. 
upadana. 383. 391. 

ubhayamatra. 11. 
umuvidhi. 266. 
ume. Taddhita suffix 201. 
ura. 16. 
urasya. 16. 
ulli. 80. 

uvam. Masculine demonstrative pro- 
noun, nominative singular 38. 47. 

222. 234. 
uvar. Plural of uvam 51, and of the 

feminine uval 51. 
uval. Feminine of uvam 38. 53. 222. 

uvu. i. Plural of udu i. 47. 73. 111. 

112. 218. 
uvu. 2. Termination of the third person 

neuter plural 127. 157. 
ul. i. Sign of the locative 42. 54. 67. 
ul. 2. Verb 130. 332. 
uliga. Taddhita suffix 205. 
ulla. i. 114. 331. 334. 
ulla. 2. Taddhita suffix 205. 244. 
uliga. Taddhita suffix 205. 
u. i. The final letter of one or two 

Kannada nouns 66. 
ft. 2. It has proceeded from u in sudu 


u. 3. It proceeds from uva 115. 146. 
u. 4. Pronoun 217. 230. 
u. 5. And, etc. 266 seq. 
U. 6. Samskrita polysyllabic words 

change their final u into u 32. 
ukaranta. 32. 

uke. Feminine of utam 38. 67. 222. 234. 
utam. = uvam. 38. 47. 222. 
ri. Generally remains in Samskrita 

nouns 66. 69. 70; in some Tadbhavas 

it is changed 32. 
rikaranta. 32. 
rl. Remains in a few Samskrita nouns 

66. 69. 


e. i. Final letter in many verbs 26. 28. 

29. 30. 68. 70. 88. 91.92. 95. 107. 121. 

122, and in many nouns 34-36. 46. 

<!<). 80. 81. 
e. -2. It forms the nominative singular 

67. 68, and also the accusative 

singular 68. 

e. 3. It forms the vocative 81 seq. 
e. 4. Sign of the instrumental 67. 
e. 5. Sign of the infinitive 123. 125.270. 

e. 6. Taddhita suffix 200. 205. 
e. 7. Particle of emphasis 107. 133. 171. 

176. 227. 
e. 8. = ay 2. 127. 
e. 9. = erii. 127. 
e. 10. It changes into i 43. 91, into a 

91. 95. 100, into e 211, and ya 21. 

It proceeds from i 29. 36. 211. 213, 

and takes the place of e in be. See 

also under a 6. 
e. 11. Final Samskrita a becomes e 31; 

but Samskrita monosyllabic terms 

retain their a 32. 
em. Termination of the first person 

singular 127. 
en. Eight 212.252.253. 
ettantu. 241. 
en. ennu. Verb 352 seq. 
enu. = 6rii. 127. 
enta. i. = entha. 188. 
enta. 2. 109. 141. 
entaha. (entu + aha). 188. 
entha.= entaha. 188. 189. 
enna. = entaha. 188. 
ep. Seven 252. 
em. Eight 252. 
eral. 253. 
erde. 16. 

ella. ellam. ella. 62. 210. 232. 395. 
elladu. 222. 232. 

elli. 231. 

evu. em. Termination of the first 

person plural 127. 
el. = el. 252. 
e- i. It is no real diphthong in K anna da 

e. 2. It is final in the verbs ke and be 

24. 92. 107. 

e. 3. Sign of the accusative singular 68. 
e- 4. Sign of the genitive singular 68. 
<*. 5. Particle of emphasis 227. 291. 
e. 6. Sign of the vocative 81 seq. 
e. 7. Adverbial suffix 265. 
e. 8. Is used like ava 235. 
e. 9. In the interrogative pronoun e 

(en, enu) it becomes ya (da) 62. 63. 

110. 223. 238. 
e. 10. Becomes e in the verb be 24. 

See under e 10. 
ekate. 40. 
ekatva. 40. 
ekamatraka. 11. 
ekavacana. 40. 
ekasthani. 16. 194. 
ekaksharadhatu. 22. 24-27. 
ekaksharasabda. 32. 
eke. 62.234. 
ekokti. 40. 

etake. etakke. 62. 238. 
etarke. 62. 234. 238. 
eru. Sign of the nominative plural 71. 
eli. Sign of the locative singular 68. 
evudu- = avudu. 235. 
SI. Seven 252. 253. 
ei. (ai). It is no real diphthong in 

Kannada 185. 
6. i. It takes the place of 6 in no :M. 

that of u 29. 211, that of a 47. 51. 

53. 58, that of nva!46, and may 

change into 6 189. See oiii i and 2, 

odu, or i 3, 61 i 3, 6 .1. 



6. 2. Initial va occasionally becomes 

6 21. 
6m. i. partly =aih 2, partly = am 3. 111. 

119. 139. 218. 
6m. 2. = am 3. 127.143. 
ode. If 167. 270 seq. 319 seq. 
odeya. Taddhita suffix 205. 
ottakkara. 20. 

6du. = udu i and 2. 112. 218. 
ombay. 253. 
or. i. = ar i. 51. 
or. 2. = ar 2 and 3. 112. 119. 218. 
or. 3. = ar 3. 127. 139. 143. 
or. 4. One 211. 253. 
orba, etc. 258. 
51, etc. 1. 198 seq. 
61. 2. Verb 240 seq. 
61. i. = uli. 42. 43. 48-50. 52. 54. 

61. 2. = al i. 114. 119. 218. 
61. 3. = al2. 127. 139. 
olage. = 61 i. 42-44. 48-54. 57. 67. 

68. 70. 75. 
61u. = 61 i. 42. 43. 49. 50. 52. 54. 67. 68. 

71. 75. 
6. i. It is final in the verbs kg, to and 

no 24. 91. 92. 107. 
6. 2. It is no real diphthong in Kannada 

6. 3. It proceeds from u 36, from ava